Publications by authors named "Samir Hussein"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Brain-targeting by optimized Tc-olanzapine: in vivo and in silico studies.

Int J Radiat Biol 2020 Aug 13;96(8):1017-1027. Epub 2020 May 13.

Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, October University of Modern Sciences and Arts (MSA), Giza, Egypt.

Olanzapine (OLZ) is an atypical antipsychotic agent that is characterized by low brain porousness. The present work aimed to develop radiolabeled olanzapine (OLZ) without colloidal impurities and evaluate its biodistribution following intravenous (I.V.) and intranasal (I.N.) administration as a potential agent for brain diagnosis. OLZ was radiolabeled with technetium-99m by using sodium dithionite as the reducing agent. Biodistribution of Tc-OLZ complex in mice following I.V. and I.N. administrations was examined. Furthermore, a molecular docking study was performed. Sodium dithionite labeling procedure resulted in highest radiochemical yield (96.30 ± 0.09%) and in vitro stability in serum up to 8 h. Biodistribution study of Tc-OLZ complex showed high brain uptake following I.N. (6.2 ± 0.12% ID/g) and I.V. (5.5 ± 0.09% ID/g) at 0.5 and 1 h post administration (P.I.), respectively. Docking into two brain targets predicts higher affinity of Tc-OLZ than free OLZ. Additionally, docking to P-glycoproteins shows less affinity for the radiolabelled OLZ and hence it is expected to be associated with better brain exposure than free OLZ. These chemical and preliminary biological merits strongly suggest that the Tc-OLZ complex with new reducing agent could be used as a potential diagnostic agent for brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09553002.2020.1761568DOI Listing
August 2020

Antiulcer potential and molecular docking of flavonoids from Benth., family .

Nat Prod Res 2019 Jul 30:1-5. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

a Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Deraya University, Universities Zone , New Minia City , Egypt.

The present study aimed to detect the bioactive metabolites from aerial parts which are responsible for the antiulcer activity of the total ethanol extract (TEE) as well as different fractions (petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and aqueous). Six flavonoids were isolated from the dichloromethane fraction which was the most potent; with an ulcer index value of 2.67 ± 2.18*** and % inhibition of ulcer of 97.7%; following a bioassay-guided fractionation. The isolated flavonoids were subjected to molecular docking analysis in an attempt to explain their significant antiulcer potential, and the results revealed that salvitin followed by sideritiflavone were the main active ones acting against M3 and H-2 receptors, respectively. Moreover, a molecular dynamics simulation illustrated the formation of two persistent H-bonds between salvitin and the two amino acids of the active site (Asn507 and Asp147) formed in 42 and 65% of the frames, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2019.1645662DOI Listing
July 2019

Fibroblast growth factor-23 as a predictor biomarker of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.

Saudi J Kidney Dis Transpl 2018 May-Jun;29(3):531-539

Department of Clinical and Chemical Pathology, Cairo University, Kaser Al Aini Hospital, Cairo, Egypt.

Renal ischemia/reperfusion injury is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI). The lack of early biomarkers for predicting AKI has hampered our ability to initiate preventive and therapeutic measures in an opportune way. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) is elevated in chronic kidney disease, but data on FGF-23 in humans with AKI are limited. Herein, we tested whether FGF-23 levels rise early in the course of AKI following cardiac surgery. We prospectively evaluated eighty adult patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Patients were divided into two groups (AKI and non-AKI group) on the basis of whether they developed postoperative AKI within 24 h after surgery. Plasma FGF-23 levels were measured before surgery and 24 h after surgery. The primary outcome was AKI diagnosed using the AKI Network criteria. Forty-five patients (56.2.5%) developed AKI after surgery. Plasma FGF-23 increased significantly from a mean of 26.8 ± 2.47 ng/mL at baseline to 341.7 ± 38.1 ng/mL 24 h after cardiopulmonary bypass. Univariate analysis showed a significant correlation between AKI and the following: percent change in plasma FGF-23, postoperative serum level of creatinine, FGF-23, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that, for percent change in plasma FGF-23 concentrations at 24 h, the area under the curve was 0.9, sensitivity was 100%, and specificity was 97.1%. Plasma FGF-23 percent change is more valid compared with FGF-23 before or after procedure in the prediction of AKI and represents a novel and highly predictive early biomarker for AKI after cardiac surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/1319-2442.235180DOI Listing
October 2019

MicroRNAs associated with initiation and progression of colonic polyp: a feasibility study.

