Publications by authors named "Samantha C Karunarathna"

35 Publications

Editorial: Emerging Fungal Plant Pathogens.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 17;11:765549. Epub 2021 Sep 17.

Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Mauritius, Reduit, Mauritius.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.765549DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8484745PMC
September 2021

sp. nov. and an updated key to the species of (Myriangiaceae, Dothideomycetes).

Biodivers Data J 2021 7;9:e67705. Epub 2021 Sep 7.

World Agro forestry Centre East and Central Asia, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China World Agro forestry Centre East and Central Asia, Kunming 650201 Yunnan China.

Background: belongs to Dothideomycetes and its members are epiphytic on living bamboo culms or palms and distributed in tropical regions. Currently, the genus comprises seven species. Another collection resembling was collected from the leaves of sp. in Thailand. Morphological characteristics and multilocus phylogenetic analyses, using ITS, LSU and SSU sequences, showed that the fungus is new to science, described herein as . is characterised by apothecial ascostromata, a carbonised epithecium, dark brown setae on the ascostromatal surface, hyaline paraphysoids, ovoid to clavate asci and oblong to elliptical, muriform ascospores. The fungus has a dark pigmented surface and is occasionally facultatively associated with patches of green algae, but not actually lichenised. Instead, the fungus penetrates the upper leaf surface, forming dark pigmented isodiametric cells below the epidermis.

New Information: Re-examination of specimens of , and revealed the absence of algal associations. The status of (= ) and (= ) was established, based on morphological comparisons and previous studies. Comprehensive morphological descriptions with phylogenetic analyses support as a novel species in . An updated key to the known species of the genus is also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/BDJ.9.e67705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8440402PMC
September 2021

A Taxonomic Appraisal of Bambusicolous Fungi in Occultibambusaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes) with New Collections from Yunnan Province, China.

Life (Basel) 2021 Sep 7;11(9). Epub 2021 Sep 7.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

During our ongoing studies of bambusicolous fungi in southwest China and Thailand, three saprobic pleosporalean taxa were discovered on bamboos in Yunnan Province of China. and spp. nov. are introduced based on morphological characteristics coupled with multi-locus phylogenetic analyses of combined LSU, SSU, TEF1-α, RPB2 and ITS sequence data. is also reported from a terrestrial habitat for the first time. Comprehensive descriptions, color photo plates of micromorphology, and a phylogenetic tree showing the placements of these three taxa are provided. In addition, synopsis tables of and with morphological features are also provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11090932DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8472670PMC
September 2021

Fungal Pathogens in Grasslands.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 9;11:695087. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Research Center of Microbial Diversity and Sustainable Utilization, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Grasslands are major primary producers and function as major components of important watersheds. Although a concise definition of grasslands cannot be given using a physiognomic or structural approach, grasslands can be described as vegetation communities experiencing periodical droughts and with canopies dominated by grasses and grass-like plants. Grasslands have a cosmopolitan distribution except for the Antarctic region. Fungal interactions with grasses can be pathogenic or symbiotic. Herbivorous mammals, insects, other grassland animals, and fungal pathogens are known to play important roles in maintaining the biomass and biodiversity of grasslands. Although most pathogenicity studies on the members of Poaceae have been focused on economically important crops, the plant-fungal pathogenic interactions involved can extend to the full range of ecological circumstances that exist in nature. Hence, it is important to delineate the fungal pathogen communities and their interactions in man-made monoculture systems and highly diverse natural ecosystems. A better understanding of the key fungal players can be achieved by combining modern techniques such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) together with studies involving classic phytopathology, taxonomy, and phylogeny. It is of utmost importance to develop experimental designs that account for the ecological complexity of the relationships between grasses and fungi, both above and below ground. In grasslands, loss in species diversity increases interactions such as herbivory, mutualism, predation or infectious disease transmission. Host species density and the presence of heterospecific host species, also affect the disease dynamics in grasslands. Many studies have shown that lower species diversity increases the severity as well as the transmission rate of fungal diseases. Moreover, communities that were once highly diverse but have experienced decreased species richness and dominancy have also shown higher pathogenicity load due to the relaxed competition, although this effect is lower in natural communities. This review addresses the taxonomy, phylogeny, and ecology of grassland fungal pathogens and their interactions in grassland ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.695087DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8381356PMC
September 2021

Morphological and phylogenetic appraisal of Ophioceras (Ophioceraceae, Magnaporthales).

PLoS One 2021 25;16(8):e0253853. Epub 2021 Aug 25.

