Publications by authors named "Samia Harbi"

32 Publications

Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in poor prognosis peripheral T-cell lymphoma: the impact of different donor type on outcome.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 Nov 15. Epub 2020 Nov 15.

Haematology Department, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

We report the outcome of 68 patients with advanced peripheral T-cell lymphoma receiving transplantation from haploidentical or from conventional donors. The 4-year OS, PFS, 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse and 2-year GRFS was 75%, 70%, 21%, and 51%, respectively. Survival was not affected by donor type. The 2-year NRM was 9%, lower after related or haploidentical donor (21% vs 0% vs 7%; p = 0.06). Grade 2-4 aGVHD cumulative incidence was significantly different after transplantation from haploidentical vs matched sibling vs unrelated donor, and (24% vs 35% vs 58%, p = 0.024). The familial donor cohort was compared to the unrelated cohort. Familial donor induced less grade 2-4 aGVHD, with a trend to less grade 3-4 aGVHD or moderate-severe cGVHD. The OS and PFS were not different, while the relapse risk and NRM were reduced. Allo-SCT is highly effective in T-cell lymphoma, with low NRM and low relapse rate. The incidence of aGVHD was lower after haploidentical transplantation. Related donor may challenge unrelated transplant reducing the risk of relapse and NRM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01133-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7666822PMC
November 2020

Nonmyeloablative Conditioning Regimen before T Cell Replete Haploidentical Transplantation with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide for Advanced Hodgkin and Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2020 12 19;26(12):2299-2305. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Hematology Department, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT) is a valid option in patients with refractory lymphomas. HLA haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) expanded the accessibility to allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. The aims of study were to retrospectively assess the toxicity and efficacy of haplo-SCT using nonmyeloablative conditioning in patients with advanced lymphoma. In total, 147 patients with advanced lymphoma at 2 partner institutions were included. Patients received a uniform nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. The primary endpoints were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), GVHD, nonrelapse mortality, and GVHD, relapse-free survival (GRFS). Median follow-up was 39 months (range, 6 to 114 months). The median age was 46 years (range, 19 to 71 years). Sixty-five percent of patients were in complete remission (CR) at transplantation. Cumulative incidence of grade II to IV acute GVHD was 30% (95% confidence interval [Cl], 23% to 38%). Two-year cumulative incidence of all grades of chronic GVHD was 13% (95% CI, 8% to 20%). Two-year cumulative incidence of disease relapse was 19% (95% CI, 14% to 27%), with a higher incidence in patients not being in CR at allo-HCT (CR versus not CR: 12% versus 33%, P = .006). Two-year PFS, OS, and GRFS were 66% (95% CI, 59-75), 73% (95% CI, 66-81), and 56% (95% CI, 48-65), respectively. Haplo-SCT with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide may be considered a valid option for patients with aggressive lymphoma and deserves further evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.08.014DOI Listing
December 2020

Impact of donor age and kinship on clinical outcomes after T-cell-replete haploidentical transplantation with PT-Cy.

Blood Adv 2020 08;4(16):3900-3912

Department of Oncology/Hematology, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria (AOU) Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, Presidio Molinette, Turin, Italy.

Donor selection contributes to improve clinical outcomes of T-cell-replete haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy). The impact of donor age and other non-HLA donor characteristics remains a matter of debate. We performed a multicenter retrospective analysis on 990 haplo-SCTs with PT-Cy. By multivariable analysis, after adjusting for donor/recipient kinship, increasing donor age and peripheral blood stem cell graft were associated with a higher risk of grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host-disease (aGVHD), whereas 2-year cumulative incidence of moderate-to-severe chronic GVHD was higher for transplants from female donors into male recipients and after myeloablative conditioning. Increasing donor age was associated with a trend for higher nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (hazard ratio [HR], 1.05; P = .057) but with a significant reduced risk of disease relapse (HR, 0.92; P = .001) and improved progression-free survival (PFS) (HR, 0.97; P = .036). Increasing recipient age was a predictor of worse overall survival (OS). Risk of relapse was higher (HR, 1.39; P < .001) in patients aged ≤40 years receiving a transplant from a parent as compared with a sibling. Moreover, OS and PFS were lower when the donor was the mother rather than the father. Pretransplant active disease status was an invariably independent predictor of worse clinical outcomes, while recipient positive cytomegalovirus serostatus and hematopoietic cell transplant comorbidity index >3 were associated with worse OS and PFS. Our results suggest that younger donors may reduce the incidence of aGVHD and NRM, though at higher risk of relapse. A parent donor, particularly the mother, is not recommended in recipients ≤40 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2020001620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7448598PMC
August 2020

Checkpoint inhibition before haploidentical transplantation with posttransplant cyclophosphamide in Hodgkin lymphoma.

Blood Adv 2020 04;4(7):1242-1249

Department of Hematology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center-Istituto di Ricovero e Cura a Carattere Scientifico (IRCCS), Rozzano, Italy.

