Publications by authors named "Samantha M Paniagua"

17 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Cardiovascular Biomarkers of Obesity and Overlap With Cardiometabolic Dysfunction.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 Jul 3;10(14):e020215. Epub 2021 Jul 3.

Cardiology Division Department of Medicine Massachusetts General Hospital Boston MA.

Background Obesity may be associated with a range of cardiometabolic manifestations. We hypothesized that proteomic profiling may provide insights into the biological pathways that contribute to various obesity-associated cardiometabolic traits. We sought to identify proteomic signatures of obesity and examine overlap with related cardiometabolic traits, including abdominal adiposity, insulin resistance, and adipose depots. Methods and Results We measured 71 circulating cardiovascular disease protein biomarkers in 6981 participants (54% women; mean age, 49 years). We examined the associations of obesity, computed tomography measures of adiposity, cardiometabolic traits, and incident metabolic syndrome with biomarkers using multivariable regression models. Of the 71 biomarkers examined, 45 were significantly associated with obesity, of which 32 were positively associated and 13 were negatively associated with obesity (false discovery rate <0.05 for all). There was significant overlap of biomarker profiles of obesity and cardiometabolic traits, but 23 biomarkers, including melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF15), and lipoprotein(a) (LPA) were unique to metabolic traits only. Using hierarchical clustering, we found that the protein biomarkers clustered along 3 main trait axes: adipose, metabolic, and lipid traits. In longitudinal analyses, 6 biomarkers were significantly associated with incident metabolic syndrome: apolipoprotein B (apoB), insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), plasma kallikrein (KLKB1), complement C2 (C2), fibrinogen (FBN), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP); false discovery rate <0.05 for all. Conclusions We found that the proteomic architecture of obesity overlaps considerably with associated cardiometabolic traits, implying shared pathways. Despite overlap, hierarchical clustering of proteomic profiles identified 3 distinct clusters of cardiometabolic traits: adipose, metabolic, and lipid. Further exploration of these novel protein targets and associated pathways may provide insight into the mechanisms responsible for the progression from obesity to cardiometabolic disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.120.020215DOI Listing
July 2021

Sex differences in inflammatory markers in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 infection: Insights from the MGH COVID-19 patient registry.

PLoS One 2021 28;16(4):e0250774. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

From the Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States of America.

Background: Men are at higher risk for serious complications related to COVID-19 infection than women. More robust immune activation in women has been proposed to contribute to decreased disease severity, although systemic inflammation has been associated with worse outcomes in COVID-19 infection. Whether systemic inflammation contributes to sex differences in COVID-19 infection is not known.

Study Design And Methods: We examined sex differences in inflammatory markers among 453 men (mean age 61) and 328 women (mean age 62) hospitalized with COVID-19 infection at the Massachusetts General Hospital from March 8 to April 27, 2020. Multivariable linear regression models were used to examine the association of sex with initial and peak inflammatory markers. Exploratory analyses examined the association of sex and inflammatory markers with 28-day clinical outcomes using multivariable logistic regression.

Results: Initial and peak CRP were higher in men compared with women after adjustment for baseline differences (initial CRP: ß 0.29, SE 0.07, p = 0.0001; peak CRP: ß 0.31, SE 0.07, p<0.0001) with similar findings for IL-6, PCT, and ferritin (p<0.05 for all). Men had greater than 1.5-greater odds of dying compared with women (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.04-2.80, p = 0.03). Sex modified the association of peak CRP with both death and ICU admission, with stronger associations observed in men compared with women (death: OR 9.19, 95% CI 4.29-19.7, p <0.0001 in men vs OR 2.81, 95% CI 1.52-5.18, p = 0.009 in women, Pinteraction = 0.02).

Conclusions: In a sample of 781 men and women hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, men exhibited more robust inflammatory activation as evidenced by higher initial and peak inflammatory markers, as well as worse clinical outcomes. Better understanding of sex differences in immune responses to COVID-19 infection may shed light on the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250774PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8081177PMC
May 2021

Cardiovascular Risk Factors are Associated with Future Cancer.

JACC CardioOncol 2021 Mar 16;3(1):48-58. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.

Background: The extent to which co-occurrence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer is due to shared risk factors or other mechanisms is unknown.

Objectives: We investigated the association of standard CVD risk factors, CVD biomarkers, preexisting CVD, and ideal CV health metrics with the development of future cancer.