Faculty of Sciences, Research Center of Microbial Diversity and Sustainable Utilization, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Ophioceras is accommodated in the monotypic family Ophioceraceae (Magnaporthales, Sordariomycetes), and the genus is delimited based on molecular data. During an ongoing survey of bambusicolous fungi in southwest China, we collected a submerged decaying branch of bamboo from Sichuan Province, China and an Ophioceras species occurring on this substrate was observed and isolated. An Ophioceras taxon was delimited based on morphological characteristics and combined LSU, RPB1 and ITS sequence analyses and is described as Ophioceras sichuanense sp. nov. The species formed a well-supported clade basal to Ophioceras (100% ML, 1.00 PP). Based on the updated phylogenetic tree of Magnaporthales, Ceratosphaerella castillensis (generic type) and C. rhizomorpha formed a clade within Ophioceras and morphologically resemble Ophioceras. Therefore, Ceratosphaerella is synonymized under Ophioceras. The phylogenetic relationships of Ophioceras are discussed in relation to morphological similarities of genera in Magnaporthales. The generic circumscription of Ophioceras is emended.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0253853PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8386851PMC
August 2021

YN201732 Produces Lipopeptides With Promising Biocontrol Activity Against Fungal Pathogen .

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 18;11:598999. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

State Key Laboratory for Conservation and Utilization of Bio-resources in Yunnan, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, China.

YN201732 is an endophytic bacteria with high biocontrol efficiency and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities. In order to clarify the main active ingredients and their antifungal mechanisms against powdery mildew of tobacco, this study is focused on lipopeptide obtained through acid precipitation and organic solvent extraction. HPLC and LCMS-IT-TOF were used to separate and identify antimicrobial lipopeptides. Findings revealed that bacillomycin D plays an important role against surrogate fungal pathogen . Synthetic pathways of sfp, bacillomycin D, and fengycin were separately disrupted. The gene knockout mutant YN201732M1 only showed minor antagonistic activity against . While spore germination was inhibited and pot experiments displayed a significant decrease in tobacco powdery mildew. The spore inhibition rate of YN201732M1 was only 30.29%, and the pot experiment control effect was less than 37.39%, which was significantly lower than that of the wild type. The inhibitory effect of mutant YN201732M2 (deficient in the production of bacillomycin D) and mutant YN201732M3 (deficient in the production of fengycin) on the spore germination of were 50.22% and 53.06%, respectively, suggesting that both fengycin and bacillomycin D had potential effects on spore germination of powdery mildew. Interestingly, in a greenhouse assay, both YN201732M2 and YN201732M3 mutants displayed less of a control effect on tobacco powdery mildew than wild type. The results from , spore germination, and greenhouse-pot studies demonstrated that antimicrobial lipopeptides especially bacillomycin D and fengycin may contribute to the prevention and control of tobacco powdery mildew. In addition, gene mutation related to lipopeptide synthesis can also affect the biofilm formation of strains.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.598999DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8253258PMC
July 2021

Multigene Phylogeny Reveals gen. et sp. nov. and Familial Replacement of (Xylariales, Sordariomycetes, Ascomycota).

Life (Basel) 2021 May 26;11(6). Epub 2021 May 26.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China.

During our investigation of palm fungi in Thailand, two interesting taxa from and (Arecaceae) were collected. Based on phylogenetic analyses of a combined dataset of ITS, LSU, , and nucleotide sequences as well as unique morphological characteristics, we introduce the new genus within Xylariales, and a new species . Additionally, in our study, the genus is transferred to the family Cainiaceae based on its brown conidia and molecular phylogenetic evidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11060486DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8227165PMC
May 2021

Multi-Gene Phylogeny and Morphology Reveal gen. nov. and gen. nov. Associated with Palms in Thailand and A Checklist for Reported Worldwide.

Life (Basel) 2021 May 19;11(5). Epub 2021 May 19.

Research Center of Microbial Diversity and Sustainable Utilization, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

Palms (Arecaceae) are substrates for a highly diverse range of fungi. Many species are known as saprobes and many are important plant pathogens. Over the course of our studies of micro-fungi from palms in Thailand, two new taxa were discovered. Morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, LSU, SSU, and sequence data revealed their taxonomic positions within Massarinaceae. There are currently ten genera identified and accepted in Massarinaceae, with the addition of the two new genera of and , that are introduced in this paper. Each new genus is provided with a full description and notes, and each new taxon is provided with an illustration for the holotype. A list of identified and accepted species of with morphology, host information, locality, sequence data, and related references of reported worldwide is provided based on records in Species Fungorum 2021. This work provides a micro-fungi database of , , and which can be modified and validated as new data come to light.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11050454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8161214PMC
May 2021

Reappraisal of in Dictyosporiaceae, Pleosporales: Introducing sp. nov. and comb. et gen. nov. Based on Morphology and Phylogeny.

