Publications by authors named "Samar Al-Hajj"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Road traffic injury in Lebanon: A prospective study to assess injury characteristics and risk factors.

Health Sci Rep 2021 Dec 24;4(4):e396. Epub 2021 Nov 24.

Faculty of Medicine American University of Beirut Beirut Lebanon.

Background: Road traffic injury (RTI) is a significant yet poorly characterized cause of morbidity and mortality in the Middle East. This hospital-based-study examined RTI in Lebanon and provided an understanding of their characteristics.

Methods: We collected prospective RTI data from three participating hospitals over 3 months using a designed tool based on Canadian CHIRPP and WHO tools. We performed logistic regression analysis to examine the relationship between contributing risk factors (age, sex) and injury types as well as the association of safety measures used (seatbelts or helmets) and body parts injured.

Results: A total of 153 patients were collected. Male preponderance with 72%, with mean age 32.6 (SD = 14.9) years. RTI was highest among passengers aged 15 to 29 (48%). Motorcyclists comprised the greatest injury proportion (38%), followed by vehicle-occupants (35%), and pedestrians (25%) ( = .04). Hip injuries represented the most affected body part (48.7%), followed by head/neck (38.2%). Only 31% (n = 47) of victims applied safety measures (seatbelts or helmets). Six drivers (7%) reported cell phone use at collision. The use of safety measures was associated with a substantial reduction in head/neck injuries ( = .03), spine injuries ( = .049), and lower risk of traumatic brain injury (TBI) ( = .02).

Conclusions: RTI is a major health problem in Lebanon. Safety measures, though poorly adhered to, were associated with less severe injuries, and should be further promoted via awareness campaigns and enforcement. Trauma registries are needed to assess the RTI burden and inform safety interventions and quality-of-care improvement programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hsr2.396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8611407PMC
December 2021

Physical trauma and injury: A multi-center study comparing local residents and refugees in Lebanon.

J Glob Health 2021 9;11:17001. Epub 2021 Oct 9.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia. BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.

Background: Refugees are susceptible to various types of injury mechanisms associated with their dire living conditions and settlements. This study aims to compare and characterize the emergency department admissions due to physical trauma and injuries among local residents and refugees in greater Beirut.

Methods: This epidemiological study analyzes injury incidence and characteristics of patients presenting to Emergency Departments of 5 sentinel hospitals between 2017 and 2019. Using the WHO Injury Surveillance Guidelines and Pan-Asia Trauma Outcomes Study form, an injury data surveillance form was designed and used in hospital settings to collect data on injuries. Chi-square test analysis was performed to compare differences in injury characteristics between local residents and refugees. Regression models were constructed to assess the effect of being a refugee on the characteristics of injuries and outcomes of interest.

Results: A total of 4847 injuries (3933 local residents and 914 refugees) were reported. 87.4% of the total injuries among refugees were sustained by the younger age groups 0-45 years compared to 68.8% among local residents. The most prevalent injury mechanism was fall (39.4%) for locals and road traffic injury (31.5%) for refugees. The most injured body part was extremities for both populations (78.2% and 80.1%). Injuries mostly occurred at home or its vicinity (garden or inside the camp) for both populations (29.3% and 23.1%). Refugees sustained a higher proportion of injuries at work (6%) compared to locals (1.3%). On multivariate analysis, refugee status was associated with higher odds of having an injury due to a stab/gunshot (odds ratio (OR) = 3.392, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.605-4.416), having a concussion injury (OR = 1.718, 95% CI = 1.151-2.565), and being injured at work (OR = 4.147, 95% CI = 2.74-6.278). Refugee status was associated with increased odds of leaving the hospital with injury-related disability (OR = 2.271, 95% CI = 1.891-2.728)].

Conclusions: Injury remains a major public health problem among resident and refugee communities in Beirut, Lebanon. Refugees face several injury-related vulnerabilities, which adversely affect their treatment outcomes and long-term disabilities. The high prevalence of occupational and violence-related injuries among refugees necessitates the introduction of targeted occupational safety and financial security interventions, aiming at reducing injuries while enhancing social justice among residents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7189/jogh.11.17001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8542374PMC
November 2021

Burden of Transport-Related Injuries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Arch Iran Med 2021 07 1;24(7):512-525. Epub 2021 Jul 1.