Methods: We prospectively followed Framingham Heart Study and PREVEND participants free of cancer at baseline, and ascertained histology-proven cancer. We studied the association of baseline CV risk factors, 10-year atherosclerotic CVD risk score, established CVD biomarkers, prevalent CVD, and AHA Life's Simple 7 CV health score with incident cancer using multivariable Cox models. Analyses of interim CVD events with incident cancer used time-dependent covariates.

Results: Among 20,305 participants (mean age 50 ± 14 years, 54% women), 2,548 incident cancer cases occurred over a median follow-up of 15.0 (13.3-15.0) surveillance years. Traditional CVD risk factors including age, sex, and smoking status were independently associated with cancer (P <0.001 for all). Estimated 10-year atherosclerotic CVD risk was also associated with future cancer (HR 1.16 per 5% increase in risk, 95% CI 1.14-1.17, P<0.001). We found that natriuretic peptides (NP) (tertile 3 vs 1: HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.03-1.91, p=0.035) was associated with incident cancer, but not high sensitivity troponin (hs-cTn) (p=0.47). Prevalent CVD and the development of interim CV events were not associated with higher risk of subsequent cancer. However, ideal CV health was associated with lower future cancer risk (HR 0.95 per 1-point increase in AHA health score, 95% CI 0.92-0.99, p=0.009).

Conclusions: CVD risk as captured by traditional CVD risk factors, 10-year atherosclerotic CVD risk score, and NP concentrations are associated with increased risk of future cancer. Conversely, a heart healthy lifestyle is associated with a reduced risk of future cancer. Our data suggest that the association between CVD and future cancer is attributable to shared risk factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaccao.2020.12.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8045786PMC
March 2021

Age dependent associations of risk factors with heart failure: pooled population based cohort study.

BMJ 2021 03 23;372:n461. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Cardiovascular Research Center, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA

Objective: To assess age differences in risk factors for incident heart failure in the general population.

Design: Pooled population based cohort study.

Setting: Framingham Heart Study, Prevention of Renal and Vascular End-stage Disease Study, and Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

Participants: 24 675 participants without a history of heart failure stratified by age into young (<55 years; n=11 599), middle aged (55-64 years; n=5587), old (65-74 years; n=5190), and elderly (≥75 years; n=2299) individuals.

Main Outcome Measure: Incident heart failure.

Results: Over a median follow-up of 12.7 years, 138/11 599 (1%), 293/5587 (5%), 538/5190 (10%), and 412/2299 (18%) of young, middle aged, old, and elderly participants, respectively, developed heart failure. In young participants, 32% (n=44) of heart failure cases were classified as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction compared with 43% (n=179) in elderly participants. Risk factors including hypertension, diabetes, current smoking history, and previous myocardial infarction conferred greater relative risk in younger compared with older participants (P for interaction <0.05 for all). For example, hypertension was associated with a threefold increase in risk of future heart failure in young participants (hazard ratio 3.02, 95% confidence interval 2.10 to 4.34; P<0.001) compared with a 1.4-fold risk in elderly participants (1.43, 1.13 to 1.81; P=0.003). The absolute risk for developing heart failure was lower in younger than in older participants with and without risk factors. Importantly, known risk factors explained a greater proportion of overall population attributable risk for heart failure in young participants (75% 53% in elderly participants), with better model performance (C index 0.79 0.64). Similarly, the population attributable risks of obesity (21% 13%), hypertension (35% 23%), diabetes (14% 7%), and current smoking (32% 1%) were higher in young compared with elderly participants.

Conclusions: Despite a lower incidence and absolute risk of heart failure among younger compared with older people, the stronger association and greater attributable risk of modifiable risk factors among young participants highlight the importance of preventive efforts across the adult life course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n461DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986583PMC
March 2021

HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis and Buprenorphine at a Drug Detoxification Center During the Opioid Epidemic: Opportunities and Challenges.

AIDS Behav 2021 Aug 22;25(8):2591-2598. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Section of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, 801 Massachusetts Ave., Crosstown Center, 2nd Floor, Boston, MA, 02118, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and buprenorphine decrease HIV acquisition. Between November, 2016 and July, 2017, we surveyed persons (N = 200) at a drug detoxification center to assess their interest in PrEP and in buprenorphine, and to examine factors associated with such interests. Over the previous 6 months, 58% (117/200) injected drugs, 87% (173/200) used opioids, 50% (85/171) had condomless sex. Only 22% (26/117) of persons who injected drugs were aware of PrEP, yet 74% (86/116) and 72% (84/116) were interested in oral or injectable PrEP, respectively. Thirty-eight percent (47/125) of persons not receiving buprenorphine or methadone expressed interest in buprenorphine. After multivariable adjustment, Latinx ethnicity was associated with interest in PrEP (aOR 3.80; 95% CI 1.37-10.53), while male gender (aOR 2.76; 95% CI 1.21-6.34) was associated with interest in buprenorphine. Opportunities exist to implement PrEP and buprenorphine within drug detoxification centers.Clinical trial registration NCT02869776. Clinicaltrials.gov https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02869776?term=Sabrina+Assoumou&cond=HIV+HCV&rank=1 .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10461-021-03220-0DOI Listing
August 2021