Front Microbiol 2021 7;12:656235. Epub 2021 May 7.

Research Center of Microbial Diversity and Sustainable Utilization, Faculty of Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

is a poorly known genus, and currently, no DNA sequence data are available to ascertain its proper phylogenetic placement and evolutionary relationships with other bitunicate fungi. To date, there are only two species accepted in the genus. During our ongoing research study of bambusicolous fungi in southwest China and Thailand, a fungus associated with stromata of sp. was found on dead bamboo culms in Loei Province, Thailand. Preliminary morphological identification revealed that the fungal collection belongs to . A novel species, , is introduced herein based on a comparison of morphological characteristics with the type specimen of (≡ Ellis and Everh.), a synonym of (Cooke and Ellis) M. E. Barr. Phylogenetic analyses of a concatenated ITS, LSU, SSU, and TEF1-α DNA sequence matrix showed that belongs to Dictyosporiaceae, Pleosporales. Despite strains constituting a supported subclade, they are nested with the genus . is morphologically different from all other species, while its conidial characteristics are similar to . Multigene phylogenetic analyses showed that formed a clade basal to , separated from with strong statistical support. Therefore, we introduce a monotypic genus, Phukhams. and Phookamsak, gen. nov. to accommodate the single species, (Phukhams. and K. D. Hyde) Phukhams. and Phookamsak, comb. nov. Detailed descriptions, color micrographs, and phylogenetic trees to show the placement of the new taxa are provided. In addition, an updated taxonomic treatment of the genera and is also provided based on the study of the type materials and phylogeny generated from DNA sequence data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.656235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137994PMC
May 2021

Climate-Fungal Pathogen Modeling Predicts Loss of Up to One-Third of Tea Growing Areas.

Front Cell Infect Microbiol 2021 29;11:610567. Epub 2021 Apr 29.

Key Laboratory for Agro-biodiversity and Pest Control of Ministry of Education, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming, China.

Climate change will affect numerous crops in the future; however, perennial crops, such as tea, are particularly vulnerable. Climate change will also strongly influence fungal pathogens. Here, we predict how future climatic conditions will impact tea and its associated pathogens. We collected data on the three most important fungal pathogens of tea (, , and ) and then modeled distributions of tea and these fungal pathogens using current and projected climates. The models show that baseline tea-growing areas will become unsuitable for var. (15 to 32% loss) and var. (32 to 34% loss) by 2050. Although new areas will become more suitable for tea cultivation, existing and potentially new fungal pathogens will present challenges in these areas, and they are already under other land-use regimes. In addition, future climatic scenarios suitable range of fungal species and tea suitable cultivation (respectively in CSS and CSA) growing areas are (44.30%; 31.05%), (13.10%; 10.70%), and (10.20%; 11.90%). Protecting global tea cultivation requires innovative approaches that consider fungal genomics as part and parcel of plant pathology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcimb.2021.610567DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116803PMC
June 2021

Volatile Constituents of Endophytic Fungi Isolated from with Descriptions of Two New Species of .

Life (Basel) 2021 Apr 19;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 19.

Yunnan Key Laboratory for Fungal Diversity and Green Development, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China.

Algae, bacteria, and fungi, as well as higher plants, produce a wide variety of secondary metabolites known as natural products. Natural products are well known as remarkable sources of many therapeutic agents. The genus is a wood-decaying fungus that belongs to family Xylariaceae. is often found as an endophyte in diverse hosts and some species are known to produce useful secondary metabolites. In this study, two species were isolated as an endophytic fungus from . Multi-gene phylogenetic studies showed that the newly described strains of are new to science, and this is the first report of from the host . One of the fermented species, (KUMCC 20-0268), resulted in five sesquiterpenoids, which were previously reported from agarwood, and their structures were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, five different media were investigated in vitro to optimize conditions for growing the fungal biomass of and .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11040363DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8073270PMC
April 2021

sp. nov., , and (, ) Found on Bananas in China and Thailand.

Life (Basel) 2021 Apr 7;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 7.