We report on 59 Hodgkin lymphoma patients undergoing haploidentical stem cell transplantation (SCT; haplo-SCT) with posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, comparing outcomes based on pretransplant exposure to checkpoint inhibitors (CPIs). Considering pretransplant characteristics, the 2 cohorts (CPI = 29 patients vs no-CPI = 30 patients) were similar, except for the number of prior lines of therapy (6 vs 4; P < .001). With a median follow-up of 26 months (range, 7.5-55 months), by univariate analysis, the 100-day cumulative incidence of grade 2-4 acute GVHD was 41% in the CPI group vs 33% in the no-CPI group (P = .456), whereas the 1-year cumulative incidence of moderate to severe chronic GVHD was 7% vs 8%, respectively (P = .673). In the CPI cohort, the 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse appeared lower compared with the no-CPI cohort (0 vs 20%; P = .054). No differences were observed in terms of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (at 2 years, 77% vs 71% [P = .599], 78% vs 53% [P = .066], and 15% vs 21% [P = .578], respectively). By multivariable analysis, CPI before SCT was an independent protective factor for PFS (hazard ratio [HR], 0.32; P = .037). Stable disease (SD)/progressive disease (PD) was an independent negative prognostic factor for both OS and PFS (HR, 14.3; P < .001 and HR, 14.1; P < .001, respectively) . In conclusion, CPI as a bridge to haplo-SCT seems to improve PFS, with no impact on toxicity profile.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/bloodadvances.2019001336DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160255PMC
April 2020

A matched-pair analysis reveals marginally reduced CD34+ cell mobilization on second occasion in 27 related donors who underwent peripheral blood stem cell collection twice at the same institution.

Transfusion 2019 11 18;59(11):3442-3447. Epub 2019 Oct 18.

Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Centre de Thérapie Cellulaire, Cell Collection & Cell Processing Facility, Marseille, France.

Background: In a small proportion of cases, hematopoietic function is insufficient after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, as a result of poor graft function or graft failure. These complications are common indications of re-mobilization of the initial donor, either for a second allograft or for an infusion of CD34+ Selected stem Cell Boost (SCB).

Methods And Materials: We retrospectively reviewed the results of two cycles of CD34+ cell mobilization and collection. CD34+ cells mobilized and collected at each cycle were compared. When CD34+ cell selection from the collected allogeneic mononuclear cells was indicated, it was performed with the Clinimacs Plus® medical device, and results from in-process and final quality checks were analyzed. To assess the efficacy of CD34+ SCB, transfusion needs before and after the infusion of selected CD34+ cells were calculated.

Results: The median peripheral blood concentration of CD34+ cells/μL was marginally reduced during the second cycle (35.6 vs 33.8, p < 0.05); results revealed a strong correlation between paired values (r = 0.85). The cumulative number of collected CD34+ cells were similar for both cycles; the total processed blood volume was higher during the second cycle (p = 0.023). For CD34+ immune-selection procedures, CD34+ cell recovery and purity were respectively 57% and 95%, with a median T-cell depletion of 6.7 log. Recipients' needs for platelet and red blood cell transfusions were significantly reduced after CD34+ SCB.

Conclusion: This study confirms the feasibility of a second cycle of mobilization in healthy related donors and the benefits of CD34+ SCB on hematopoietic reconstitution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/trf.15545DOI Listing
November 2019

Posttransplantation cyclophosphamide vs. antithymocyte globulin as GVHD prophylaxis for mismatched unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2020 02 18;55(2):349-355. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Department of Hematology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France.

Posttransplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) is an efficient GVHD prophylaxis but has not been extensively evaluated in mismatched unrelated donor (MMUD) allo-HSCT, for which antithymocyte globulin (ATG) is still considered as a standard. Thus, we evaluated the outcome of MMUD allo-HSCT with PT-Cy (n = 22) and performed a historical comparison with a control group receiving ATG (n = 40) in a single center experience. Compared with the ATG group, the risk of grade 2-4 acute GVHD was significantly lower in the PT-Cy group (HR = 0.12, 95% CI = [0.03-0.48], p = 0.002). No difference was observed in the cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD. The risk of both NRM and relapse was significantly lower in the PT-Cy group (NRM: HR = 0.05, 95% CI = [0.00-0.63], p = 0.021; relapse: HR = 0.31; 95% CI = [0.09-1.10], p = 0.07). Thus, we observed significantly better PFS (HR = 0.22, 95% CI = (0.07-0.65); p = 0.006), OS (HR = 0.24, 95% CI = (0.07-0.84); p = 0.026), and GRFS (HR = 0.37, 95% CI = (0.17-0.80); p = 0.011) in the PT-Cy group. We conclude that PT-Cy is an effective GVHD prophylaxis in the setting of MMUD allo-HSCT, resulting in a better outcome compared with standard prophylaxis using ATG. This suggests that as it was shown in the setting of haploidentical allo-HSCT, the use of PT-Cy can overcome the impact of HLA disparity, leading to promising survivals that approach those observed after HLA matched allo-HSCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0682-2DOI Listing
February 2020

Peripheral Blood Stem Cells versus Bone Marrow for T Cell-Replete Haploidentical Transplantation with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide in Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 09 22;25(9):1810-1817. Epub 2019 May 22.

Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy.

Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) represents a potential curative strategy for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) when a matched related or unrelated donor is not available. The role of graft source, either bone marrow (BM) or peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs), in this setting has not been fully elucidated. We performed a retrospective study on 91 patients with HL to compare the outcome after BM (n = 53) or PBSC (n = 38) transplant. Eighty-nine patients engrafted with no difference between BM and PBSCs in terms of median time for neutrophil (20 versus 20 days, P = .405) and platelet (26 versus 26.5 days, P = .994) engraftment. With a median follow-up of 40.2 months, 100-day cumulative incidences of grades II to IV acute graft-versus host disease (GVHD) and grades II to IV acute GVHD were 24% and 4%, respectively. Graft source was not associated with a different risk of acute GVHD both by univariate and multivariate analyses. Consistently, 1-year cumulative incidence of chronic GVHD was 7% with no differences between the 2 graft types (P = .761). Two-year rates of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), nonrelapse mortality, and GVHD/relapse-free survival (GRFS) were 67%, 58%, 20%, and 52%, respectively. By univariate analysis, pretransplant disease status was the main variable affecting all outcomes. By multivariate analysis, PBSCs resulted in a protective factor for OS (hazard ratio [HR], .29; P = .006), PFS (HR, .38; P = .001), and GRFS (HR, .44; P = .020). The other independent variables affecting the final outcome were pretransplant disease status and hematopoietic cell transplant-specific comorbidity index. In conclusion, when planning a haplo-SCT with PT-Cy for patients with poor-risk HL, graft type is an important variable to take into account when selecting the best available donor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.05.017DOI Listing
September 2019

Thiotepa, Fludarabine, and Busulfan Conditioning Regimen before T Cell-Replete Haploidentical Transplantation with Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide for Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Bicentric Experience of 100 Patients.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2019 09 22;25(9):1803-1809. Epub 2019 May 22.

Department of Hematology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France; Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, Inserm U1068, UMR 7258, Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille University, UM 105, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Haploidentical stem cell transplantation (haplo-SCT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) is an alternative treatment for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients who lack HLA-matched donors. Relapse after haplo-SCT remains a major concern, especially after nonmyeloablative conditioning regimens. Promising results were reported for TBF-based conditioning regimens (thiotepa, busulfan, and fludarabine) in patients transplanted from different categories of donors and for various disease types but not specifically in PT-Cy haplo-SCT for AML. Here we evaluate the outcome of 100 AML patients who received haplo-SCT with PT-Cy after TBF conditioning regimens (reduced-intensity conditioning, n = 77; myeloablative conditioning, n = 23) in 2 transplant programs. Cumulative incidences of grades III to IV acute and moderate or severe chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) were 7% and 14%, respectively. NRM at 2 years was 28%, significantly influenced by disease status at haplo-SCT (first complete response [CR1] versus advanced AML: 16% versus 38%, P = .016) but not by conditioning intensity or age. The cumulative incidences of relapse at 2 years were 17% and 24% in CR1 and advanced AML, respectively (not significant). Progression-free survival, overall survival, and GVHD and relapse-free survival at 2 years were 67%, 71%, and 49% in CR1 patients, respectively, whereas comparative values in patients with advanced disease were 37%, 41%, and 32%. Our study suggests that TBF conditioning for PT-Cy haplo-SCT is safe and effective for AML patients in CR1. In patients with more advanced disease, the relatively low incidence of relapse seems counterbalanced by a high nonrelapse mortality, underlining the need for alternative strategies to decrease relapse risk, without increasing the intensity of conditioning regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2019.05.014DOI Listing
September 2019

Peripheral blood stem cell for haploidentical transplantation with post-transplant high dose cyclophosphamide: detailed analysis of 181 consecutive patients.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 11 19;54(11):1730-1737. Epub 2019 Mar 19.

Hematology Department, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France.

While bone marrow (BM) grafts were initially used for T-replete HLA-haploidentical related donors transplantation (Haplo-SCT) with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy), the use of peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) remains debated. We thus conducted a detailed analysis evaluating the incidence, risk factors, and prevalence of GVHD after PBSC Haplo-SCT with PT-Cy. One hundred and eighty-one patients with hematological diseases were included. Median time for neutrophil and platelet recovery was 21 and 30 days, respectively. The cumulative incidence of grade 3-4 acute GVHD and severe chronic GVHD were 8% and 4%, respectively, approaching what was observed after BM Haplo-SCT. NRM at 2 years was 21%, and 41% of the non-relapse deaths were caused by GVHD. The cumulative incidence of relapse at 2 years was 17% in the whole cohort, and 13% among AML patients (n = 54), suggesting a high GVL effect. As surrogate markers for good quality of life, we observed a 2-year GVHD-relapse-free survival probability of 50% and found that 6% and 2% of disease-free patients at 2 years were still living with GVHD and immunosuppressive treatments, respectively. Haplo-SCT with PT-Cy using PBSC grafts results in low incidence GVHD and promising disease control, making PBSCs a valuable alternative to BM graft in this setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0500-xDOI Listing
November 2019

The new refined minnesota risk score for acute graft-versus-host disease predicts overall survival and non-relapse mortality after T cell-replete haploidentical stem cell transplant with post-transplant cyclophosphamide.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 07 24;54(7):1164-1167. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy.