Int J Surg 2015 Jan 11;13:272-279. Epub 2014 Dec 11.

Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine, University of Leicester, United Kingdom.

Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the third most common neoplasm worldwide. The sequential progression of colorectal cancer from adenoma to carcinoma highlights that opportunities exist to alter the natural course of disease progression. The aim of this study was to characterize the expression levels of microRNAs linked to development and progression of colorectal neoplasia. Patient, Design, Patients & Methods: MicroRNA expression signature was developed for RNA extracted from freshly frozen tumour and adjacent normal tissue (n = 5). Based on differential expression and literature search, hsa-miR-135b was selected for further characterisation in different types of colonic polyps and cancer tissue. Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded tissue were studied for miRNA expression, KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA mutations, and immuno-histochemistry for APC and p53 proteins for normal colon (n=11), hyperplastic polyps (n=11), high grade adenomas (n=10), low grade adenomas (n=34) and adenocarcinoma (n=13).

Results: CRC tissue had significantly higher expression levels of hsa-miR-135b (p=0.0017) than their adjacent paired normal tissues (mean increase=8.90 fold, 95% CI=2.98-26.50). Linear trend analysis showed a progressive increase in expression level of hsa-miR-135b across normal epithelium, low grade adenomas, high grade adenomas and carcinomas (p=0.0007, R squared 0.16, slope -0.35). KRAS mutant colonic polyps and cancer tissue had significantly higher (3.04 fold, 95% CI=1.23-7.46) expression levels of hsa-miR-135b compared to polyps and cancers with non mutant KRAS gene (p=0.001). Whereas, hsa-miR-135b expression levels were significantly lower in colonic polyp and cancer tissue stained positively for APC proteins (p<0.001).

Conclusion: There is a progressive increase in expression levels of hsa-miR-135b correlating with the sequential progression of normal epithelium to adenoma and carcinoma. Expression levels of hsa-miR-135b correlate with expression of APC proteins in colorectal tissue suggesting its role in tumour initiation.

Highlights: This study highlights the role of tissue microRNAs for their role in the development of colorectal carcinoma. Identification of tissue specific microRNAs will help is designing microRNAs based gene therapies to control the development and progression of colonic neoplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsu.2014.12.009DOI Listing
January 2015

Catecholamine-secreting carotid body paraganglioma: successful preoperative control of hypertension and clinical symptoms using high-dose long-acting octreotide.

Endocrinol Diabetes Metab Case Rep 2014 1;2014:140051. Epub 2014 Jul 1.

Department of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital , Muscat , Sultanate of Oman.

Unlabelled: A 48-year-old hypertensive and diabetic patient presented with a 10-year history of progressive right facial pain, tinnitus, hearing loss, sweating, and palpitations. Investigations revealed a 5.6 cm vascular tumor at the carotid bifurcation. Her blood pressure (BP) was 170/110, on lisinopril 20 mg od and amlodipine 10 mg od and 100 U of insulin daily. A catecholamine-secreting carotid body paraganglioma (CSCBP) was suspected; the diagnosis was confirmed biochemically by determining plasma norepinephrine (NE) level, 89 000 pmol/l, and chromogranin A (CgA) level, 279 μg/l. Meta-iodobenzylguanidine and octreotide scanning confirmed a single tumor in the neck. A week after giving the patient a trial of octreotide 100 μg 8 h, the NE level dropped progressively from 50 000 to 25 000 pmol/l and CgA from 279 to 25 μg/l. Treatment was therefore continued with labetalol 200 mg twice daily (bid) and long-acting octreotide-LA initially using 40 mg/month and later increasing to 80 mg/month. On this dose and with a reduced labetalol intake of 100 mg bid, BP was maintained at 130/70 and her symptoms resolved completely. CgA levels returned to normal in the first week and these were maintained throughout the 3 month treatment period. During tumor resection, there were minimal BP fluctuations during the 10 h procedure. We conclude that short-term high-dose octreotide-LA might prove valuable in the preoperative management of catecholamine-secreting tumors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the successful use of octreotide in a CSCBP.