Research Center of Microbial Diversity and Sustainable Utilization, Faculty of Sciences, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

A study was conducted to investigate saprobic fungal niches of (Hypocreales) associated with leaves of (banana) in China and Thailand. Three hyphomycetous taxa were collected during the dry season of 2018 and 2019. After a careful phenotypic characterization (both macro- and microscopically) and a phylogenetic tree reconstruction using a concatenated sequence dataset of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), calmodulin (), RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (2), β-tubulin (2), and the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (1) gene regions, we report three species of Stachybotryaceae. is introduced as a novel taxon from Yunnan, China, while is reported from Chiang Rai Province in Thailand on . In addition, is also reported from China for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/life11040323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067748PMC
April 2021

Reviewing the world's edible mushroom species: A new evidence-based classification system.

Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf 2021 03 18;20(2):1982-2014. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Wild mushrooms are a vital source of income and nutrition for many poor communities and of value to recreational foragers. Literature relating to the edibility of mushroom species continues to expand, driven by an increasing demand for wild mushrooms, a wider interest in foraging, and the study of traditional foods. Although numerous case reports have been published on edible mushrooms, doubt and confusion persist regarding which species are safe and suitable to consume. Case reports often differ, and the evidence supporting the stated properties of mushrooms can be incomplete or ambiguous. The need for greater clarity on edible species is further underlined by increases in mushroom-related poisonings. We propose a system for categorizing mushroom species and assigning a final edibility status. Using this system, we reviewed 2,786 mushroom species from 99 countries, accessing 9,783 case reports, from over 1,100 sources. We identified 2,189 edible species, of which 2,006 can be consumed safely, and a further 183 species which required some form of pretreatment prior to safe consumption or were associated with allergic reactions by some. We identified 471 species of uncertain edibility because of missing or incomplete evidence of consumption, and 76 unconfirmed species because of unresolved, differing opinions on edibility and toxicity. This is the most comprehensive list of edible mushrooms available to date, demonstrating the huge number of mushrooms species consumed. Our review highlights the need for further information on uncertain and clash species, and the need to present evidence in a clear, unambiguous, and consistent manner.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1541-4337.12708DOI Listing
March 2021

Three Novel Entomopathogenic Fungi From China and Thailand.

Front Microbiol 2020 8;11:608991. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Entomopathogenic fungi are ubiquitous in tropical rainforests and feature a high level of diversity. This group of fungi not only has important ecological value but also medicinal value. Nevertheless, they are often ignored, and many unknown species have yet to be discovered and described. The present study aims to contribute to the taxonomical and phylogenetic understanding of the genus by describing three new species collected from Guizhou and Yunnan Provinces in China and Krabi Province in Thailand. The three novel species named , and share similar morphologies as those in the genus , containing solitary, simple, fleshy stroma, completely immersed perithecia and cylindrical asci with thickened caps and filiform ascospores that often disarticulate at maturity. Phylogenetic analyses of combined LSU, SSU, TEF1-α, RPB1, RPB2, and ITS sequence data confirm their placement in the genus In this study, the three entomopathogenic taxa are comprehensively described with color photographs and phylogenetic analyses. A synopsis table and a key to all treated species of are also included.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.608991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7873960PMC
January 2021

The Evolution of Life Modes in Stictidaceae, with Three Novel Taxa.

J Fungi (Basel) 2021 Feb 2;7(2). Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Centre of Excellence in Fungal Research, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai 57100, Thailand.

Ostropales is a large group comprising both lichenized and non-lichenized fungi, with several lineages expressing optional lichenization where individuals of the same fungal species exhibit either saprotrophic or lichenized lifestyles depending on the substrate (bark or wood). Greatly variable phenotypic characteristics and large-scale phylogenies have led to frequent changes in the taxonomic circumscription of this order. Ostropales is currently split into Graphidales, Gyalectales, Odontotrematales, Ostropales , and Thelenellales. Ostropales is now confined to the family Stictidaceae, which includes a large number of species that are poorly known, since they usually have small fruiting bodies that are rarely collected, and thus, their taxonomy remains partly unresolved. Here, we introduce a new genus to accommodate a novel lineage related to , which is composed of two new species, as well as a new species of , . Maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference analyses of mitochondrial small subunit spacers (mtSSU), large subunit nuclear rDNA (LSU), and internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequence data, together with phenotypic data documented by detailed morphological and anatomical analyses, support the taxonomic affinity of the new taxa in Stictidaceae. Ancestral character state analysis did not resolve the ancestral nutritional status of Stictidaceae with confidence using Bayes traits, but a saprotrophic ancestor was indicated as most likely in a Bayesian binary Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling (MCMC) approach. Frequent switching in nutritional modes between lineages suggests that lifestyle transition played an important role in the evolution of this family.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jof7020105DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7913076PMC
February 2021

Screening of Phosphate-Solubilizing Fungi From Air and Soil in Yunnan, China: Four Novel Species in , , , and .