We propose to test whether the new refined Minnesota risk score, which represents a new tool for acute Graft-versus-Host-Disease (aGVHD) grading, may be useful to predict the final outcome of patients with aGVHD after haploidentical stem cell transplantation (Haplo-SCT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy). Hundred consecutive patients with grade 2-4 aGVHD were included. Twenty-two percent of the patients had high-risk (HR) aGVHD and had a lower chance to respond at day 28: 41% of non-responders (NR) were in the HR vs 13% in the standard-risk (SR) group (p = 0.003). By multivariate analysis, grade 3-4 aGVHD according to the traditional Keystone classification was the main independent predictor of non-response to front-line treatment at day 28, while HR aGVHD by the new refined Minnesota score remained the main independent variable associated with adverse NRM and OS. The new Minnesota refined risk score is a useful tool to predict the outcome of patients with aGVHD after Haplo-SCT with PT-Cy. Due to the few patients exchanging between categories in the two classifications, it is not possible to discriminate which system better predicts the outcome of patients with aGVHD in the setting of Haplo-SCT. Extending these preliminary observations to a larger cohort is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-019-0453-0DOI Listing
July 2019

Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide-based haploidentical versus Atg-based unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation for patients younger than 60 years with hematological malignancies: a single-center experience of 209 patients.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2019 07 6;54(7):1067-1076. Epub 2018 Nov 6.

Department of Hematology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is limited by availability of HLA-matched sibling donors (MSDs). The alternative use of unrelated donors (UDs) is currently challenged by haploidentical-related donors (HRDs). We retrospectively analyzed 209 consecutive patients younger than 60 years undergoing allo-HSCT from UDs (n = 128) or HRDs (n = 81). Cumulative incidences of grade 3-4 acute (17 vs. 2%, p = 0.003) and 2-year moderate and severe chronic (20 vs. 2%, p < 0.001) GVHD were significantly higher with UD. Progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly better with HRD (51 vs. 69%, p = 0.019), without significant difference in the cumulative incidence of relapse (CIR), non-relapse mortality (NRM), and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analyses confirmed the lower risk of acute and chronic GVHD (grade 2-4, HR = 0.43, p = 0.005; grade 3-4, HR = 0.20, p = 0.017; all grades, HR = 0.43, p = 0.012; moderate or severe, HR = 0.12, p = 0.004), better PFS (HR = 0.61, p = 0.046), and GRFS (HR = 0.47, p = 0.001) with HRD. This was confirmed in match-paired analysis. In the absence of MSDs, HRD could be considered as a suitable alternative for patients younger than 60 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0387-yDOI Listing
July 2019

Cost-effectiveness analysis of haploidentical vs matched unrelated allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells transplantation in patients older than 55 years.

Bone Marrow Transplant 2018 09 9;53(9):1096-1104. Epub 2018 Mar 9.

Aix-Marseille Univ, INSERM, IRD, Sciences Economiques & Sociales de la Santé & Traitement de l'Information Médicale (SESSTIM), Marseille, France.

Due to limited donor availability, high comorbidities, and cost issues, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant is not universally accessible. The aim of this study was to conduct a cost-effectiveness analysis of haploidentical vs matched unrelated transplant. This retrospective study included patients with hematological malignancies older than 55 years who underwent haploidentical or matched unrelated transplant between 2011 and 2013 in Marseille. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio has been calculated using the mean overall survival and the mean transplant costs. Costs were calculated using a micro-costing strategy from the hospital perspective and a time horizon at 2 years. Haploidentical transplant was considered an innovative procedure and matched unrelated transplant as the reference. Probabilistic and sensitivity analyses were performed on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. During inclusion, 29 patients underwent haploidentical transplant and 63 matched unrelated transplant. In haploidentical and matched unrelated transplant, the mean overall survival was 19.4 (1.6) months and 15.1 (1.2) months (p = 0.06), respectively, and the mean cost was 98,304 (40,872) € and 151,373 (65,742) € (p < 0.01), respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was assessed to -148,485 (-1,265,550; -64,368) € per life year gained. Among older patients suffering from hematological malignancies, haploidentical transplant seemed in our analysis to be cost-effective compared with matched unrelated transplant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41409-018-0133-5DOI Listing
September 2018

HLA-Matched Sibling versus Unrelated versus Haploidentical Related Donor Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Patients Aged Over 60 Years with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Single-Center Donor Comparison.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 07 12;24(7):1449-1454. Epub 2018 Feb 12.

Department of Hematology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France; Inserm U1068, CNRS UMR 7258, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, Marseille, France; UM 105, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France.

Haploidentical related donor (HRD) allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) was developed as a valid option for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in the absence of a matched donor. However, many investigators are reluctant to consider the use of this alternative in elderly patients, anticipating high morbidity. Here, we report a single-center comparison of HRD versus matched sibling donor (MSD) and unrelated donor (UD) allo-HSCT for patients with AML aged ≥60 years. Ninety-four patients (MSD: n = 31; UD: n = 30; HRD: n = 33) were analyzed. The median age was 65 (range, 60 to 73) years. We observed a higher cumulative incidence of grade 3 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after UD allo-HSCT (MSD versus UD versus HRD: 3% versus 33% versus 6%, respectively; P = .006). Two-year cumulative incidence of moderate or severe chronic GVHD was 17%, 27%, and 16% in the MSD, UD, and HRD groups, respectively (P = .487). No difference was observed in the 2-year cumulative incidence of relapse or nonrelapse mortality (NRM) (relapse: MSD versus UD versus HRD: 32% versus 25% versus 25%, respectively; P = .411; NRM: MSD versus UD versus HRD: 19% versus 27% versus 24%, respectively; P = .709). At 2 years, progression-free survival, overall survival, and GVHD- and relapse-free survival were 48%, 50%, and 39%, respectively, in the MSD group; 48%, 51%, and 23%, respectively, in the UD group; and 50%, 52%, and 32%, respectively, in the HRD group, without statistically significant differences between the groups. We conclude that HRD allo-HSCT is highly feasible and no less efficient than MSD or UD allo-HSCT in patients with AML aged ≥60 years. Thus, the absence of a HLA-identical donor should not limit the consideration of allo-HSCT for the treatment of AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2018.02.002DOI Listing
July 2018

Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor-Ligand Mismatch in Donor versus Recipient Direction Provides Better Graft-versus-Tumor Effect in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies Undergoing Allogeneic T Cell-Replete Haploidentical Transplantation Followed by Post-Transplant Cyclophosphamide.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 03 13;24(3):549-554. Epub 2017 Dec 13.

