Publications by authors named "Samantha L Strickland"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Association of ABI3 and PLCG2 missense variants with disease risk and neuropathology in Lewy body disease and progressive supranuclear palsy.

Acta Neuropathol Commun 2020 10 22;8(1):172. Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL, 32224, USA.

Missense variants ABI3_rs616338-T and PLCG2_rs72824905-G were previously associated with elevated or reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), respectively. Despite reports of associations with other neurodegenerative diseases, there are few studies of these variants in purely neuropathologically diagnosed cohorts. Further, the effect of these mutations on neurodegenerative disease pathologies is unknown. In this study, we tested the effects of ABI3_rs616338-T and PLCG2_rs72824905-G on disease risk in autopsy cohorts comprised of 973 patients diagnosed neuropathologically with Lewy body disease (LBD-NP) and 1040 with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), compared to 3351 controls. LBD-NP patients were further categorized as high, intermediate and low likelihood of clinical dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB-CL) based on DLB Consortium criteria. We also tested for association with both Braak neurofibrillary tau tangle (n = 2008, n = 1037, n = 971) and Thal phase amyloid plaque scores (n = 1786, n = 1018, n = 768). Additionally, 841 PSP patients had quantitative tau neuropathology measures that were assessed for genetic associations. There was no statistically significant association with disease risk for either LBD-NP or PSP in our study. LBD intermediate category disease risk was significantly associated with ABI3_rs616338-T (OR = 2.65, 95% CI 1.46-4.83, p = 0.001). PLCG2_rs72824905-G was associated with lower Braak stage (ß = - 0.822, 95% CI - 1.439 to - 0.204, p = 0.009). This effect was more pronounced in the PSP (ß = - 0.995, 95% CI - 1.773 to - 0.218, p = 0.012) than LBD-NP patients (ß = - 0.292, 95% CI - 1.283 to 0.698, p = 0.563). PLCG2_rs72824905-G also showed association with reduced quantitative tau pathology for each lesion type and overall tau burden in PSP (ß = - 0.638, 95% CI - 1.139 to - 0.136, p = 0.013). These findings support a role for PLCG2_rs72824905-G in suppressing tau neuropathology. ABI3_rs616338-T may influence disease risk specifically in the LBD-NP intermediate category comprised of patients with diffuse neocortical or limbic LB, concurrently with moderate or high AD neuropathology, respectively. Our study provides a potential mechanism of action for the missense PLCG2 variant and suggests a differential disease risk effect for ABI3 in a distinct LBD-NP neuropathologic category.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40478-020-01050-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7579984PMC
October 2020

MAPT haplotype-stratified GWAS reveals differential association for AD risk variants.

Alzheimers Dement 2020 07 13;16(7):983-1002. Epub 2020 May 13.

Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, Florida, USA.

Introduction: MAPT H1 haplotype is implicated as a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Methods: Using Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium (ADGC) genome-wide association study (GWAS) data (n = 18,841), we conducted a MAPT H1/H2 haplotype-stratified association to discover MAPT haplotype-specific AD risk loci.

Results: We identified 11 loci-5 in H2-non-carriers and 6 in H2-carriers-although none of the MAPT haplotype-specific associations achieved genome-wide significance. The most significant H2 non-carrier-specific association was with a NECTIN2 intronic (P = 1.33E-07) variant, and that for H2 carriers was near NKX6-1 (P = 1.99E-06). The GABRG2 locus had the strongest epistasis with MAPT H1/H2 variant rs8070723 (P = 3.91E-06). Eight of the 12 genes at these loci had transcriptome-wide significant differential expression in AD versus control temporal cortex (q < 0.05). Six genes were members of the brain transcriptional co-expression network implicated in "synaptic transmission" (P = 9.85E-59), which is also enriched for neuronal genes (P = 1.0E-164), including MAPT.

Discussion: This stratified GWAS identified loci that may confer AD risk in a MAPT haplotype-specific manner. This approach may preferentially enrich for neuronal genes implicated in synaptic transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/alz.12099DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7983911PMC
July 2020

Phyloanatomic characterization of the distinct T cell and monocyte contributions to the peripheral blood HIV population within the host.

Virus Evol 2020 Jan 27;6(1):veaa005. Epub 2020 Apr 27.

Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32601, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a rapidly evolving virus, allowing its genetic sequence to act as a fingerprint for epidemiological processes among, as well as within, individual infected hosts. Though primarily infecting the CD4+ T-cell population, HIV can also be found in monocytes, an immune cell population that differs in several aspects from the canonical T-cell viral target. Using single genome viral sequencing and statistical phylogenetic inference, we investigated the viral RNA diversity and relative contribution of each of these immune cell types to the viral population within the peripheral blood. Results provide evidence of an increased prevalence of circulating monocytes harboring virus in individuals with high viral load in the absence of suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Bayesian phyloanatomic analysis of three of these individuals demonstrated a measurable role for these cells, but not the circulating T-cell population, as a source of cell-free virus in the plasma, supporting the hypothesis that these cells can act as an additional conduit of virus spread.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ve/veaa005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7185683PMC
January 2020

Correction to: A nonsynonymous mutation in PLCG2 reduces the risk of Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia, and increases the likelihood of longevity.

Authors:
Sven J van der Lee Olivia J Conway Iris Jansen Minerva M Carrasquillo Luca Kleineidam Erik van den Akker Isabel Hernández Kristel R van Eijk Najada Stringa Jason A Chen Anna Zettergren Till F M Andlauer Monica Diez-Fairen Javier Simon-Sanchez Alberto Lleó Henrik Zetterberg Marianne Nygaard Cornelis Blauwendraat Jeanne E Savage Jonas Mengel-From Sonia Moreno-Grau Michael Wagner Juan Fortea Michael J Keogh Kaj Blennow Ingmar Skoog Manuel A Friese Olga Pletnikova Miren Zulaica Carmen Lage Itziar de Rojas Steffi Riedel-Heller Ignacio Illán-Gala Wei Wei Bernard Jeune Adelina Orellana Florian Then Bergh Xue Wang Marc Hulsman Nina Beker Niccolo Tesi Christopher M Morris Begoña Indakoetxea Lyduine E Collij Martin Scherer Estrella Morenas-Rodríguez James W Ironside Bart N M van Berckel Daniel Alcolea Heinz Wiendl Samantha L Strickland Pau Pastor Eloy Rodríguez Rodríguez Bradley F Boeve Ronald C Petersen Tanis J Ferman Jay A van Gerpen Marcel J T Reinders Ryan J Uitti Lluís Tárraga Wolfgang Maier Oriol Dols-Icardo Amit Kawalia Maria Carolina Dalmasso Mercè Boada Uwe K Zettl Natasja M van Schoor Marian Beekman Mariet Allen Eliezer Masliah Adolfo López de Munain Alexander Pantelyat Zbigniew K Wszolek Owen A Ross Dennis W Dickson Neill R Graff-Radford David Knopman Rosa Rademakers Afina W Lemstra Yolande A L Pijnenburg Philip Scheltens Thomas Gasser Patrick F Chinnery Bernhard Hemmer Martijn A Huisman Juan Troncoso Fermin Moreno Ellen A Nohr Thorkild I A Sørensen Peter Heutink Pascual Sánchez-Juan Danielle Posthuma Jordi Clarimón Kaare Christensen Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner Sonja W Scholz Alfredo Ramirez Agustín Ruiz Eline Slagboom Wiesje M van der Flier Henne Holstege

Acta Neuropathol 2020 05;139(5):959-962

Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The IPDGC (The International Parkinson Disease Genomics Consortium) and EADB (Alzheimer Disease European DNA biobank) are listed correctly as an author to the article, however, they were incorrectly listed more than once.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-019-02107-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7181435PMC
May 2020

A nonsynonymous mutation in PLCG2 reduces the risk of Alzheimer's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies and frontotemporal dementia, and increases the likelihood of longevity.