Front Microbiol 2020 6;11:585215. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

CAS Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

Phosphate-solubilizing fungi (PSF) play an important role in increasing the bioavailability of phosphorus in soils for plants. Thirteen fungal strains, one collected from air and 12 from soil, were screened and described here in detail. These fungal strains were tested for their ability to solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) on both solid and liquid Pikovskaya (PVK) media . The airborne fungal strain KUMCC 18-0196 ( sp. nov.) showed the most significant phosphate solubilizing activity on a solid PVK medium with the solubilization index (SI) (2.58 ± 0.04 cm) and the highest solubilized phosphates (1523.33 ± 47.87 μg/mL) on a liquid PVK medium. To the best of our knowledge, sp. nov. is the first phosphate-solubilizing fungus reported from air. We also provide the identification especially for , and , generally reported as PSF. It is important to not only screen for PSF but also identify species properly so that researchers have a clearer taxonomic picture for identifying potential taxa for future plant growth-promoting applications. Herein, (section ), , (section ) and (section ) are fully described and introduced as new to science. These four new species are identified based on both morphological characteristics and multigene phylogenetic analyses, including the genealogical concordance phylogenetic species recognition method where necessary. is considered to be a synonym of
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.585215DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7574596PMC
October 2020

Multi-gene phylogenetic evidence suggests belongs in Didymosphaeriaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes) and sp. nov. on from Thailand.

MycoKeys 2020 5;71:101-118. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand.

Dead leaves of sp. (banana) were collected in northern Thailand during an investigation of saprobic fungi. Preliminary morphological observations revealed that three specimens belong to . Phylogenetic analyses of combined SSU, LSU, ITS and 1-α sequence data revealed that forms a clade in Didymosphaeriaceae (Massarineae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes) sister to . Based on contrasting morphological features with the extant taxa of , coupled with the multigene analyses, sp. nov. is introduced herein. Our study provides the first detailed molecular investigation for and supports its placement in Didymosphaeriaceae (Massarineae, Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes). Previously, was classified in Apiosporaceae (Xylariales, Sordariomycetes).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.71.55493DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7423779PMC
August 2020

Patellariopsidaceae Fam. Nov. With Sexual-Asexual Connection and a New Host Record for (Vibrisseaceae, Ascomycota).

Front Microbiol 2020 26;11:906. Epub 2020 May 26.

Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai, Thailand.

Helotiales is a polyphyletic order of Ascomycetes. The paucity of relevant molecular data and unclear connections of sexual and asexual morphs present challenges in resolving taxa within this order. In the present study, Patellariopsidaceae fam. nov., the asexual morph of , and a new record of (Vibrisseaceae) on (Fagaceae) from Italy are discussed based on morphology and molecular phylogeny. Phylogenetic analyses based on a combined sequence dataset of LSU and ITS were used to infer the phylogenetic relationships within the Helotiales. The results of this research provide a solid base to the taxonomy and phylogeny of Helotiales.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2020.00906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7264944PMC
May 2020

A Survey of (Lyophyllaceae, Agaricales), Including a New Species, from a Subtropical Forest in Xishuangbanna, China.

Mycobiology 2019 8;47(4):391-400. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, China.

A survey of mushrooms was conducted in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan Province, China, in the rainy season (May to October) of 2012, 2013, and 2014, during which 16 specimens of were collected. Preliminary macro- and micro-characteristics, together with ITS sequence data, showed that four of the specimens belonged to a new species (), while the other 12 belonged to . , . , . , , and . In this paper, is introduced as a species new to science based on morphological characterization and phylogenetic analyses. Macro- and micro- morphological descriptions, color photographs and line drawings of the new species, and a phylogenetic tree to show the placement of the new species are provided. is then compared with other closely related taxa in the genus .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/12298093.2019.1682449DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6968336PMC
November 2019

Morphology and Multi-Gene Phylogeny Reveal sp. nov. and a New Host Record of from Edible Pine () Seeds in Yunnan Province, China.

Pathogens 2019 Dec 4;8(4). Epub 2019 Dec 4.

College of Resources and Environment, Yunnan Agricultural University, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China.

This study contributes new knowledge on the diversity of conidial fungi in edible pine () seeds found in Yunnan Province, China and emphasizes the importance of edible seed products to ensure food safety standards. We isolated two fungal species, one on the pine seed coat and the other on the endosperm of the pine seed. The two fungal species were identified as sp. nov. and a new host record . Characteristic morphological features of were used alongside results from multi-gene phylogenetic analysis to distinguish it from currently known species within the genus. was identified as a new host record based on morphological features and phylogenetic analysis. In addition, detailed descriptions, scanned electron microscopy morphology, illustrations, and phylogenetic trees are provided to show the placement of these species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pathogens8040285DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6963873PMC
December 2019

Additions to the knowledge of in Thailand: , a new record; and sp. nov.