Multiple Sclerosis Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Transport-related injuries (TIs) are a substantial public health concern for all regions of the world. The present study quantified the burden of TIs and deaths in the Eastern Mediterranean region (EMR) in 2017 by sex and age.

Methods: TIs and deaths were estimated by age, sex, country, and year using Cause of Death Ensemble modelling (CODEm) and DisMod-MR 2.1. Disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), which quantify the total burden of years lost due to premature death or disability, were also estimated per 100000 population. All estimates were reported along with their corresponding 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs).

Results: In 2017, there were 5.5 million (UI 4.9-6.2) transport-related incident cases in the EMR - a substantial increase from 1990 (2.8 million; UI 2.5-3.1). The age-standardized incidence rate for the EMR in 2017 was 787 (UI 705.5-876.2) per 100000, which has not changed significantly since 1990 (-0.9%; UI -4.7 to 3). These rates differed remarkably between countries, such that Oman (1303.9; UI 1167.3-1441.5) and Palestine (486.5; UI 434.5-545.9) had the highest and lowest age-standardized incidence rates per 100000, respectively. In 2017, there were 185.3 thousand (UI 170.8-200.6) transport-related fatalities in the EMR - a substantial increase since 1990 (140.4 thousand; UI 118.7-156.9). The age-standardized death rate for the EMR in 2017 was 29.5 (UI 27.1-31.9) per 100000, which was 30.5% lower than that found in 1990 (42.5; UI 36.8-47.3). In 2017, Somalia (54; UI 30-77.4) and Lebanon (7.1; UI 4.8-8.6) had the highest and lowest age-standardized death rates per 100,000, respectively. The age-standardised DALY rate for the EMR in 2017 was 1,528.8 (UI 1412.5-1651.3) per 100000, which was 34.4% lower than that found in 1990 (2,331.3; UI 1,993.1-2,589.9). In 2017, the highest DALY rate was found in Pakistan (3454121; UI 2297890- 4342908) and the lowest was found in Bahrain (8616; UI 7670-9751).

Conclusion: The present study shows that while road traffic has become relatively safer (measured by deaths and DALYs per 100000 population), the number of transport-related fatalities in the EMR is growing and needs to be addressed urgently.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/aim.2021.74DOI Listing
July 2021

The Burden of Surgical Disease and Access to Care in a Vulnerable Syrian Refugee Population in Lebanon.

World J Surg 2021 10 26;45(10):3019-3026. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Division of Trauma, Emergency Surgery & Surgical Critical Care, Department of Surgery, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 165 Cambridge Street, Suite 810, Boston, MA, 02114, USA.

Background: The Syrian conflict has produced one of the largest refugee crises in modern times. Lebanon has taken in more Syrian refugees per capita than any other nation. We aimed to study the burden of surgical disease and access to surgical care among Syrian refugees in Lebanon.

Methods: This study was designed as a convenient cross-sectional cluster-based population survey of all refugee camps throughout the Bekaa region of Lebanon. We used a modified version of the Surgeons OverSeas Assessment of Surgical Need to identify surgical conditions and barriers to care access. The head of household of each informal tented settlement provided demographic information after which two household members were randomly chosen and administered the survey.

Results: A total of 1,500 individuals from 750 households representing 21 camps were surveyed. Respondents had a mean age of 36.6 (15.0) years, 54.6% were female, and 59% were illiterate. Nearly 25% of respondents reported at least one surgical condition within the past year, most commonly involving the face, head, and neck region (32%) and extremities (22%). Less than 20% of patients with a surgical condition reported seeing any healthcare provider, > 75% due to financial hardship.