Galectin-3 Inhibition With Modified Citrus Pectin in Hypertension.

JACC Basic Transl Sci 2021 Jan 6;6(1):12-21. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

We investigated the effect of galectin-3 (Gal-3) inhibition with modified citrus pectin on markers of collagen metabolism in a proof-of-concept randomized placebo-controlled trial of participants with elevated Gal-3 levels and hypertension. Although higher Gal-3 levels were associated with female sex, diabetes, and reduced glomerular filtration rate in cross-sectional analyses, treatment with modified citrus pectin did not change collagen markers. The effect of Gal-3 inhibition among individuals with heart failure warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacbts.2020.10.006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838053PMC
January 2021

The role of obesity in inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients.

Obes Res Clin Pract 2021 Jan-Feb;15(1):96-99. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

The Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Division of Cardiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, United States. Electronic address:

Obesity has emerged as a significant risk factor for severe COVID-19 worldwide. Given both COVID-19 infection and obesity have been associated with increased systemic inflammation, we evaluated inflammatory markers in obese and non-obese individuals hospitalized for COVID-19 at Massachusetts General Hospital. We hypothesized that obese patients would have a more exuberant inflammatory response as evidenced by higher initial and peak inflammatory markers along with worse clinical outcomes. Of the 781 patients, 349 were obese (45%). Obese individuals had higher initial and peak levels of CRP and ESR as well as higher peak d-dimer (P < 0.01 for all) in comparison to non-obese individuals, while. IL-6 and ferritin were similar. In addition, obese individuals had a higher odds of requiring vasopressor use (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.00-2.38, P = 0.05), developing hypoxemic respiratory failure (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.04-2.40, P = 0.03) and death (OR 2.20, 95% CI 1.31-3.70, P = 0.003) within 28 days of presentation to care. Finally, higher baseline levels of CRP and D-dimer were associated with worse clinical outcomes even after adjustment for BMI. Our findings suggest greater disease severity in obese individuals is characterized by more exuberant inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.orcp.2020.12.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7833898PMC
February 2021

Association of Cognitive Function and Retinal Neural and Vascular Structure in Type 1 Diabetes.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2021 Mar;106(4):1139-1149

Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Context: Cognitive dysfunction is a growing and understudied public health issue in the aging type 1 diabetic population and is difficult and time-consuming to diagnose. Studies in long duration type 1 diabetes have reported the presence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy was associated with cognitive dysfunction.

Objective: This study assessed whether structural and vascular abnormalities of the retina, representing an extension of the central nervous system, are associated with cognitive impairment and other complications of type 1 diabetes.

Methods: An observational cross-sectional study of individuals with 50 or more years of type 1 diabetes (Joslin Medalist Study) was conducted at a university hospital in the United States. The study included 129 participants with complete cognitive testing. Validated cognitive testing measures included psychomotor speed, and immediate, and delayed memory. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA) were performed to obtain neural retinal layer thicknesses and vascular density for superficial (SCP) and deep retinal capillary plexus (DCP). Multivariable modeling was adjusted for potential confounders associated with outcomes in unadjusted analyses.

Results: Decreased vessel density of the SCP and DCP was associated with worse delayed memory (DCP: P = .002) and dominant hand psychomotor speed (SCP: P = .01). Thinning of the retinal outer nuclear layer was associated with worse psychomotor speed both in nondominant and dominant hands (P = .01 and P = .05, respectively). Outer plexiform layer thickness was associated with delayed memory (P = .04).

Conclusion: These findings suggest that noninvasive retinal imaging using OCT and OCTA may assist in estimating the risks for cognitive dysfunction in people with type 1 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/clinem/dgaa921DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7993575PMC
March 2021

Sex-Specific Associations of Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Biomarkers With Incident Heart Failure.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2020 09;76(12):1455-1465

Department of Cardiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Whether cardiovascular (CV) disease risk factors and biomarkers associate differentially with heart failure (HF) risk in men and women is unclear.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate sex-specific associations of CV risk factors and biomarkers with incident HF.