MycoKeys 2019 16;59:47-65. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China.

is a cosmopolitan genus of mushrooms, which can cause root and butt rot diseases on many tree species. Members of this genus are particularly diverse in tropical regions. Some spp. are medicinally active and therefore are used to treat human diseases or as a dietary supplement. In this study, three strains were collected in tropical southern Thailand. Phylogenetic analyses of combined ITS, LSU, TEF1α and RPB2 sequence data indicated that the three strains grouped in a distinct lineage within laccate . One strain was collected from Surat Thani Province clustered in the clade with high statistical support (MLBS = 100% / MPBS = 98% / PP = 0.96), while the other two strains of , collected from Nakhon Si Thammarat Province, formed a distinct well-supported clade (MLBS = 100% / MPBS = 100% / PP = 1.00) and are described here as a new species. is reported here as a new record to Thailand. Morphological differences of the two taxa and their closely related taxa are discussed. Colour photographs of macro and micro morphological characteristics and a phylogenetic tree to show the placement of the new record and new species are provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.59.36823DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6811390PMC
October 2019

A new record of (Basidiomycota, Polyporales) for Thailand and first assessment of optimum conditions for mycelia production.

MycoKeys 2019 7;51:65-83. Epub 2019 May 7.

Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China.

In this study a new record of is described as from Chiang Rai Province, Thailand. The fruiting body was collected on the base of a living tree. The sample is described on the basis of morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses, and compared with closely related taxa. Multigene phylogenetic analyses of LSU, ITS, and RPB2 highly support the placement of the group with isolates from China and Taiwan (Maximum likelihood 100%, Maximum parsimony 100%, and Bayesian posterior probabilities 1.00). The optimal media, pH, and temperature for mycelial growth of the strain KUMCC18-0046 was also investigated and is reported as: PDA, MEA, and YPD, at pH 7-8 and 25-28 °C, respectively. This is the first report on the successful growing conditions for mycelial production, but unfortunately fruiting could not be achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.51.33513DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6517369PMC
May 2019

Identification of endophytic fungi from leaves of Pandanaceae based on their morphotypes and DNA sequence data from southern Thailand.

MycoKeys 2018 28(33):25-67. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Key Laboratory for Plant Diversity and Biogeography of East Asia, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Science, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, People's Republic of China.

The authors established the taxonomic status of endophytic fungi associated with leaves of Pandanaceae collected from southern Thailand. Morphotypes were initially identified based on their characteristics in culture and species level identification was done based on both morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data. Twenty-two isolates from healthy leaves were categorised into eight morphotypes. Appropriate universal primers were used to amplify specific gene regions and phylogenetic analyses were performed to identify these endophytes and established relationships with extant fungi. The authors identified both ascomycete and basidiomycete species, including one new genus, seven new species and nine known species. Morphological descriptions, colour plates and phylogenies are given for each taxon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.33.23670DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6283267PMC
March 2018

The importance of plot size and the number of sampling seasons on capturing macrofungal species richness.

Fungal Biol 2018 07 24;122(7):692-700. Epub 2018 Mar 24.

Key Laboratory of Economic Plants and Biotechnology, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 132 Lanhei Road, Kunming, 650201, China. Electronic address:

The species-area relationship is an important factor in the study of species diversity, conservation biology, and landscape ecology. A deeper understanding of this relationship is necessary, in order to provide recommendations on how to improve the quality of data collection on macrofungal diversity in different land use systems in future studies, a systematic assessment of methodological parameters, in particular optimal plot sizes. The species-area relationship of macrofungi in tropical and temperate climatic zones and four different land use systems were investigated by determining the macrofungal species richness in plot sizes ranging from 100 m to 10 000 m over two sampling seasons. We found that the effect of plot size on recorded species richness significantly differed between land use systems with the exception of monoculture systems. For both climate zones, land use system needs to be considered when determining optimal plot size. Using an optimal plot size was more important than temporal replication (over two sampling seasons) in accurately recording species richness.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.funbio.2018.03.004DOI Listing
July 2018

Two new species of and some notes on from Asia.

MycoKeys 2017 5(28):1-18. Epub 2017 Dec 5.

