Publications by authors named "Samaneh Mozafarpoor"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

N-acetylcysteine and coronavirus disease 2019: May it work as a beneficial preventive and adjuvant therapy? A comprehensive review study.

J Res Med Sci 2020 26;25:109. Epub 2020 Nov 26.

Department of Dermatology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Coronaviruses are major pathogens of respiratory system causing different disorders, including the common cold, Middle East respiratory syndrome, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. Today's global pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has high mortality rate, with an approximate of 20% in some studies, and is 30-60 times more fatal than the common annual influenza, However, there is still no gold standard treatment for it. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is a well-known multi-potential drug with hypothetically probable acceptable effect on COVID-related consequences, which we completely focused in this comprehensive review.

Materials And Methods: PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, and Google Scholar have been searched. Study eligibility criteria: efficacy of NAC in various subclasses of pathogenic events which may occur during COVID-19 infection. Efficacy of NAC for managing inflammatory or any symptoms similar to symptoms of COVID-19 was reviewed and symptom improvements were assessed.

Results: Randomized clinical trials introduced NAC as an antioxidant glutathione analog and detoxifying agent promoted for different medical conditions and pulmonary disorders to alleviate influenza and reduce mortality by 50% in influenza-infected animals. The beneficial effects of NAC on viral disorders, including Epstein-Barr virus, HIV and hepatitis, and well-known vital organ damages were also exist and reported.

Conclusion: We classified the probable effects of NAC as oxidative-regulatory and apoptotic-regulatory roles, antiviral activities, anti-inflammatory roles, preventive and therapeutic roles in lung disorders and better oxygenation functions, supportive roles in intensive care unit admitted patients and in sepsis, positive role in other comorbidities and nonpulmonary end-organ damages or failures and even in primary COVID-associated cutaneous manifestations. Based on different beneficial effects of NAC, it could be administered as a potential adjuvant therapy for COVID-19 considering patient status, contraindications, and possible drug-related adverse events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_777_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8019127PMC
November 2020

Correction to: Programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1) gene haplotypes and susceptibility of patients to basal cell carcinoma.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Mar 1. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Autoimmune Diseases Research Center, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, 5th kilometer of Ravand Road, Kashan, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06232-0DOI Listing
March 2021

A systematic review of N-acetylcysteine for treatment of acne vulgaris and acne-related associations and consequences: Focus on clinical studies.

Dermatol Ther 2021 Feb 25:e14915. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Department of Rasool Akram Medical Complex Clinical Research Development Center (RCRDC), Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Acne vulgaris is one of the most common dermatologic disorders affects people of all races and ethnicities and has many adverse effects on the quality of life. The increased bacterial resistance to antibiotics has reduced the effectiveness of treatment with these agents. There is an increasing focus on the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of acne. This study investigates the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as an antioxidant in the treatment of acne vulgaris. This systematic review was conducted through a search in databases such as Science Direct, PubMed, Scielo, and Medline using keywords including acne vulgaris, anti and NAC, and all the keywords associated with each of the subtitles. The factors affecting the occurrence and expansion of acne include increased sebum synthesis, hyperkeratinization of pilosebaceous units, colonization with Propionibacterium acnes, and increased release of inflammatory mediators and ROS. Studies have shown that glutathione stimulation following the administration of NAC increases glutathione levels for the detoxification of oxygen-free radicals. Moreover, NAC prevents the synthesis and release of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-8, IL-6, MP9, and IL-1β and has shown antibacterial activities against important bacteria including E. coli, S. epidermidis, Pseudomonas, and Klebsiella. This medication has anti-proliferative effects and is also used for excoriation and PCOD. The results of the present study showed the beneficial effects of using NAC in patients with acne vulgaris in terms of the disease complications and comorbidities. Given its diverse functional mechanisms, this medication can be used to treat acne and its consequences.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14915DOI Listing
February 2021

The role of topical timolol in wound healing and the treatment of vascular lesions: A narrative review.

Dermatol Ther 2021 Mar 13;34(2):e14847. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Department of Dermatology, Rasool Akram Medical Complex, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Beta-2 adrenergic receptors are the only subgroup of beta-adrenergic receptors expressed in the membrane of large cells, including skin keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and melanocytes. Alterations in the function or concentration of β2 adrenoreceptors related to keratinocytes are associated with some skin conditions. Some findings suggest the role of β2 adrenoreceptors in maintaining the function and integrity of the epidermis. Beta-receptor antagonists can be systemically and topically effective in healing hemangioma, paronychia, vasculitis ulcer, tufted angioma, acute and chronic wounds. Most studies with a strong design on this subject deal with the systemic form, but recently, numerous case and group reports and smaller studies have focused on topical forms, especially topical timolol. The present comprehensive review study surveys the role of topical timolol in acute and chronic wound healing in the field of dermatology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14847DOI Listing
March 2021

Effectiveness of dermabrasion plus 5-fluorouracil vs suction blister in treating vitiligo: A comparative study.