Department of Hematology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France; Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), Inserm U1068, CNRS UMR 7258, Marseille, France; Medical Faculty, Aix-Marseille University, UM 105, Marseille, France. Electronic address:

We evaluated the impact of unidirectional donor versus recipient killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)-ligand mismatch (KIR-Lmm) on the outcomes of T cell-replete haploidentical stem cell transplantation (Haplo-SCT) with post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) in a cohort of 144 patients treated for various hematologi diseases. We separately analyzed 81 patients in complete remission (CR group) and 63 with active disease (no CR group) at the time of Haplo-SCT. One-third of patients in each group had KIR-Lmm. In the no CR group, KIR-Lmm was associated with a significantly lower incidence of relapse (hazard ratio, .21; P = .013) and better progression-free survival (hazard ratio, .42; P = .028), with no significant increase in graft-versus-host disease incidence or nonrelapse mortality. In contrast, in the CR group no benefit of KIR-Lmm was observed. Our results encourage considering KIR-Lmm as an additional tool to improve donor selection for T cell-replete Haplo-SCT with PT-Cy, especially in patients with high-risk diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.11.042DOI Listing
March 2018

NKp46 expression on NK cells as a prognostic and predictive biomarker for response to allo-SCT in patients with AML.

Oncoimmunology 2017;6(12):e1307491. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

Team Immunity and Cancer, Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), Inserm, U1068; CNRS, UMR7258, Institut Paoli-Calmettes; Aix-Marseille University, UM 105, Marseille, France.

NKp46 is a major determinant of natural killer (NK) cell function and it is implicated in tumor immune surveillance in acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of NKp46 expression in an independent cohort of patients with AML, and to investigate the impact of NKp46 on clinical outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-SCT). NKp46 expression was assessed at diagnosis on NK cells by flow cytometry (N = 180 patients). Clinical outcome was evaluated with regard to NKp46 expression. Patients with NKp46 phenotype at diagnosis had better progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) than patients with NKp46 phenotype (74.3% vs. 46.6%, = 0.014; 82.6% vs. 57.1%, = 0.010, respectively). In multivariate analysis, high NKp46 was an independent factor for improved OS (HR = 0.409, = 0.010) and PFS (HR = 0.335, = 0.011). Subgroup analysis revealed that allo-SCT had a favorable impact on PFS in patients with NKp46 phenotype ( = 0.025). By contrast, allo-SCT did not impact PFS in patients with low NKp46 expression ( = 0.303). In conclusion, we validate the prognostic value of NKp46 expression at diagnosis in AML. However, the prognostic value of NKp46 expression is limited to patients treated with allo-SCT, thus suggesting that NKp46 status may be predictive for allo-SCT responsiveness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2017.1307491DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5706596PMC
March 2017

T Cell-Replete Haploidentical Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide for Hodgkin Lymphoma Relapsed after Autologous Transplantation: Reduced Incidence of Relapse and of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease Compared with HLA-Identical Related Donors.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 03 29;24(3):627-632. Epub 2017 Nov 29.

Bone Marrow Transplant Unit, Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Rozzano, Italy.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (SCT) represents a potential curative strategy for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) relapsing after autologous SCT (ASCT), but the incidence of disease relapse is still high. We performed a retrospective study on 64 patients with HL relapsing after ASCT to compare outcomes after HLA-identical SCT (HLAid-SCT; n = 34) and haploidentical SCT with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy) (Haplo-SCT; n = 30). All patients engrafted, with a significantly shorter median time for neutrophil and platelet engraftment after HLAid compared with Haplo-SCT (14 days versus 19 days and 11 days versus 23 days, respectively; P < .005). With a median follow-up of 47 months, 3-year overall survival (OS), 3 -year progression-free survival (PFS), and 1-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM) were 53%, 44% and 17%, respectively. Recipients of Haplo-SCT were less likely to experience disease relapse (3-year cumulative incidence of relapse, 13% versus 62%; P = .0001) and chronic graft- versus-host disease (GVHD; 3% versus 32%; P = .003), resulting in improved PFS (60% versus 29%; P = .04) and GVHD-free/relapse-free survival (47% versus 17%; P = .06). The 3-year OS did not differ between the 2 groups (56% versus 54%; P not significant), and NRM was higher after Haplo-SCT, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (26% versus 9%; P = .09). On multivariate Cox regression analysis, receipt of Haplo-SCT (hazard ratio [HR], .17; P = .02) and achieving optimal disease control (complete remission before SCT: HR, .6; P < .0001) were the only independent variables associated with a reduced risk of disease relapse. Haplo-SCT is a valid option for patients with HL relapsing after ASCT, with a reduced incidence of relapse compared with HLAid SCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.11.030DOI Listing
March 2018

Fatal acute respiratory distress syndrome with diffuse alveolar damage: donor lymphocyte infusion imputability?