State Key Laboratory of Applied Microbiology Southern China, Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Microbial Culture Collection and Application, Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, Guangzhou 510070, Guangdong, China.

and , two new species of Agaricaceae, are described and illustrated from Asia. Macroscopically, both species are closely related to each other, but there are obvious micromorphological and molecular differences between them. Morphological and phylogenetic data showed that the two new species are distinct from other known species of the genus . from China is characterized by its small, yellow basidiomata, short clavate cheilocystidia, epithelial pileipellis, and verrucose basidiospores measuring 5-5.5 × 3-3.5 μm. from Bangladesh is characterized by having small, yellow basidiomata, a fugacious annulus, clavate to narrowly clavate cheilocystidia, epithelial pileipellis, and rugulose-rough basidiospores measuring 4-5 × 2.7-3.2 μm. In addition to the new species, a collection from China is reported. Morphological data and molecular phylogenetic analyses fully support the Chinese collection being , a species of Agaricaceae, originally described from Southeast Asia. Detailed descriptions, color photos and illustrations of the three species are presented. A key to the genus occurring in Bangladesh and China is provided.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.28.21029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5804139PMC
December 2017

Morpho-Molecular Characterization of Two s spp. (Pleosporales) Strains Mycoparasites of Powdery Mildew of .

Front Microbiol 2018 19;9:12. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, and School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, Thailand.

Powdery mildew disease of rubber affects immature green leaves, buds, inflorescences, and other immature tissues of rubber trees, resulting in up to 45% losses in rubber latex yield worldwide. The disease is often controlled by dusting the diseased plants with powdered sulfur, which can have long-term negative effects on the environment. Therefore, it is necessary to search for alternative and environmentally friendly control methods for this disease. This study aimed to identify mycoparasites associated with rubber powdery mildew species, and characterize them on the basis of morpho-molecular characteristics and phylogenetic analyses of ITS rDNA regions. We observed that the fungus parasitizes rubber powdery mildew, and eventually destroys it. Furthermore, on the basis of phylogenetic analyses and morphological characteristics we confirmed that the mycoparasite isolated from rubber powdery mildew is closely related to other mycohost taxa in the genus. A total of 73 (71 retrieved from GenBank and two obtained from fresh collections of rubber powdery mildew fungi) spp. were analyzed using ITS rDNA sequences and 153 polymorphic sites were identified through haplotypic analyses. A total of 28 haplotypes (H1-H28) were identified to have a complex network of mutation events. The results from phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of maximum likelihood analyses, and the haplotype network tree revealed similar relationships of clustering pattern. This work presents the first report on morpho-molecular characterization of species that are mycoparasites of powdery mildew of .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2018.00012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5780702PMC
January 2018

Applied Mycology Can Contribute to Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: Building upon China's Matsutake Management Initiatives.

Environ Manage 2018 02 22;61(2):263-274. Epub 2017 Dec 22.

The World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), East and Central Asia, Kunming, Yunnan, China.

Matsutake mushrooms are an important part of rural livelihoods and forest ecosystems across large parts of China, as well as elsewhere in East Asia, Northern Europe and North America. Mushroom harvesters have developed sophisticated understandings of matsutake ecology and production, and are applying this knowledge in various innovative management strategies. At the same time, Chinese government agencies and scientists are promoting matsutake-based livelihoods to support development and conservation goals. We collaborated with matsutake harvesters in one Yunnan community to carry out a systematic experiment on a popular shiro-level management technique: covering matsutake shiros with either plastic or leaf litter. Our experimental results suggest that although leaf litter coverings are superior to plastic coverings, shiros that are left uncovered may produce the highest yields. Complementing our experimental work is a multi-sited household survey of existing matsutake management practices across Yunnan, which shows that a high proportion of harvesters are already engaged in a broad range of potentially beneficial management strategies. Though both findings highlight limitations of previous initiatives led by government and research actors in China, this existing body of work is an important foundation and opportunity for developing applied mycology in the region. In and beyond China, working with communities to develop site-specific management strategies through rigorous and participatory scientific inquiry can provide salient benefits for both scientists and resource users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00267-017-0976-3DOI Listing
February 2018

Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by Aspergillus tubingensis.

