Publications by authors named "Samantha McCavera"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A High-Throughput Electrophysiology Assay Identifies Inhibitors of the Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel Kir7.1.

J Biomol Screen 2015 Jul 5;20(6):739-47. Epub 2015 Feb 5.

MRC Technology, Center for Therapeutics Discovery, London, UK.

Kir7.1 is an inwardly rectifying potassium channel that has been implicated in controlling the resting membrane potential of the myometrium. Abnormal uterine activity in pregnancy plays an important role in postpartum hemorrhage, and novel therapies for this condition may lie in manipulation of membrane potential. This work presents an assay development and screening strategy for identifying novel inhibitors of Kir7.1. A cell-based automated patch-clamp electrophysiology assay was developed using the IonWorks Quattro (Molecular Devices, Sunnyvale, CA) system, and the iterative optimization is described. In total, 7087 compounds were tested, with a hit rate (>40% inhibition) of 3.09%. During screening, average Z' values of 0.63 ± 0.09 were observed. After chemistry triage, lead compounds were resynthesized and activity confirmed by IC50 determinations. The most potent compound identified (MRT00200769) gave rise to an IC50 of 1.3 µM at Kir7.1. Compounds were assessed for selectivity using the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir1.1 (ROMK) and hERG (human Ether-à-go-go Related Gene). Pharmacological characterization of known Kir7.1 inhibitors was also carried out and analogues of VU590 tested to assess selectivity at Kir7.1.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1087057115569156DOI Listing
July 2015

The inwardly rectifying K+ channel KIR7.1 controls uterine excitability throughout pregnancy.

EMBO Mol Med 2014 Sep;6(9):1161-74

Division of Reproductive Health, Clinical Sciences Research Laboratories, Warwick Medical School University of Warwick, Coventry, UK

Abnormal uterine activity in pregnancy causes a range of important clinical disorders, including preterm birth, dysfunctional labour and post-partum haemorrhage. Uterine contractile patterns are controlled by the generation of complex electrical signals at the myometrial smooth muscle plasma membrane. To identify novel targets to treat conditions associated with uterine dysfunction, we undertook a genome-wide screen of potassium channels that are enriched in myometrial smooth muscle. Computational modelling identified Kir7.1 as potentially important in regulating uterine excitability during pregnancy. We demonstrate Kir7.1 current hyper-polarizes uterine myocytes and promotes quiescence during gestation. Labour is associated with a decline, but not loss, of Kir7.1 expression. Knockdown of Kir7.1 by lentiviral expression of miRNA was sufficient to increase uterine contractile force and duration significantly. Conversely, overexpression of Kir7.1 inhibited uterine contractility. Finally, we demonstrate that the Kir7.1 inhibitor VU590 as well as novel derivative compounds induces profound, long-lasting contractions in mouse and human myometrium; the activity of these inhibitors exceeds that of other uterotonic drugs. We conclude Kir7.1 regulates the transition from quiescence to contractions in the pregnant uterus and may be a target for therapies to control uterine contractility.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15252/emmm.201403944DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4197863PMC
September 2014

Differential state-dependent modification of inactivation-deficient Nav1.6 sodium channels by the pyrethroid insecticides S-bioallethrin, tefluthrin and deltamethrin.

Neurotoxicology 2012 Jun 28;33(3):384-90. Epub 2012 Mar 28.

Insecticide Toxicology Laboratory, Department of Entomology, Cornell University, Geneva, NY 14456, USA.

Pyrethroid insecticides disrupt nerve function by modifying the gating kinetics of transitions between the conducting and nonconducting states of voltage-gated sodium channels. Pyrethroids modify rat Na(v)1.6+β1+β2 channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes in both the resting state and in one or more states that require channel activation by repeated depolarization. The state dependence of modification depends on the pyrethroid examined: deltamethrin modification requires repeated channel activation, tefluthrin modification is significantly enhanced by repeated channel activation, and S-bioallethrin modification is unaffected by repeated activation. Use-dependent modification by deltamethrin and tefluthrin implies that these compounds bind preferentially to open channels. We constructed the rat Na(v)1.6Q3 cDNA, which contained the IFM/QQQ mutation in the inactivation gate domain that prevents fast inactivation and results in a persistently open channel. We expressed Na(v)1.6Q3+β1+β2 sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and assessed the modification of open channels by pyrethroids by determining the effect of depolarizing pulse length on the normalized conductance of the pyrethroid-induced sodium tail current. Deltamethrin caused little modification of Na(v)1.6Q3 following short (10ms) depolarizations, but prolonged depolarizations (up to 150ms) caused a progressive increase in channel modification measured as an increase in the conductance of the pyrethroid-induced sodium tail current. Modification by tefluthrin was clearly detectable following short depolarizations and was increased by long depolarizations. By contrast modification by S-bioallethrin following short depolarizations was not altered by prolonged depolarization. These studies provide direct evidence for the preferential binding of deltamethrin and tefluthrin (but not S-bioallethrin) to Na(v)1.6Q3 channels in the open state and imply that the pyrethroid receptor of resting and open channels occupies different conformations that exhibit distinct structure-activity relationships.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2012.03.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3574822PMC
June 2012

An ivermectin-sensitive glutamate-gated chloride channel from the parasitic nematode Haemonchus contortus.

Mol Pharmacol 2009 Jun 31;75(6):1347-55. Epub 2009 Mar 31.

Dept of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Bath, UK.

Nematode glutamate-gated chloride channels are targets of the macrocyclic lactones, the most important group of anthelmintics available. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, channels formed by the GluClalpha3B subunit from the parasite Haemonchus contortus were more sensitive to l-glutamate (EC(50) = 27.6 +/- 2.7 microM) than those formed by the homologous subunit from Caenorhabditis elegans (EC(50) = 2.2 +/- 0.12 mM). Ibotenate was a partial agonist (EC(50) = 87.7 +/- 3.5 microM). The H. contortus channels responded to low concentrations of ivermectin (estimated EC(50) = approximately 0.1 +/- 1.0 nM), opening slowly and irreversibly in a highly cooperative manner: the rate of channel opening was concentration-dependent. Responses to glutamate and ivermectin were inhibited by picrotoxinin and fipronil. Mutating an N-terminal domain amino acid, leucine 256, to phenylalanine increased the EC(50) for l-glutamate to 92.2 +/- 3.5 microM, and reduced the Hill number from 1.89 +/- 0.35 to 1.09 +/- 0.16. It increased the K(d) for radiolabeled ivermectin binding from 0.35 +/- 0.1 to 2.26 +/- 0.78 nM. Two other mutations (E114G and V235A) had no effect on l-glutamate activation or ivermectin binding: one (T300S) produced no detectable channel activity, but ivermectin binding was similar to wild-type. The substitution of any aromatic amino acid for Leu256 had similar effects in the radioligand binding assay. Molecular modeling studies suggested that the GluCl subunits have a fold similar to that of other Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channels and that amino acid 256 was unlikely to play a direct role in ligand binding but may be involved in mediating the allosteric properties of the receptor.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/mol.108.053363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2684884PMC
June 2009
-->