Conclusions: The prevalence of surgical disease among Syrian refugees is very high with a fourth of refugees suffering from one or more surgical conditions over the past year. The surgical needs of this vulnerable population are largely unmet as financial reasons prevent patients from seeking care. Local and humanitarian efforts need to include increased access to surgical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00268-021-06242-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313117PMC
October 2021

Beirut Ammonium Nitrate Blast: Analysis, Review, and Recommendations.

Front Public Health 2021 4;9:657996. Epub 2021 Jun 4.

Office of Research and Development, Department of Veterans Affairs, Washington, DC, United States.

A massive chemical detonation occurred on August 4, 2020 in the Port of Beirut, Lebanon. An uncontrolled fire in an adjacent warehouse ignited ~2,750 tons of Ammonium Nitrate (AN), producing one of the most devastating blasts in recent history. The blast supersonic pressure and heat wave claimed the lives of 220 people and injured more than 6,500 instantaneously, with severe damage to the nearby dense residential and commercial areas. This review represents one of the in-depth reports to provide a detailed analysis of the Beirut blast and its health and environmental implications. It further reviews prior AN incidents and suggests actionable recommendations and strategies to optimize chemical safety measures, improve emergency preparedness, and mitigate the delayed clinical effects of blast and toxic gas exposures. These recommended actionable steps offer a starting point for government officials and policymakers to build frameworks, adopt regulations, and implement chemical safety protocols to ensure safe storage of hazardous materials as well as reorganizing healthcare system disaster preparedness to improve emergency preparedness in response to similar large-scale disasters and promote population safety. Future clinical efforts should involve detailed assessment of physical injuries sustained by blast victims, with systemic mitigation and possible treatment of late blast effects involving individuals, communities and the region at large.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpubh.2021.657996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8212863PMC
July 2021

Beirut explosion aftermath: lessons and guidelines.

Emerg Med J 2021 Dec 9;38(12):938-939. Epub 2021 Mar 9.

Department of Emergency Medicine, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Beirut, Lebanon.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/emermed-2020-210880DOI Listing
December 2021

Characterization of Traumatic Brain Injury Research in the Middle East and North Africa Region: A Systematic Review.

Neuroepidemiology 2021 Feb 10:1-12. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, Faculty of Medicine, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon,

Objectives: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a major health concern worldwide with a large impact in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region as a consequence of protracted wars and conflicts that adversely affect the general population. Currently, systematic TBI studies in the MENA region are lacking, nonetheless they are immensely needed to enhance trauma management and increase survival rates among TBI patients. This systematic review aims to characterize TBI in the MENA region to guide future policy choices and research efforts and inform tailored guidelines capable of improving TBI management and patient treatment and outcome. Furthermore, it will serve as a road map to evaluate and assess knowledge of trauma impact on regional health systems that can be adopted by health-care providers to raise awareness and improve trauma care.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive search strategy of several databases including MEDLINE/Ovid, PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, Google Scholar, and the grey literature in accordance with the PROSPERO systematic review protocol CRD42017058952. Abstracts were screened, and selected eligible studies were reviewed independently by 2 reviewers. We collected demographics information along with TBI characteristics, mortality rates, and regional distribution. Data were extracted using REDCap and checked for accuracy.

Results: The search strategy yielded 23,385 citations; 147 studies met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. Motor vehicle accident (MVA) was the leading cause of TBI (41%) in the MENA region, followed by the military- (15.6%) and fall- (8.8%) related TBI. Males predominantly suffer from TBI-related injuries (85%), with a high prevalence of MVA- and military-related TBI injuries. The TBI mortality rate was 12.9%. The leading causes of mortality were MVA (68%), military (20.5%), and assault (2.9%). The vast majority of reported TBI severity was mild (63.1%) compared to moderate (10.7%) and severe TBI (20.2%). Patients mainly underwent a Glasgow Coma Scale assessment (22.1%), followed by computed tomography scan (8.9%) and surgery (4.1%).

Conclusions: Despite its clinical, social, and economic burden, the evidence of TBI research in the MENA region is scarce. Further research and high-quality epidemiological studies are urgently needed to gain a deep understanding of the TBI burden in the region, facilitate the allocation of adequate resources, implement effective preventive and intervention strategies and advise on the TBI patient management as reflective on the TBI patterns and modes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000511554DOI Listing
February 2021

Child transport injuries and deaths in Lebanon: a multicentre retrospective study.