Authors:
Sven J van der Lee Olivia J Conway Iris Jansen Minerva M Carrasquillo Luca Kleineidam Erik van den Akker Isabel Hernández Kristel R van Eijk Najada Stringa Jason A Chen Anna Zettergren Till F M Andlauer Monica Diez-Fairen Javier Simon-Sanchez Alberto Lleó Henrik Zetterberg Marianne Nygaard Cornelis Blauwendraat Jeanne E Savage Jonas Mengel-From Sonia Moreno-Grau Michael Wagner Juan Fortea Michael J Keogh Kaj Blennow Ingmar Skoog Manuel A Friese Olga Pletnikova Miren Zulaica Carmen Lage Itziar de Rojas Steffi Riedel-Heller Ignacio Illán-Gala Wei Wei Bernard Jeune Adelina Orellana Florian Then Bergh Xue Wang Marc Hulsman Nina Beker Niccolo Tesi Christopher M Morris Begoña Indakoetxea Lyduine E Collij Martin Scherer Estrella Morenas-Rodríguez James W Ironside Bart N M van Berckel Daniel Alcolea Heinz Wiendl Samantha L Strickland Pau Pastor Eloy Rodríguez Rodríguez Bradley F Boeve Ronald C Petersen Tanis J Ferman Jay A van Gerpen Marcel J T Reinders Ryan J Uitti Lluís Tárraga Wolfgang Maier Oriol Dols-Icardo Amit Kawalia Maria Carolina Dalmasso Mercè Boada Uwe K Zettl Natasja M van Schoor Marian Beekman Mariet Allen Eliezer Masliah Adolfo López de Munain Alexander Pantelyat Zbigniew K Wszolek Owen A Ross Dennis W Dickson Neill R Graff-Radford David Knopman Rosa Rademakers Afina W Lemstra Yolande A L Pijnenburg Philip Scheltens Thomas Gasser Patrick F Chinnery Bernhard Hemmer Martijn A Huisman Juan Troncoso Fermin Moreno Ellen A Nohr Thorkild I A Sørensen Peter Heutink Pascual Sánchez-Juan Danielle Posthuma Jordi Clarimón Kaare Christensen Nilüfer Ertekin-Taner Sonja W Scholz Alfredo Ramirez Agustín Ruiz Eline Slagboom Wiesje M van der Flier Henne Holstege

Acta Neuropathol 2019 08 27;138(2):237-250. Epub 2019 May 27.

Alzheimer Center Amsterdam, Department of Neurology, Amsterdam Neuroscience, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The genetic variant rs72824905-G (minor allele) in the PLCG2 gene was previously associated with a reduced Alzheimer's disease risk (AD). The role of PLCG2 in immune system signaling suggests it may also protect against other neurodegenerative diseases and possibly associates with longevity. We studied the effect of the rs72824905-G on seven neurodegenerative diseases and longevity, using 53,627 patients, 3,516 long-lived individuals and 149,290 study-matched controls. We replicated the association of rs72824905-G with reduced AD risk and we found an association with reduced risk of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). We did not find evidence for an effect on Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and multiple sclerosis (MS) risks, despite adequate sample sizes. Conversely, the rs72824905-G allele was associated with increased likelihood of longevity. By-proxy analyses in the UK Biobank supported the associations with both dementia and longevity. Concluding, rs72824905-G has a protective effect against multiple neurodegenerative diseases indicating shared aspects of disease etiology. Our findings merit studying the PLCγ2 pathway as drug-target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-019-02026-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6660501PMC
August 2019

ABI3 and PLCG2 missense variants as risk factors for neurodegenerative diseases in Caucasians and African Americans.

Mol Neurodegener 2018 10 11;13(1):53. Epub 2018 Oct 11.

Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL, 32224, USA.

Background: Rare coding variants ABI3_rs616338-T and PLCG2_rs72824905-G were identified as risk or protective factors, respectively, for Alzheimer's disease (AD).

Methods: We tested the association of these variants with five neurodegenerative diseases in Caucasian case-control cohorts: 2742 AD, 231 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), 838 Parkinson's disease (PD), 306 dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and 150 multiple system atrophy (MSA) vs. 3351 controls; and in an African-American AD case-control cohort (181 AD, 331 controls). 1479 AD and 1491 controls were non-overlapping with a prior report.

Results: Using Fisher's exact test, there was significant association of both ABI3_rs616338-T (OR = 1.41, p = 0.044) and PLCG2_rs72824905-G (OR = 0.56, p = 0.008) with AD. These OR estimates were maintained in the non-overlapping replication AD-control analysis, albeit at reduced significance (ABI3_rs616338-T OR = 1.44, p = 0.12; PLCG2_rs72824905-G OR = 0.66, p = 0.19). None of the other cohorts showed significant associations that were concordant with those for AD, although the DLB cohort had suggestive findings (Fisher's test: ABI3_rs616338-T OR = 1.79, p = 0.097; PLCG2_rs72824905-G OR = 0.32, p = 0.124). PLCG2_rs72824905-G showed suggestive association with pathologically-confirmed MSA (OR = 2.39, p = 0.050) and PSP (OR = 1.97, p = 0.061), although in the opposite direction of that for AD. We assessed RNA sequencing data from 238 temporal cortex (TCX) and 224 cerebellum (CER) samples from AD, PSP and control patients and identified co-expression networks, enriched in microglial genes and immune response GO terms, and which harbor PLCG2 and/or ABI3. These networks had higher expression in AD, but not in PSP TCX, compared to controls. This expression association did not survive adjustment for brain cell type population changes.