Eur Respir J 2016 12 1;48(6):1794-1796. Epub 2016 Sep 1.

Polyvalent Intensive Care Unit, Dept of Anesthesiology and Critical Care, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1183/13993003.01130-2016DOI Listing
December 2016

Low incidence of chronic GVHD after HLA-haploidentical peripheral blood stem cell transplantation with post-transplantation cyclophosphamide in older patients.

Br J Haematol 2017 01 12;176(1):132-135. Epub 2016 Apr 12.

Haematology Department, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjh.13923DOI Listing
January 2017

The efficacy and safety of a new reduced-toxicity conditioning with 4 days of once-daily 100 mg/m(2) intravenous busulfan associated with fludarabine and antithymocyte globulins prior to allogeneic stem cell transplantation in patients with high-risk myelodysplastic syndrome or acute leukemia.

Leuk Lymphoma 2016 10 17;57(10):2315-20. Epub 2016 Feb 17.

a Département d'Onco-Hématologie , Institut Paoli-Calmettes , Marseille , France ;

The optimal intensity of myeloablation associated with a reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) regimen in order to decrease the relapse rate without increasing non-relapse mortality (NRM), is not well established yet. This retrospective analysis was done on 30 patients with hematological malignancies. The aim was to assess the safety of a RTC regimen based on the busulfan at a dose of 100 mg/m(2)/d intravenously for 4 d, fludarabine at a dose of 30 mg/m(2)/d for 5 d, and anti-thymoglobulins at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/d for 2 d. The cumulative incidences of grade 2-4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and all grades chronic GVHD were 37% and 42%, respectively. Median 1-year overall survival and disease-free survival were 66% and 50%, respectively. At 1 year, the cumulative incidence of relapse/disease progression was 33%. NRM was 3% and 17% at day 100 and 1 year, respectively. This RTC conditioning regimen can lead to a long-term disease control. Moreover, it appears to be safe with a low NRM rate among high-risk patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/10428194.2016.1146948DOI Listing
October 2016

Increased NK Cell Maturation in Patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia.

Front Immunol 2015 6;6:564. Epub 2015 Nov 6.

Centre de Cancérologie de Marseille, Team Immunity and Cancer, INSERM, U1068, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Université, UM 105, CNRS, UMR7258 , Marseille , France ; Centre de Cancérologie de Marseille, Systems Biology Platform, INSERM, U1068, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Université, UM 105, CNRS, UMR7258 , Marseille , France.

Understanding immune alterations in cancer patients is a major challenge and requires precise phenotypic study of immune subsets. Improvement of knowledge regarding the biology of natural killer (NK) cells and technical advances leads to the generation of high dimensional dataset. High dimensional flow cytometry requires tools adapted to complex dataset analyses. This study presents an example of NK cell maturation analysis in Healthy Volunteers (HV) and patients with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML) with an automated procedure using the FLOCK algorithm. This procedure enabled to automatically identify NK cell subsets according to maturation profiles, with 2D mapping of a four-dimensional dataset. Differences were highlighted in AML patients compared to HV, with an overall increase of NK maturation. Among patients, a strong heterogeneity in NK cell maturation defined three distinct profiles. Overall, automatic gating with FLOCK algorithm is a recent procedure, which enables fast and reliable identification of cell populations from high-dimensional cytometry data. Such tools are necessary for immune subset characterization and standardization of data analyses. This tool is adapted to new immune cell subsets discovery, and may lead to a better knowledge of NK cell defects in cancer patients. Overall, 2D mapping of NK maturation profiles enabled fast and reliable identification of NK cell subsets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2015.00564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4635854PMC
November 2015

Comparison of Three Distinct Prophylactic Agents Against Invasive Fungal Infections in Patients Undergoing Haplo-identical Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Post-transplant Cyclophosphamide.

Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis 2015 20;7(1):e2015048. Epub 2015 Aug 20.

Unité de Transplantation et de Thérapie Cellulaire (U2T), Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France ; Departement d'Onco-Hématologie, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Marseille, France.

Over the past decade, invasive fungal infections (IFIs) have remained an important problem in patients undergoing allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT). The optimal approach for prophylactic antifungal therapy has yet to bedetermined. We conducted a retrospective analysis, comparing the safety and efficacy of micafungin 50mg/day vs. fluconazole 400mg/day vs. itraconazole 200mg/day as prophylaxis for adult patients with various haematological diseases receiving haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) followed by high-dose cyclophosphamide (PT-Cy). Overall, 99 patients were identified: 30 patients received micafungin, 50 and 19 patients received itraconazole and fluconazole, respectively. After a median follow-up of 12 months (range: 1-51), proven or probable IFIs were reported in 3 patients (10%) in the micafungin, 5 patients in the itraconazole (10%) and 2 patients (11%) in the fluconazole group (p=0.998). Fewer patients in the micafungin group had invasive aspergillosis (1 [3%] vs. 3 [6%] in the itraconazole vs. 2 [11%] in the fluconazole group, p=0.589). Four patients (13%) in the micafungin group vs 13 (26%) patients in the itraconazole group and 10 (53%) patients in the fluconazole received empirical antifungal therapy (P = 0.19). No serious adverse events related to treatment were reported by patients, and there was no treatment discontinuation because of drug-related adverse events in both groups. The present analysis shows that micafungin did better than fluconazole in preventing invasive aspergillosis after transplant in these high-risk hematological diseases, as expected. In addition, micafungin was more effective than itraconazole in preventing all IFI episodes when also considering possible fungal infections. Future prospective studies would shed light on this issue, concerning this increasingly used transplant platform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4084/MJHID.2015.048DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4560261PMC
September 2015