Methods: The analysis was performed using data from 4 community-based cohorts with 12.5 years of follow-up. Participants (recruited between 1989 and 2002) were free of HF at baseline. Biomarker measurements included natriuretic peptides, cardiac troponins, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, D-dimer, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein, sST2, galectin-3, cystatin-C, and urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio.

Results: Among 22,756 participants (mean age 60 ± 13 years, 53% women), HF occurred in 2,095 participants (47% women). Age, smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, body mass index, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, left ventricular hypertrophy, and left bundle branch block were strongly associated with HF in both sexes (p < 0.001), and the combined clinical model had good discrimination in men (C-statistic = 0.80) and in women (C-statistic = 0.83). The majority of biomarkers were strongly and similarly associated with HF in both sexes. The clinical model improved modestly after adding natriuretic peptides in men (ΔC-statistic = 0.006; likelihood ratio chi-square = 146; p < 0.001), and after adding cardiac troponins in women (ΔC-statistic = 0.003; likelihood ratio chi-square = 73; p < 0.001).

Conclusions: CV risk factors are strongly and similarly associated with incident HF in both sexes, highlighting the similar importance of risk factor control in reducing HF risk in the community. There are subtle sex-related differences in the predictive value of individual biomarkers, but the overall improvement in HF risk estimation when included in a clinical HF risk prediction model is limited in both sexes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2020.07.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7493711PMC
September 2020

Rapid Versus Laboratory-Based Testing for HIV and Hepatitis C at a Drug Detoxification Treatment Center: A Randomized Trial.

J Infect Dis 2020 09;222(Suppl 5):S376-S383

Division of Infectious Diseases, Department of Medicine, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island, USA.

Background: A health department survey revealed nearly half employ laboratory-based HIV and HCV testing (LBT) over rapid testing (RT) in nonhospital settings such as drug detoxification centers. LBT has higher sensitivity for acute HIV infection compared to RT but LBT is not point of care and may result in fewer diagnoses due to loss to follow-up before result delivery.

Methods: We conducted a randomized trial comparing real-world case notification of RT (Orasure) vs LBT (HIV Combo Ag/Ab EIA, HCV EIA) for HIV and HCV at a drug detoxification center. Primary outcome was receipt of test results within 2 weeks.

Results: Among 341 individuals screened (11/2016-7/2017), 200 met inclusion criteria; 58% injected drugs and 31% shared needles in the previous 6 months. Of the 200 randomized, 98 received RT and 102 LBT. Among all participants, 0.5% were positive for HIV and 48% for HCV; 96% received test results in the RT arm and 42% in the LBT arm (odds ratio, 28.72; 95% confidence interval, 10.27-80.31). Real-world case notification was 95% and 93% for HIV and HCV RT, respectively, compared to 42% for HIV and HCV LBT.

Conclusions: RT has higher real-world case notification than LBT at drug detoxification centers.Clinical trials registration: NCT02869776.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiaa162DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7566618PMC
September 2020

Sex Differences in Circulating Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease.

J Am Coll Cardiol 2019 09;74(12):1543-1553

Cardiology Division, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Cardiovascular Research Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Background: Differences in proteomic profiles between men and women may provide insights into the biological pathways that contribute to known sex differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD).

Objectives: This study sought to investigate sex differences in circulating biomarkers representative of biological pathways implicated in the development of CVD among Framingham Heart Study participants.

Methods: The authors measured 71 circulating CVD protein biomarkers in 7,184 participants (54% women, mean age 49 years). Multivariable models were used to evaluate the associations of sex, menopause, and hormone status with biomarkers. Cox models were used to examine whether sex modified the association of biomarkers with incident CVD.

Results: Of 71 biomarkers examined, 61 (86%) differed significantly between men and women, of which 37 were higher in women (including adipokines and inflammatory markers such as leptin and C-reactive protein), and 24 were higher in men (including fibrosis and platelet markers such as MMP-8 (matrix metalloproteinase-8) and TIMP-1 (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1); false discovery rate q < 0.05 for all). Sex differences in biomarker profiles were most pronounced between pre-menopausal women versus men, with attenuated sex differences among post-menopausal women not taking hormone replacement therapy. Sex modified the association of specific biomarkers with incident CVD, including CD14 and apolipoprotein B (p <0.05 for all).