Learning Points: The value of octreotide scanning in the localization of extra-adrenal pheochromocytoma.Control of catecholamine secretion using high-dose octreotide.This is a report of a rare cause of secondary diabetes and hypertension.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EDM-14-0051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4120363PMC
August 2014

Mucinous breast cancer with solitary metastasis to humeral head: a case report.

Oman Med J 2013 Sep;28(5):350-3

Breast Unit, Department of Surgery, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Al-Khoud, P.O. Box 912, PC 111, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

Breast cancer is the most common cause of metastatic deposits in the skeleton, and bone is the most common site of recurrence of breast cancer. Breast cancer metastasis most commonly affects the spine, ribs, pelvis, and proximal long bones; however, only 3.5% of breast cancer patients develop long-bone metastases. The humerus is the most common upper-extremity site for bony metastasis, and pathologic fractures can result. The patient in the current study presented with breast cancer and discovered to have humeral head metastasis during initial workup. The dilemma was in investigation the modality to confirm humeral head metastasis as there are many differential diagnoses with similar findings. After staging workup, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by modified radical mastectomy and radiotherapy of the chest wall and the shoulder. The lesion in humerus was well healed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5001/omj.2013.100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3769124PMC
September 2013

Multiple Bone Metastases in a Patient with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer (DTC): Complete resolution following thyroidectomy and four ablation doses of I-131.

Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2010 Apr 17;10(1):101-5. Epub 2010 Apr 17.

Department of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman.

Multiple bone metastases from a differentiated thyroid cancer are usually incurable. We report the case of a young Omani woman who presented with 8 discrete skeletal lesions three years after a total thyroidectomy. Following four ablation doses of I-131 she has remained in clinical and biochemical remission for over five years. An extraordinary aspect of this case was the persistent refusal of her husband to use contraception either for himself or his wife. This resulted in her treatment being delayed for more than 6 years during which time the patient delivered and breastfed four additional healthy babies.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3074654PMC
April 2010

Absence of Left Pulmonary Artery: Case report.

Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2009 Aug 30;9(2):180-3. Epub 2009 Jun 30.

Department of Radiology and Molecular Imaging, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

Agenesis and hypoplasia of left-sided pulmonary artery anomalies have been infrequently reported. The majority of cases are diagnosed in childhood, but occasionally some asymptomatic cases are first recognised in adulthood when detected by an abnormal chest radiograph. We report a twenty-one year old female patient with left pulmonary artery agenesis who was asymptomatic till adulthood, but presented with mild respiratory symptoms and an abnormal chest X-ray. A contrast enhanced computerised tomography (CECT) scan helped to establish the diagnosis. Early diagnosis of this condition is essential to avert potentially lethal complications.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3074774PMC
August 2009

Tc-99m tetrofosmin scintimammography for the detection of recurrent breast cancer in a patient with equivocal mammography study.

Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2008 Mar;8(1):79-81

Departments of Radiology and Molecular Imaging, and.

This is a case report describing a patient at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, with recurrent local breast cancer and axillary lymph node metastasis. The cancer was detected with (99)Tc-(m) tetrofosmin scintimammography after an equivocal mammography study.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3087744PMC
March 2008

Graves' Disease following Interferon Therapy for Chronic Hepatitis C Infection.

Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2008 Mar;8(1):75-7

Department of Medicine, College of Medicine & Health Sciences, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman;

We describe the first case of Graves' disease occurring at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, in a patient who was under treatment with interferon alfa for HCV infection. INF-α is now being widely used to treat patients with a variety of disorders including infection with hepatitis C virus. Clinical thyroid disease, hypo and hyperthyroidism can occur in up to 15% of patients. We emphasize the need for thyroid function screening before and during therapy to identify patients early in the course of their disease..
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3087743PMC
March 2008

Frontotemporal dementia in Oman: cognitive behavioural profile and neuroimaging characteristics; a prospective hospital-based study.

J Neurol Sci 2007 Sep 4;260(1-2):167-74. Epub 2007 Jun 4.

Department of Neurology, The Royal Hospital, Ministry of Health, P.O Box 1331,Seeb CPO, Muscat, PC 111, Oman.

Frontotemporal dementia is increasingly recognised as an important cause of early-onset dementia and is considered to be the second commonest neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimer's disease. We describe the cognitive, behavioural profile and neuroimaging characteristics of 6 patients with frontal variant of Frontotemporal dementia that were evaluated at the cognitive behavioural clinic at this tertiary referral teaching hospital. All patients underwent clinical, neuropsychological, structural/functional neuroimaging, and laboratory evaluations. The male to female ratio was 1:1; mean age of onset was 54 years, and the mean duration of symptoms were 30 months. The mean scores for Addenbrooke's cognitive examination, Frontal Assessment Battery, and Mini-Mental State Examination were 70.5, 6.33 and 23.6 respectively. The mean VLOM ratio was 2.04. MRI revealed significant asymmetrical regional frontal/temporal atrophy supplemented by the evidence of circumscribed hypoperfusion in SPECT imaging. We conclude that a combination of behavioural and cognitive assessment using short bedside tests, along with structural and functional neuroimaging does facilitate early identification, and increase the diagnostic specificity of Frontotemporal dementia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2007.04.050DOI Listing
September 2007

Behçet's Disease: Bilateral Pulmonary Arterial Aneurysms Presenting as Pulmonary Embolism.

Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J 2006 Dec;6(2):91-2

Department of Department of Radiology and Molecular Imaging, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, P. O. Box 35, Al-Khod 123, Sultanate of Oman.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3074923PMC
December 2006

All-trans retinoic acid-induced myositis.

Br J Haematol 2005 Dec;131(5):560

Department of Haematology, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2141.2005.05684.xDOI Listing
December 2005

Gallium-67 lymph node localization in toxic Kikuchi-Fujimoto's disease.

Saudi Med J 2003 Apr;24(4):417-8

Department of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, PO Box 35, Al-Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

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April 2003

Isolated agenesis of the gallbladder.

Saudi Med J 2003 Apr;24(4):409-10

Department of Surgery, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, PO Box 38, Al-Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

We report a rare case of agenesis of the gallbladder, which was misdiagnosed as cholecystitis. This is the first reported case from the Middle East. Despite advances in biliary imaging, the diagnosis is usually made at surgery. Like most patients, our patient became asymptomatic after the surgery. Extensive dissection to exclude the presence of gallbladder in an ectopic site is discouraged.
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April 2003

Radioactive iodine in the treatment of Graves' disease.

Saudi Med J 2002 Sep;23(9):1049-53

Department of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

Objectives: This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of radioactive iodine 131I therapy of Graves' hyperthyroidism at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman and to determine the optimal dose of 131I needed to achieve the euthyroid or hypothyroid status.

Methods: The medical records of 366 patients with Graves hyperthyroidism who received a single dose of 131I at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman between 1991 and 1999 were reviewed. The diagnosis was based on clinical, biochemical grounds and 99mTc thyroid scintigraphy. The patients were followed up for a minimum period of 12 months. For the analysis, the patients were divided into 6 groups according to the 131I dose administered: Dose one (350-399), dose 2 (400-449), dose 3 (450-499), dose 4 (500-549), dose 5 (550-599) and dose 6 (> or = 600) MBq.