Haploidentical T Cell-Replete Transplantation with Post-Transplantation Cyclophosphamide for Patients in or above the Sixth Decade of Age Compared with Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation from an Human Leukocyte Antigen-Matched Related or Unrelated Donor.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2016 Jan 1;22(1):119-24. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

Transplant and Cellular Therapy Unit, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France; Hematology Department, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France; Transplant unit, Department of Hemato-oncology, Humanitas Cancer Center, Milano, Italy.

It has recently been shown that a T cell-replete allogeneic (allo) hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) from a haploidentical donor (haplo-ID) could be a valid treatment for hematological malignancies. However, little data exist concerning older populations. We provided transplantation to 31 patients over the age of 55 years from a haplo-ID and compared their outcomes with patients of the same ages who underwent transplantation from a matched related (MRD) or an unrelated donor (UD). All 3 groups were comparable, except for their conditioning. Patients in haplo-ID group received 2 days of post-transplantation high-dose cyclophosphamide followed by cyclosporine A and mycophenolate mofetil, whereas patients in other groups received pretransplantation antithymocyte globulin, cyclosporine A, and additional mycophenolate mofetil in case of 1-antigen mismatch. All patients but 1 in the haplo-ID group engrafted. The incidence of grades 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was not statistically different between recipients from haplo-ID (cumulative incidence, 23%) and MRD (cumulative incidence, 21%) transplantations but it was lower than after UD HSCT (cumulative incidence, 44%). No patient in the haplo-ID group developed severe chronic GVHD, compared with cumulative incidences of 16% and 14% after MRD (P = .02) and UD (P = .03) grafts, respectively. The cumulative incidences of relapse were similar in the 3 groups, whereas nonrelapse mortality after UD HSCT was 3-fold higher than after haplo-ID or MRD HSCT. Overall, 2-year overall survival (70%), progression-free survival (67%), and progression and severe chronic GVHD-free survival (67%) probabilities after haplo-ID did not statistically differ from MRD transplantation (78%, 64%, and 51%, respectively), although they were higher than after UD transplantation (51% [P = .08], 38% [P = .02], and 31% [P = .007]). We conclude that T cell-replete haplo-ID HSCT followed by post-transplantation high-dose- cyclophosphamide in patients over 55 years is associated with promising results, similar to MRD HSCT, and is deserving prospective evaluation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.08.029DOI Listing
January 2016

Unrelated cord blood compared with haploidentical grafts in patients with hematological malignancies.

Cancer 2015 Jun 3;121(11):1809-16. Epub 2015 Feb 3.

Transplantation and Cellular Therapy Unit (U2T), Paoli-Calmettes Institute, Marseille, France.

Background: Alternative donors, such as unrelated umbilical cord blood (UCB) and related haploidentical (haplo) donors, are more and more frequently searched for and used for patients who are candidates for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation but are without a suitable related or unrelated donor. The aim of the current retrospective study was to compare the outcome of patients after haplo and UCB grafts prepared using a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen.

Methods: A total of 150 adult patients with high-risk hematologic diseases who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation from alternative donors at 2 centers (Paoli-Calmettes Institute [Marseille, France] and Humanitas Cancer Center [Milan, Italy]) were analyzed. Sixty-nine patients had haplo donors and 81 patients had UCB donors.

Results: The cumulative incidence of nonrecurrence mortality at 1 year was 23% in the UCB group versus 17% in the haplo group (P = .39). The incidence of grade 2 to 4 acute graft-versus-host disease and extensive chronic graft-versus-host disease in the UCB group versus the haplo group was 52% versus 29% (P = .05) and 12% versus 6% (P<.0001), respectively. The overall survival rate at 2 years was 45% in the UCB group (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 34%-56%) versus 69% in the haplo group (95% CI, 58%-80%) (P = .10). The progression-free survival rate at 2 years was 36% in the UCB group (95% CI, 25%-47%) versus 65% in the haplo group (95% CI, 53%-77%) (P = .01).

Conclusions: The results of the current study suggest that for patients with high-risk hematological diseases without a related or unrelated donor, haploidentical transplants are a promising alternative option that deserves further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.29271DOI Listing
June 2015

Poor outcome with nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen before cord blood transplantation for patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia compared with matched related or unrelated donor transplantation.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Oct 14;20(10):1560-5. Epub 2014 Jun 14.

Hematology Department, Transplantation Program, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France; Inserm UMR 1068/Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille, Marseille, France.