Conclusions: In a predominantly Caucasian population, the authors identified widespread sex differences in circulating biomarkers that reflect distinct pathways implicated in CVD, including inflammation, adiposity, fibrosis, and platelet homeostasis. Menopause and hormone status accounted for some, but not all, of the observed sex differences. Further investigation into factors underlying sex-based differences may provide mechanistic insight into CVD development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jacc.2019.06.077DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6756178PMC
September 2019

Retinol binding protein 3 is increased in the retina of patients with diabetes resistant to diabetic retinopathy.

Sci Transl Med 2019 07;11(499)

Research Division, Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA.

The Joslin Medalist Study characterized people affected with type 1 diabetes for 50 years or longer. More than 35% of these individuals exhibit no to mild diabetic retinopathy (DR), independent of glycemic control, suggesting the presence of endogenous protective factors against DR in a subpopulation of patients. Proteomic analysis of retina and vitreous identified retinol binding protein 3 (RBP3), a retinol transport protein secreted mainly by the photoreceptors, as elevated in Medalist patients protected from advanced DR. Mass spectrometry and protein expression analysis identified an inverse association between vitreous RBP3 concentration and DR severity. Intravitreal injection and photoreceptor-specific overexpression of RBP3 in rodents inhibited the detrimental effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Mechanistically, our results showed that recombinant RBP3 exerted the therapeutic effects by binding and inhibiting VEGF receptor tyrosine phosphorylation. In addition, by binding to glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and decreasing glucose uptake, RBP3 blocked the detrimental effects of hyperglycemia in inducing inflammatory cytokines in retinal endothelial and Müller cells. Elevated expression of photoreceptor-secreted RBP3 may have a role in protection against the progression of DR due to hyperglycemia by inhibiting glucose uptake via GLUT1 and decreasing the expression of inflammatory cytokines and VEGF.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aau6627DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7132633PMC
July 2019

Characterization of Glycolytic Enzymes and Pyruvate Kinase M2 in Type 1 and 2 Diabetic Nephropathy.

Diabetes Care 2019 07 10;42(7):1263-1273. Epub 2019 May 10.

Joslin Diabetes Center, Boston, MA

Objective: Elevated glycolytic enzymes in renal glomeruli correlated with preservation of renal function in the Medalist Study, individuals with ≥50 years of type 1 diabetes. Specifically, pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) activation protected insulin-deficient diabetic mice from hyperglycemia-induced glomerular pathology. This study aims to extend these findings in a separate cohort of individuals with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and discover new circulatory biomarkers for renal protection through proteomics and metabolomics of Medalists' plasma. We hypothesize that increased glycolytic flux and improved mitochondrial biogenesis will halt the progression of diabetic nephropathy.

Research Design And Methods: Immunoblots analyzed selected glycolytic and mitochondrial enzymes in postmortem glomeruli of non-Medalists with type 1 diabetes ( = 15), type 2 diabetes ( = 19), and no diabetes ( = 5). Plasma proteomic (SOMAscan) ( = 180) and metabolomic screens ( = 214) of Medalists with and without stage 3b chronic kidney disease (CKD) were conducted and significant markers validated by ELISA.

Results: Glycolytic (PKM1, PKM2, and ENO1) and mitochondrial (MTCO2) enzymes were significantly elevated in glomeruli of CKD- versus CKD+ individuals with type 2 diabetes. Medalists' plasma PKM2 correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate ( = 0.077; = 0.0002). Several glucose and mitochondrial enzymes in circulation were upregulated with corresponding downregulation of toxic metabolites in CKD-protected Medalists. Amyloid precursor protein was also significantly upregulated, tumor necrosis factor receptors downregulated, and both confirmed by ELISA.

Conclusions: Elevation of enzymes involved in the metabolism of intracellular free glucose and its metabolites in renal glomeruli is connected to preserving kidney function in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The renal profile of elevated glycolytic enzymes and reduced toxic glucose metabolites is reflected in the circulation, supporting their use as biomarkers for endogenous renal protective factors in people with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2337/dc18-2585DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6609957PMC
July 2019

Characterization of periodontitis in people with type 1 diabetes of 50 years or longer duration.

J Periodontol 2019 06 13;90(6):565-575. Epub 2019 May 13.

Section of Vascular Cell Biology, Joslin Diabetes Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Background: Periodontitis is more common and severe in people with diabetes than the general population. We have reported in the Joslin Medalist Study that people with type 1 diabetes of ≥50 years (Medalists) may have endogenous protective factors against diabetic nephropathy and retinopathy.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of periodontitis according to the Centers for Disease Control/American Academy of Periodontology classification in a subset (n = 170, mean age = 64.6 ± 6.9 years) of the Medalist cohort, and its associations to various criteria of periodontitis and diabetic complications were assessed.