Conclusions: We validated the associations previously reported with ABI3_rs616338-T and PLCG2_rs72824905-G in a Caucasian AD case-control cohort, and observed a similar direction of effect in DLB. Conversely, PLCG2_rs72824905-G showed suggestive associations with PSP and MSA in the opposite direction. We identified microglial gene-enriched co-expression networks with significantly higher levels in AD TCX, but not in PSP, a primary tauopathy. This co-expression network association appears to be driven by microglial cell population changes in a brain region affected by AD pathology. Although these findings require replication in larger cohorts, they suggest distinct effects of the microglial genes, ABI3 and PLCG2 in neurodegenerative diseases that harbor significant vs. low/no amyloid ß pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13024-018-0289-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6190665PMC
October 2018

Divergent brain gene expression patterns associate with distinct cell-specific tau neuropathology traits in progressive supranuclear palsy.

Acta Neuropathol 2018 11 22;136(5):709-727. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic, Jacksonville, FL, 32224, USA.

Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is a neurodegenerative parkinsonian disorder characterized by tau pathology in neurons and glial cells. Transcriptional regulation has been implicated as a potential mechanism in conferring disease risk and neuropathology for some PSP genetic risk variants. However, the role of transcriptional changes as potential drivers of distinct cell-specific tau lesions has not been explored. In this study, we integrated brain gene expression measurements, quantitative neuropathology traits and genome-wide genotypes from 268 autopsy-confirmed PSP patients to identify transcriptional associations with unique cell-specific tau pathologies. We provide individual transcript and transcriptional network associations for quantitative oligodendroglial (coiled bodies = CB), neuronal (neurofibrillary tangles = NFT), astrocytic (tufted astrocytes = TA) tau pathology, and tau threads and genomic annotations of these findings. We identified divergent patterns of transcriptional associations for the distinct tau lesions, with the neuronal and astrocytic neuropathologies being the most different. We determined that NFT are positively associated with a brain co-expression network enriched for synaptic and PSP candidate risk genes, whereas TA are positively associated with a microglial gene-enriched immune network. In contrast, TA is negatively associated with synaptic and NFT with immune system transcripts. Our findings have implications for the diverse molecular mechanisms that underlie cell-specific vulnerability and disease risk in PSP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00401-018-1900-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6208732PMC
November 2018

A candidate regulatory variant at the TREM gene cluster associates with decreased Alzheimer's disease risk and increased TREML1 and TREM2 brain gene expression.

Alzheimers Dement 2017 Jun 8;13(6):663-673. Epub 2016 Dec 8.

Department of Neuroscience, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USA; Department of Neurology, Mayo Clinic Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: We hypothesized that common Alzheimer's disease (AD)-associated variants within the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid (TREM) gene cluster influence disease through gene expression.

Methods: Expression microarrays on temporal cortex and cerebellum from ∼400 neuropathologically diagnosed subjects and two independent RNAseq replication cohorts were used for expression quantitative trait locus analysis.

Results: A variant within a DNase hypersensitive site 5' of TREM2, rs9357347-C, associates with reduced AD risk and increased TREML1 and TREM2 levels (uncorrected P = 6.3 × 10 and 4.6 × 10, respectively). Meta-analysis on expression quantitative trait locus results from three independent data sets (n = 1006) confirmed these associations (uncorrected P = 3.4 × 10 and 3.5 × 10, Bonferroni-corrected P = 6.7 × 10 and 7.1 × 10, respectively).

Discussion: Our findings point to rs9357347 as a functional regulatory variant that contributes to a protective effect observed at the TREM locus in the International Genomics of Alzheimer's Project genome-wide association study meta-analysis and suggest concomitant increase in TREML1 and TREM2 brain levels as a potential mechanism for protection from AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jalz.2016.10.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5462884PMC
June 2017

Phylodynamic analysis of clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae isolates from Haiti reveals diversification driven by positive selection.

mBio 2014 Dec 23;5(6). Epub 2014 Dec 23.