BMJ Open 2020 10 26;10(10):e037973. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Epidemiology and Population Health Department, Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Introduction: Road traffic injury (RTI) constitutes the leading cause of deaths and disabilities for individuals aged 5-29 years globally. Lebanon suffers from a high toll of transport mortality and morbidity, though accurate and reliable RTI data are limited. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and the characteristics of child transport injuries and deaths in Lebanon and to determine their outcomes and associated risk factors.

Methods: We conducted a multicentre retrospective study to analyse data on transport injuries and deaths for children aged 0-17 years over a 3-year period (2015-2017). Data were captured from multiple sources, including police reports and the emergency departments of 30 hospitals across the country . We performed logistic regression models to examine the effects and test the association of multiple simultaneous factors on the child injury outcome and severity.

Results: A total of 3,033 cases of child transport injuries and 237 fatalities were collected. The majority of the cases were males (73%) (mean (SD) age=11 (±5) years). Transport victims were Lebanese (66.5%) and Syrian refugees (27.9%). The most commonly reported factor contributing to child's RTI was a child riding in high-speed vehicles (25%) and the most affected body regions were upper and lower extremities (29.9%), followed by head injuries (26.1%). Pedestrians had higher odds of sustaining fatal injuries compared to four-wheel vehicle occupants (OR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.17 to 2.27). Older age groups of 6-14 years (OR=0.51; 95% CI: 0.79 to 0.69) and 15-17 years (OR=0.41; 95% CI: 0.30 to 0.61) had lower odds of dying from transport injuries compared to the younger age group of 0-5 years.

Conclusion: Child transport injury is a major public health problem in Lebanon. Findings from this study urge policy-makers and health professionals to implement evidence-based child transport safety policies and behaviour change programs to reduce child transport injuries and deaths.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-037973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7592305PMC
October 2020

Child school injury in Lebanon: A study to assess injury incidence, severity and risk factors.

PLoS One 2020 12;15(6):e0233465. Epub 2020 Jun 12.

BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit, BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Background: School-based injuries represent a sizeable portion of child injuries. This study investigated the rates of school-based injuries in Lebanon, examining injury mechanisms, outcomes and associated risk factors.

Methods: Data were prospectively collected by intern school nurses at 11 private schools for the 2018-2019 academic year. Descriptive and inferential analyses were performed. Chi-square comparisons were conducted to determine the significance of any differences in injury rates between boys and girls for each category of school.

Results: 4,619 injury cases were collected. The yearly rate for school injuries was 419.1 per 1,000 children for the year 2018-2019. Boys demonstrated a significantly higher injury rate for all mechanisms of injuries, with the exception of being injured while walking, injured in the gym/sports areas, and other areas outside the playground and classroom. Elementary school children had the highest rate of injuries, nearly 2.4 times higher than kindergarten, 2.8 times higher than middle school, and 14.5 times higher than high school. Injuries to the face, upper extremities, and lower extremities were nearly 3 times more common than injuries to other areas of the body. Bumps/hits and bruises were most common-almost 3 times more likely than all other injury types. Injuries were mainly minor or moderate in severity-severe injuries were about 10 times less likely. Most injuries were unintentional, with rates nearly 5 times higher than those with unclear intent and 12 times higher than intentional injuries.

Conclusions: School injuries represent a relatively common problem. Compliance with playground safety standards coupled with the implementation of injury prevention strategies and active supervision at schools can curtail child injuries and ensure a safe and injury-free school environment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0233465PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7292362PMC
August 2020

Analyzing Factors Associated with Fatal Road Crashes: A Machine Learning Approach.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 06 9;17(11). Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Faculty of Health Sciences, American University of Beirut, Beirut 1072020, Lebanon.