Results: The prevalence of severe periodontitis in Medalists was only 13.5% which was lower than reported levels in diabetic patients of similar ages. Periodontal parameters, including bleeding on probing, plaque index, gingival index, and demographic traits, including male sex, chronological age, and age at diagnosis were significantly associated with severity of periodontitis, which did not associate with diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), body mass index, and lipid profiles. Random serum C-peptide levels inversely associated with severity of periodontitis (P = 0.03), lower probing depth (P = 0.0002), and clinical attachment loss (P = 0.03). Prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and systemic inflammatory markers, plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), and serum immunoglobulin G titer against Porphyromonas gingivalis positively associated with severity of periodontitis (P = 0.002 and 0.02, respectively). Antibody titer to P. gingivalis correlated positively and significantly with CVD, serum IL-6, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein.

Conclusions: Some Medalists could be protected from severe periodontitis even with hyperglycemia. Endogenous protective factors for periodontitis could possibly be related to residual insulin production and lower levels of chronic inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JPER.18-0735DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7087383PMC
June 2019

Quality of life among women diagnosed with breast Cancer: A randomized waitlist controlled trial of commercially available mobile app-delivered mindfulness training.

Psychooncology 2018 08 1;27(8):2023-2030. Epub 2018 Jun 1.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA.

Objective: The primary objective was to evaluate the efficacy of commercially available mobile app-delivered mindfulness training (AMT), compared with waitlist control (WC), on quality of life (QOL) among women diagnosed with breast cancer. The secondary outcome was dispositional mindfulness. Enrollment, app utilization, and study completion are reported as feasibility objectives.

Methods: Women diagnosed with breast cancer ≤5 years (n = 112) were randomized to AMT (n = 57) or WC (n = 55), over 8 weeks, with 4 weeks of follow-up. We conducted linear mixed effects models to examine group by observation interactions on QOL and dispositional mindfulness at baseline, during intervention (5-weeks), post-intervention (9-weeks), and follow-up (12-weeks post-baseline).

Results: Participants assigned to AMT reported higher QOL, compared with those assigned to WC, from baseline through follow-up t(258.40) = 3.09, P < 0.01, 95% CI [2.71, 11.90]. Participants assigned to AMT also reported higher dispositional mindfulness, compared with those assigned to WC, from baseline through follow-up t(268.44) = 2.04, P = 0.04, 95% CI [0.01, 0.57]. App utilization data was obtained from 34 participants. Fewer participants assigned to AMT completed all study assessments, compared with participants assigned to WC, (χ2  = 7.07, P = 0.008).

Conclusions: Findings suggest commercially available AMT may proffer some benefit to women seeking to enhance their QOL following breast cancer diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pon.4764DOI Listing
August 2018

The relationship between self-compassion and the risk for substance use disorder.

Drug Alcohol Depend 2018 02 8;183:78-81. Epub 2017 Dec 8.

University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio, School of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX, 78229, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: This study explored the relationship between substance use disorder risk and self-compassion and posits a model for how the two are related through the mitigation of suffering.

Method: Study participants were recruited using social media to complete an online survey that included a basic socio-demographic survey and two validated instruments, the Self-Compassion Survey and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Alcohol Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST), which screens for substance use disorder (SUD) risk. Established cut scores for ASSIST were used to divide participants into low, moderate and high-risk groups.

Results: Participants (n=477) were 31 years old on average, almost evenly split by gender, mostly non-Hispanic white, slightly more likely to be single and to hold an Associate's degree or higher. Overall, 89% of participants reported using drugs and/or alcohol in their lifetime. SUD risk was distributed between low risk (52%), moderate risk (37%) and a smaller percentage of high risk (11%). Self-compassion was inversely related to SUD risk. The low risk group had a higher mean self-compassion score (M=2.86, SD=0.75) than the people who were high risk (M=2.25, SD=0.61) (t(298)=5.58 p<0.0001). Bivariate Pearson correlations showed strong associations between high risk and all self-compassion subscales, as well as low risk and five of the subscales.

Conclusions: This study suggests SUD risk has an inverse relationship to self-compassion. Raising self-compassion may be a useful addition to substance use disorder prevention and treatment interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.10.026DOI Listing
February 2018
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