Unlabelled: Phylodynamic analysis of genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data is a powerful tool to investigate underlying evolutionary processes of bacterial epidemics. The method was applied to investigate a collection of 65 clinical and environmental isolates of Vibrio cholerae from Haiti collected between 2010 and 2012. Characterization of isolates recovered from environmental samples identified a total of four toxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolates, four non-O1/O139 isolates, and a novel nontoxigenic V. cholerae O1 isolate with the classical tcpA gene. Phylogenies of strains were inferred from genome-wide SNPs using coalescent-based demographic models within a Bayesian framework. A close phylogenetic relationship between clinical and environmental toxigenic V. cholerae O1 strains was observed. As cholera spread throughout Haiti between October 2010 and August 2012, the population size initially increased and then fluctuated over time. Selection analysis along internal branches of the phylogeny showed a steady accumulation of synonymous substitutions and a progressive increase of nonsynonymous substitutions over time, suggesting diversification likely was driven by positive selection. Short-term accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions driven by selection may have significant implications for virulence, transmission dynamics, and even vaccine efficacy.

Importance: Cholera, a dehydrating diarrheal disease caused by toxigenic strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, emerged in 2010 in Haiti, a country where there were no available records on cholera over the past 100 years. While devastating in terms of morbidity and mortality, the outbreak provided a unique opportunity to study the evolutionary dynamics of V. cholerae and its environmental presence. The present study expands on previous work and provides an in-depth phylodynamic analysis inferred from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms of clinical and environmental strains from dispersed geographic settings in Haiti over a 2-year period. Our results indicate that even during such a short time scale, V. cholerae in Haiti has undergone evolution and diversification driven by positive selection, which may have implications for understanding the global clinical and epidemiological patterns of the disease. Furthermore, the continued presence of the epidemic strain in Haitian aquatic environments has implications for transmission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01824-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4278535PMC
December 2014

Spatiotemporal dynamics of simian immunodeficiency virus brain infection in CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted rhesus macaques with neuroAIDS.

J Gen Virol 2014 Dec 9;95(Pt 12):2784-2795. Epub 2014 Sep 9.

Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Despite the success of combined antiretroviral therapy in controlling viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, commonly referred to as neuroAIDS, remain a frequent and poorly understood complication. Infection of CD8(+) lymphocyte-depleted rhesus macaques with the SIVmac251 viral swarm is a well-established rapid disease model of neuroAIDS that has provided critical insight into HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder onset and progression. However, no studies so far have characterized in depth the relationship between intra-host viral evolution and pathogenesis in this model. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) env gp120 sequences were obtained from six infected animals. Sequences were sampled longitudinally from several lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, including individual lobes within the brain at necropsy, for four macaques; two animals were sacrificed at 21 days post-infection (p.i.) to evaluate early viral seeding of the brain. Bayesian phylodynamic and phylogeographic analyses of the sequence data were used to ascertain viral population dynamics and gene flow between peripheral and brain tissues, respectively. A steady increase in viral effective population size, with a peak occurring at ~50-80 days p.i., was observed across all longitudinally monitored macaques. Phylogeographic analysis indicated continual viral seeding of the brain from several peripheral tissues throughout infection, with the last migration event before terminal illness occurring in all macaques from cells within the bone marrow. The results strongly supported the role of infected bone marrow cells in HIV/SIV neuropathogenesis. In addition, our work demonstrated the applicability of Bayesian phylogeography to intra-host studies in order to assess the interplay between viral evolution and pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.070318-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4233634PMC
December 2014

Longitudinal analysis of intra-host simian immunodeficiency virus recombination in varied tissues of the rhesus macaque model for neuroAIDS.

J Gen Virol 2013 Nov 20;94(Pt 11):2469-2479. Epub 2013 Aug 20.

Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32610, USA.

Human immunodeficiency virus intra-host recombination has never been studied in vivo both during early infection and throughout disease progression. The CD8-depleted rhesus macaque model of neuroAIDS was used to investigate the impact of recombination from early infection up to the onset of neuropathology in animals inoculated with a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) swarm. Several lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues were collected longitudinally at 21 days post-infection (p.i.), 61 days p.i. and necropsy (75-118 days p.i.) from four macaques that developed SIV-encephalitis or meningitis, as well as from two animals euthanized at 21 days p.i. The number of recombinant sequences and breakpoints in different tissues and over time from each primate were compared. Breakpoint locations were mapped onto predicted RNA and protein secondary structures. Recombinants were found at each time point and in each primate as early as 21 days p.i. No association was found between recombination rates and specific tissue of origin. Several identical breakpoints were identified in sequences derived from different tissues in the same primate and among different primates. Breakpoints predominantly mapped to unpaired nucleotides or pseudoknots in RNA secondary structures, and proximal to glycosylation sites and cysteine residues in protein sequences, suggesting selective advantage in the emergence of specific recombinant sequences. Results indicate that recombinant sequences can become fixed very early after infection with a heterogeneous viral swarm. Features of RNA and protein secondary structure appear to play a role in driving the production of recombinants and their selection in the rapid disease model of neuroAIDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.055335-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3809109PMC
November 2013

Unexpected maintenance of hepatitis C viral diversity following liver transplantation.