Environ Pollut 2017 Jun 15;225:469-480. Epub 2017 Mar 15.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan. Electronic address:

The xenobiotic nature and lack of degradability of polymeric materials has resulted in vast levels of environmental pollution and numerous health hazards. Different strategies have been developed and still more research is being in progress to reduce the impact of these polymeric materials. This work aimed to isolate and characterize polyester polyurethane (PU) degrading fungi from the soil of a general city waste disposal site in Islamabad, Pakistan. A novel PU degrading fungus was isolated from soil and identified as Aspergillus tubingensis on the basis of colony morphology, macro- and micro-morphology, molecular and phylogenetic analyses. The PU degrading ability of the fungus was tested in three different ways in the presence of 2% glucose: (a) on SDA agar plate, (b) in liquid MSM, and (c) after burial in soil. Our results indicated that this strain of A. tubingensis was capable of degrading PU. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we were able to visually confirm that the mycelium of A. tubingensis colonized the PU material, causing surface degradation and scarring. The formation or breakage of chemical bonds during the biodegradation process of PU was confirmed using Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The biodegradation of PU was higher when plate culture method was employed, followed by the liquid culture method and soil burial technique. Notably, after two months in liquid medium, the PU film was totally degraded into smaller pieces. Based on a comprehensive literature search, it can be stated that this is the first report showing A. tubingensis capable of degrading PU. This work provides insight into the role of A. tubingensis towards solving the dilemma of PU wastes through biodegradation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2017.03.012DOI Listing
June 2017

Taxonomic revision and phylogenetic analyses of rubber powdery mildew fungi.

Microb Pathog 2017 Apr 9;105:185-195. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

World Agroforestry Centre, East and Central Asia, Kunming, 132 Lanhei Rd, Heilongtan, Kunming, Yunnan, China; Center of Excellence in Fungal Research, School of Science, Mae Fah Luang University, Chiang Rai, 57100, Thailand. Electronic address:

Powdery mildew is a fungal disease that infects a wide range of plants, including rubber trees, which results in a reduction of latex yields of up to 45%. The causal agent of powdery mildew of rubber was first described as Oidium heveae, but later morpho-molecular research suggested that in the past, O. heveae has been confused with Erysiphe quercicola. However, it is still under debate whether the causal agent should be classified as a species of the genus Erysiphe emend. or Golovinomyces and Podosphaera, respectively. Therefore, the aim of this study was to undertake the morpho-molecular characterization of powdery mildew species associated with rubber trees, thus resolving these taxonomic issues. Morphological observation under light and scanning electron microscopes (SEM) clearly identified two morphotypes of the rubber powdery mildew. With the support of morphological and phylogenetic data, one of the two morphotypes was identified as the asexual morph of E. quercicola, while the second morphotype is still insufficiently known and according to the morphological results obtained we assume that it might belong to the genus Golovinomyces. More collections and additional molecular data are required for final conclusions regarding the exact taxonomic position of the second morphotype of rubber powdery mildew and its relation to the name O. heveae. The haplotype analysis identified eight haplotype groups of E. quercicola indicating the high genetic diversity of the species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2017.01.054DOI Listing
April 2017

Using in silico techniques: Isolation and characterization of an insect cuticle-degrading-protease gene from Beauveria bassiana.

Microb Pathog 2016 Aug 8;97:189-97. Epub 2016 Jun 8.

World Agroforestry Centre, East and Central Asia Office, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 132 Lanhei Rd, Heilongtan, Kunming 650201, Yunnan, China.

Cuticle-degrading-proteases (CDPs) secreted by Beauveria spp. are pivotal biocontrol substances, possessing commercial potential for developing bio-pesticides. Therefore, a thoughtful and contemplative understanding and assessment of the structural and functional features of these proteases would markedly assist the development of biogenic pesticides. Computational molecular biology is a new facile alternative approach to the tedious experimental molecular biology; therefore, by using bioinformatics tools, we isolated and characterized an insect CDP gene from Beauveria bassiana 70 s.l. genomic DNA. The CDP gene (1240 bp with GeneBank accession no. KT804651.1) consisted of three introns and four CDS exons, and shared 74-100% sequence identity to the reference CDP genes. Its phylogenetic tree results showed a unique evolution pattern, and the predicted amino acid peptide (PAAP) consisted of 344 amino acid residues with pI, molecular weight, instability index, grand average hydropathicity value and aliphatic index of 7.2, 35.4 kDa, 24.45, -0.149, and 76.63, respectively. The gene possessed 74-89% amino acid sequence similarity to the 12 reference strains. Three motifs (Peptidase_S8 subtilase family) were detected in the PAAP, and the computed 3D structure possessed 79.09% structural identity to alkaline serine proteases. The PAAP had four (three serine proteases and one Pyridoxal-dependent decarboxylase) conserved domains, a disulfide bridge, two calcium binding sites, MY domain, and three predicted active sites in the serine family domains. These results will set the groundwork for further exploitation of proteases and understanding the mechanism of disease caused by cuticle-degrading-serine-proteases from entomopathogenic fungi.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2016.05.024DOI Listing
August 2016
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