Road traffic injury accounts for a substantial human and economic burden globally. Understanding risk factors contributing to fatal injuries is of paramount importance. In this study, we proposed a model that adopts a hybrid ensemble machine learning classifier structured from sequential minimal optimization and decision trees to identify risk factors contributing to fatal road injuries. The model was constructed, trained, tested, and validated using the Lebanese Road Accidents Platform (LRAP) database of 8482 road crash incidents, with fatality occurrence as the outcome variable. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to examine the influence of multiple factors on fatality occurrence. Seven out of the nine selected independent variables were significantly associated with fatality occurrence, namely, crash type, injury severity, spatial cluster-ID, and crash time (hour). Evidence gained from the model data analysis will be adopted by policymakers and key stakeholders to gain insights into major contributing factors associated with fatal road crashes and to translate knowledge into safety programs and enhanced road policies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17114111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7312085PMC
June 2020

Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i96-i114. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Faculty of Health Sciences - Health Management and Policy, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries.

Methods: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

Findings: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505).

Interpretation: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571366PMC
October 2020

History of injury in a developing country: a scoping review of injury literature in Lebanon.

J Public Health (Oxf) 2021 04;43(1):e24-e44

BC Children's Hospital Research Institute, Vancouver, BC V6H3V4, Canada.

Background: Lebanon, an Eastern Mediterranean country, suffers a large burden of injury as a consequence of conflict and war, political instability, and the lack of policies and safety regulations. This article aims to systematically map and comprehensively describe the injury research literature in Lebanon and, to identify gaps for future research.

Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, Eric and SafetyLit, and the grey literature, including conference proceedings, theses and dissertations, government and media reports, were searched without any date or language limits. Data were extracted from 467 documents using REDCap.

Results: War-related injuries were the most prevalent type of injury in Lebanon, followed by homicide and other forms of violence. While existing literature targeted vulnerable and at-risk populations, the vast majority focused solely on reporting the prevalence of injuries and associated risk factors. There are considerable gaps in the literature dealing with the integration of preventive programs and interventions across all populations.

Conclusions: Lebanon, historically and currently, experiences a high number of injuries from many different external causes. To date, efforts have focused on reporting the prevalence of injuries and making recommendations, rather than implementing and evaluating interventions and programs to inform policies. Future injury related work should prioritize interventions and prevention programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdaa043DOI Listing
April 2021

Child and adolescent injury burden in the eastern mediterranean region: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease 1990-2017.

BMC Public Health 2020 Apr 3;20(1):433. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Child and adolescent injury is one of the leading causes of child death globally with a large proportion occurring in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs). Similarly, the Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) countries borne a heavy burden that largely impact child and adolescent safety and health in the region. We aim to assess child and adolescent injury morbidity and mortality and estimate its burden in the Eastern Mediterranean Region based on findings from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD), Injuries and Risk Factors study 2017.

Methods: Data from the Global Burden of Disease GBD 2017 were used to estimate injury mortality for children aged 0-19, Years of Life Lost (YLLs), Years lived with Disability (YLDs) and Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) by age and sex from 1990 to 2017.

Results: In 2017, an estimated 133,117 (95% UI 122,587-143,361) children died in EMR compared to 707,755 (95% UI 674401.6-738,166.6) globally. The highest rate of injury deaths was reported in Syria at 183.7 (95% UI 181.8-185.7) per 100,000 population. The leading cause of injury deaths was self-harm and interpersonal violence followed by transport injury. The primary cause of injury DALYs in EMR in 2017 was self-harm and interpersonal violence with a rate of 1272.95 (95% UI 1228.9 - 1319.2) almost 3-times the global rate.

Conclusion: Almost 19% of global child injury related deaths occur in the EMR. Concerted efforts should be integrated to inform policies and adopt injury preventive strategies to reduce injury burden and promote child and adolescent health and well-being in EMR countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-08523-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7118933PMC
April 2020

Pediatric Burns Among Refugee Communities in Lebanon: Evidence to Inform Policies and Programs.

J Burn Care Res 2019 10;40(6):769-775

Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, American University of Beirut Medical Center, Lebanon.