J Virol 2012 Aug 23;86(16):8432-9. Epub 2012 May 23.

Department of Zoology, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.

Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection can lead to liver cirrhosis in up to 20% of individuals, often requiring liver transplantation. Although the new liver is known to be rapidly reinfected, the dynamics and source of the reinfecting virus(es) are unclear, resulting in some confusion concerning the relationship between clinical outcome and viral characteristics. To clarify the dynamics of liver reinfection, longitudinal serum viral samples from 10 transplant patients were studied. Part of the E1/E2 region was sequenced, and advanced phylogenetic analysis methods were used in a multiparameter analysis to determine the history and ancestry of reinfecting lineages. Our results demonstrated the complexity of HCV evolutionary dynamics after liver transplantation, in which a large diverse population of viruses is transmitted and maintained for months to years. As many as 30 independent lineages in a single patient were found to reinfect the new liver. Several later posttransplant lineages were more closely related to older pretransplant viruses than to viruses detected immediately after transplantation. Although our data are consistent with a number of interpretations, the persistence of high viral genetic variation over long periods of time requires an active mechanism. We discuss possible scenarios, including frequency-dependent selection or variation in selective pressure among viral subpopulations, i.e., the population structure. The latter hypothesis, if correct, could have relevance to the success of newer direct-acting antiviral therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00749-12DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3421713PMC
August 2012

Efficient transmission and persistence of low-frequency SIVmac251 variants in CD8-depleted rhesus macaques with different neuropathology.

J Gen Virol 2012 May 1;93(Pt 5):925-938. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Infection of CD8-depleted rhesus macaques with the genetically heterogeneous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac251 viral swarm provides a rapid-disease model for simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome and SIV-encephalitis (SIVE). The objective was to evaluate how the diversity of the swarm influences the initial seeding of the infection that may potentially affect disease progression. Plasma, lymphoid and non-lymphoid (brain and lung) tissues were collected from two infected macaques euthanized at 21 days post-infection (p.i.), as well as longitudinal specimens and post-mortem tissues from four macaques followed throughout the infection. About 1300 gp120 viral sequences were obtained from the infecting SIVmac251 swarm and the macaques longitudinal and post-mortem samples. Phylogenetic and amino acid signature pattern analyses were carried out to assess frequency, transmission dynamics and persistence of specific viral clusters. Although no significant reduction in viral heterogeneity was found early in infection (21 days p.i.), transmission and replication of SIV variants was not entirely random. In particular, two distinct motifs under-represented (<4 %) in the infecting swarm were found at high frequencies (up to 14 %) in all six macaques as early as 21 days p.i. Moreover, a macrophage tropic variant not detected in the viral swarm (<0.3 %) was present at high frequency (29-100 %) in sequences derived from the brain of two macaques with meningitis or severe SIVE. This study demonstrates the highly efficient transmission and persistence in vivo of multiple low frequency SIVmac251 founder variants, characterized by specific gp120 motifs that may be linked to pathogenesis in the rapid-disease model of neuroAIDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.039586-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3541805PMC
May 2012

Significant genetic heterogeneity of the SIVmac251 viral swarm derived from different sources.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2011 Dec 28;27(12):1327-32. Epub 2011 Jun 28.

Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.

Infecting rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is an established animal model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. Many studies have used various derivatives of the SIVmac251 viral swarm to investigate several aspects of the disease, including transmission, progression, response to vaccination, and SIV/HIV-associated neurological disorders. However, the lack of standardization of the infecting inoculum complicates comparative analyses. We investigated the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of the 1991 animal-titered SIVmac251 swarm, the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) passaged SIVmac251, and additional SIVmac251 sequences derived over the past 20 years. Significant sequence divergence and diversity were evident among the different viral sources. This finding highlights the importance of characterizing the exact source and genetic makeup of the infecting inoculum to achieve controlled experimental conditions and enable meaningful comparisons across studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2011.0100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3227245PMC
December 2011