Results: Fifty-eight percent of all the patients were hypothyroid after 3 months. Three hundred and twenty two patients (88%) were treated by a single dose of 131I in 12 months (85.5% hypothyroid and 2.5% euthyroid). Forty-one patients (11.2%) required a 2nd 131I dose and only 3 patients required 3 doses of 131I. The best cure rate (93%) was observed in group dose 5 (574.0 +/- 16.4 MBq) which however, was not significantly different from other dosage levels. The female to male ratio was 2:1 and the cure rates were not gender or age related.

Conclusion: Treatment of Graves' hyperthyroidism from a single 131I dose is our aim, rather than avoidance of hypothyroidism. Our results indicate that cure rates are higher with larger doses of 131I except in group dose 6 (special category of patients). In the future, fixed doses would be adopted in our radioactive iodine treatment practice guidelines. As the majority of our patients were hypothyroid at 3 months regular monthly follow-up is essential. Whenever appropriate, physicians are encouraged to consider early referral of Graves' hyperthyroidism patients for radioactive iodine treatment as it is cheap, effective, easy to administer and free from serious side effects.
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September 2002

Splenic function in Omani children with sickle cell disease: correlation with severity index, hemoglobin phenotype, iron status, and alpha-thalassemia trait.

Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2002 Oct-Nov;19(7):491-500

Department of Child Health, Haematology/Oncology Unit, College of Medicine, Sultan Qaboos University, Al-Khod, Muscat, Oman.

The prevalence of functional asplenia in Omani children with sickle cell disease (SCD) has not been previously defined. In this study, the authors aim to compare the natural history of splenic dysfunction in their patients to other reports. The splenic function was studied in 72 Omani patients with sickle cell disease (50 homozygous for hemoglobin S (HbS-S), 11 double heterozygotes for HbS and beta(0)-thalassemia (HbS-beta(0)-thal), 5 HbS-beta(+)-thal, 5 patients with hemoglobin S-D disease, and 1 child with hemoglobin S oman trait) aged 4.8-16 years, using (99m)Tc-labeled tin colloid scintigraphy. The study revealed 4 groups according to their colloid uptake: group I included 20 patients (28%) with normal splenic function; group II, 6 patients (8%) with mild hyposplenism; group III, 20 (28%) with severe hyposplenism; and group IV, 26 (36%) patients with functional asplenia. Overall, more than 60% of them had preserved splenic function. Except for HbS-beta(+) patients, the developmental pattern of hyposplenism was not different among the different Hb phenotypes. Factors associated with preservation of spleen function in these patients were larger splenic size (p < .01), less clinical severity (p < .05), lower MCH (p < .01), higher HbF (p < .001), and presence of alpha-thalassemia trait (p < .05).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08880010290097314DOI Listing
January 2003

Are scintigraphy and ultrasonography necessary before fine-needle aspiration cytology for thyroid nodules?

J Sci Res Med Sci 2001 Apr;3(1):29-33

Pathology, Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, P.O. Box: 38, Al-Khod 123, Muscat, Sultanate of Oman.

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of scintigraphy, ultrasound and fine-needle aspiration in thyroid nodules and to establish the best diagnostic pathway in detecting thyroid cancer.

Method: Two hundred and sixteen patients with thyroid nodules were examined using high-resolution ultrasonography, Tc thyroid scintigraphy and ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration. Of these, 113 patients subsequently underwent thyroidectomy. The remaining 103 were followed up for two years without any evidence of malignancy.

Results: Cytopathology classified 71% of the aspirate as benign, 3% as positive for malignancy, 21% as suspected neoplasia and 5% as unsatisfactory. Fine-needle aspiration cytology had a sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 80%. On ultrasound 33% of malignant nodules were hypo-echoic and on scintigraphy 16% of solitary cold nodules were malignant. Neither test could reliably diagnose thyroid cancer.

Conclusion: Ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration cytology should be the first test performed in euthyroid patients with a thyroid nodule. Scintigraphy and ultrasound imaging should be reserved for follow-up studies and patients who have suppressed levels of thyroid stimulating hormone.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5396560PMC
April 2001