Burn-related injury is a global public health problem with significant rates of morbidity and mortality. The adverse effect of burn leads to substantial functional, psychological, and economic repercussions. Low- and middle-income countries, including Lebanon, carry a disproportionately greater burden of burn injuries. This study adopted a mixed method approach to explore burn-related injuries in a sample (n = 347) of refugee children settling in Lebanon. We reviewed 179 cases of patients records that met the criteria of a child aged 0 to 19 years and has sustained a burn due to living conditions. War-related burn injuries were excluded. The findings demonstrate that there is a significantly higher proportion of 0- to 4-year-olds with burn injuries (53.6%) compared with the older age groups. Scald burns, caused by boiling liquid, were the most common cause of burns (58.6%), followed by fire/open flame (12.8%) and heat contact (6.7%). Upper trunk and arm burns were significantly higher than other body parts (35.2%), females were among the potential at-risk group with due to boiling liquids caused by food preparation and serving. Fifteen to nineteen years showed a high proportion of fire/flame burn caused by labor accident. Qualitative analysis of case reports further confirmed our findings and emphasized the impact of low socioeconomic status, overcrowded living conditions and open floor cooking and heating on increasing risk of pediatric burns. Additional research is needed to increase understanding on risk factors pertaining to pediatric burns in the refugee community with a view to integrating appropriate preventive measures and informing evidence-based policies and programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jbcr/irz080DOI Listing
October 2019

Collaborative Visual Analytics: A Health Analytics Approach to Injury Prevention.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 09 12;14(9). Epub 2017 Sep 12.

The BC Injury Research and Prevention Unit, BC Children's Hospital, Vancouver, BC V6H 3V4, Canada.

: Accurate understanding of complex health data is critical in order to deal with wicked health problems and make timely decisions. Wicked problems refer to ill-structured and dynamic problems that combine multidimensional elements, which often preclude the conventional problem solving approach. This pilot study introduces visual analytics (VA) methods to multi-stakeholder decision-making sessions about child injury prevention; : Inspired by the Delphi method, we introduced a novel methodology-group analytics (GA). GA was pilot-tested to evaluate the impact of collaborative visual analytics on facilitating problem solving and supporting decision-making. We conducted two GA sessions. Collected data included stakeholders' observations, audio and video recordings, questionnaires, and follow up interviews. The GA sessions were analyzed using the Joint Activity Theory protocol analysis methods; : The GA methodology triggered the emergence of '' among stakeholders. This evolved throughout the sessions to enhance stakeholders' verbal and non-verbal communication, as well as coordination of joint activities and ultimately collaboration on problem solving and decision-making; : Understanding complex health data is necessary for informed decisions. Equally important, in this case, is the use of the group analytics methodology to achieve ' among diverse stakeholders about health data and their implications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5615593PMC
September 2017

The Canadian Atlas of Child and Youth Injury: Mobilizing Injury Surveillance Data to Launch a National Knowledge Translation Tool.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2017 08 30;14(9). Epub 2017 Aug 30.

School of Kinesiology & Health Science, Faculty of Health, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada.

Child and youth injury prevention research in Canada has lagged behind other Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development nations, despite existing surveillance systems and longitudinal data. A critical need to improve access to the available data, as well as need to tailor its display and interpretation, was identified by injury prevention stakeholders involved in research, policy, and practice. The Canadian Atlas of Child and Youth Injury Prevention ("the Atlas") was developed to address this need. Following a series of iterative consultation meetings and a pilot testing session, the Atlas was scaled up with national data. Two testing sessions were held to evaluate the tools. The Atlas is comprised of three main components: data, indicators, and visualizations. The accessibility of the dashboard is enhanced by customization of data visualizations and data outputs to suit the user's needs. Overall feedback indicated that the tools were easy to use, and that the interface was intuitive and visually appealing. The Canadian Atlas of Child and Youth Injury Prevention provides readily accessible information to injury prevention practitioners, policy makers and researchers, helping to chart pathways to success in improving the child and youth injury prevention system in Canada.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14090982DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5615519PMC
August 2017
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