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Allo-HSCT) is recommended for patients with high-risk acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In many situations, a matched related (MRD) or matched unrelated donor (MUD) is lacking, in which case unrelated cord blood units (UCB) provide an alternative. We analyzed the outcome of consecutive high-risk AML patients prepared with reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens and allografted with UCB (n = 32) and compared their outcome with high-risk AML patients who underwent transplantation with MRD/MUD (n = 49) in the same period of time. Grade III to IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) occurred slightly more frequently in the UCB group (25%) than in the MRD/MUD group (8%) (P = .069). Conversely, we found a lower incidence of extensive chronic GVHD in the UCB group (6%) than in the MRD/MUD group (20%, P = .085). Nonrelapse mortality at 4 years was 16% and 22% in the UCB and MRD/MUD groups, respectively (P = .529). The cumulative incidence of relapse at 4 years was significantly higher in the UCB group (60%) than in the MRD/MUD group (27%, P = .006). Leukemia-free survival (LFS) and overall survival (OS) at 4 years were 25% and 34%, respectively, in the UCB group and 50% and 56%, respectively, in the MRD/MUD group (LFS, P = .029; OS, P = .072). Multivariate analyses adjusted by cytogenetics and disease status at the time of Allo-HSCT revealed that use of UCB remained an independent predictive factor of shorter LFS (hazard ratio, 2.0; 95% confidence interval, 1.1 to 3.6; P = .018), and was associated with a trend for shorter OS (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% confidence interval, .9 to 3.2; P = .093). Whereas UCB provides an alternative for patients with high-risk AML lacking an MRD/MUD, the high incidence of relapse after RIC-based UCB Allo-HSCT is a concern. Attempts to improve leukemic control with UCB Allo-HSCT are warranted, as well as the evaluation of other alternative donors in this context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.06.006DOI Listing
October 2014

Bone marrow compared with peripheral blood stem cells for haploidentical transplantation with a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 May 13;20(5):724-9. Epub 2014 Feb 13.

Department of Hematology, Transplantation Program, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France; Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), Marseille, France.

Recently, the administration of high-dose cyclophosphamide (Cy) after T cell-replete haploidentical stem cell infusion has been reported to be feasible and effective. In the original study, bone marrow (BM) was used as the source of stem cells. Here, we retrospectively analyzed the use of BM versus peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs) in a cohort of patients receiving haploidentical T cell-replete transplantation after a nonmyeloablative conditioning regimen with postinfusion Cy. In the PBSC versus BM groups, the incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 33% versus 25%, respectively, and the incidence of chronic GVHD was 13% versus 13%, respectively. The median time to achieve a safe and unsupported absolute neutrophil and platelet count was 20 versus 21 days and 27 versus 29 days, respectively. The incidence of engraftment was also similar in the 2 cohorts. The 1-year nonrelapse mortality rate was 12% versus 22%, respectively (P = .96). Finally, nonsignificant differences in survival were observed. In conclusion, the use of PBSCs instead of BM after T cell-replete haploidentical transplantation did not appear to be detrimental in terms of either GVHD or engraftment rate. PBSCs could be a valid alternative to BM after transplantation from a haploidentical donor using postinfusion Cy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2014.02.001DOI Listing
May 2014

Antithymocyte globulin in reduced-intensity conditioning regimen allows a high disease-free survival exempt of long-term chronic graft-versus-host disease.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2014 Mar 4;20(3):370-4. Epub 2013 Dec 4.

Hematology Department, Transplantation Program, Institut Paoli Calmettes, Marseille, France; Aix-Marseille Université, Marseille, France; Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), Marseille, France. Electronic address:

Nonmyeloablative (NMA) regimens allow the use of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) in patients considered unfit for standard myeloablative conditioning (MAC) regimens using high-dose alkylating agents with or without total body irradiation (TBI). Reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) regimens, based on fludarabine (Flu), busulfan (Bu), and rabbit antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG), represent an intermediate alternative between NMA and MAC regimens. This platform was subsequently optimized by the introduction of i.v. Bu and the use of 5 mg/kg r-ATG, based on the hypothesis that these modifications would improve the safety of RIC allo-HSCT. Here we report a study conducted at our institution on 206 patients, median age 59 years, who underwent allo-HSCT after conditioning with Flu, 2 days of i.v. Bu, and 5 mg/kg r-ATG (FBx-ATG) between 2005 and 2012. The prevalence of grade III-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) was 9%, and that of extensive chronic GVHD was 22%. Four-year nonrelapse mortality (NRM), relapse, and overall survival (OS) rates were 22%, 36%, and 54%, respectively. NRM tended to be influenced by comorbidities (hematopoietic cell transplantation-specific comorbidity index [HCT-CI] <3 versus HCT-CI ≥3: 18% versus 27%; P = .075), but not by age (<60 years, 20% versus ≥60 years, 25%; P = .142). Disease risk significantly influenced relapse (2 years: low, 8%, intermediate, 28%, high, 34%; very high, 63%; P = .017). Both disease risk (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: intermediate, 2.1 [0.8 to 5.2], P = .127; high, 3.4 [1.3 to 9.1], P = .013; very high, 4.0 [1.1 to 14], P = .029) and HCT-CI (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: HCT-CI ≥3, 1.7 (1.1 to 2.8), P = .018) influenced OS, but age and donor type did not. The FBx-ATG RIC regimen reported here is associated with low mortality and high long-term disease-free survival without persistent GVHD in both young and old patients. It represents a valuable platform for developing further post-transplantation strategies aimed at reducing the incidence of relapse, particularly in the setting of high-risk disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2013.11.030DOI Listing
March 2014