Dermatol Ther 2021 Mar 17;34(2):e14750. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Department of Dermatology, Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Vitiligo is a prevalent destructive melanocyte skin disease that negatively affects the patients' life in terms of self-esteem. Suction blister and dermabrasion plus 5-fluorouracil are effective treatments for vitiligo. The present study was conducted to compare the outcomes of these two techniques. The present clinical trial was conducted on 36 patients with persistent refractory vitiligo which defined as the lack of any new or progressed lesion during the previous year as well as no responding to conventional therapies of vitiligo including topical treatments and phototherapy. Individuals with two vitiligo patches, with similar baseline Vitiligo Area Severity Index (VASI) scores were randomly allocated to dermabrasion plus 5-fluorouracil or suction blister treatments. VASI and repigmentation scores were measured and compared at the baseline, four, and 12 weeks after performing the procedures. Both of the approaches accompanied with significant improvement in both entities of VASI and repigmentation scores (P value < .05) at the end of the study, besides the trend of VASI and repigmentation scores between the two groups revealed insignificant difference (P > .05). The short-term follow-up of the patients was the limitation of this study. The present findings suggested that both surgical techniques of dermabrasion plus 5-fluorouracil and suction blister posed acceptable outcomes within 12-week follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14750DOI Listing
March 2021

Programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1) gene haplotypes and susceptibility of patients to basal cell carcinoma.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Jan 3. Epub 2021 Jan 3.

Autoimmune Diseases Research Center, Shahid Beheshti Hospital, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, 5th kilometer of Ravand Road, Kashan, Iran.

Programmed death-1 (PD-1), as an immunoinhibitory receptor encoded by programmed cell death-1 (PDCD1) gene, has a pivotal role in tolerance to self-antigens. Mutations of PDCD1 may participate in susceptibility to basal cell carcinoma (BCC) as the most common of skin cancer. We studied the impacts of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within PDCD1 and their haplotypes in BCC susceptibility in an Iranian population. The blood samples were collected from 210 BCC and 220 healthy individuals. After the extraction of genomic DNA, the genotypes and alleles of PD1.1 G/A (rs36084323) and PD1.6 G/A (rs10204525) SNPs were determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). Four haplotypes were estimated by these SNPs. Our data revealed that genotype and allele frequencies of PD1.1 and PD1.6 polymorphisms in BCC patients were similar to those in healthy individuals. The results of estimated haplotypes for PDCD1 indicated that GG and AA haplotypes of PDCD1 had protective effects on BCC susceptibility (OR = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.51-0.96, p = 0.03 and OR = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.35-0.91, p = 0.02, respectively), while GA and AG haplotypes served as the risk factors for developing BCC (OR = 1.76, 95% CI = 1.09-2.84, p = 0.02 and OR = 3.87, 95% CI = 1.95-7.69, p = <0.001, respectively). Based on these findings, frequency distributions of PDCD1 haplotypes have important roles in the determination of BCC development in the Iranian population. However, larger multicenter studies are required to confirm this conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-020-06115-wDOI Listing
January 2021

Rare clinical features of the Ellis van Creveld syndrome: A case report and literature review.

Dermatol Ther 2021 Jan 26;34(1):e14664. Epub 2020 Dec 26.

Department of Dermatology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Ellis van Creveld syndrome (EVC) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder also called chondroectodermal dysplasia. This study reports on a 40-year-old woman from Iran with a syndromic appearance consisting of a coarse face, conical anterior teeth, dental agenesis and permanent teeth at birth, several small extralabial, nonmidline frenula with a high-arched palate, and a large maxillary labial frenulum. The patient had cyanosis on her lips since childhood and a history of adenoid tonsillectomy surgery. She also had androgenic alopecia, an elongated trunk with excessive lordosis and pectus excavatum, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and a history of two periods in a month. She also had multiple fibrocystic cysts in her breasts, lower extremity deformity, dysplastic genu valgum, and short limb dwarfism; she had undergone left knee surgery four times and had severe osteoporosis in some of her bones and some hyperpigmented patches on the dorsal of the left hand. Her hands and feet were also wide and markedly deformed with hypoplastic fingernails and toenails, and she had bimanual hexadactyly on the ulnar side of the hands. She also had a history of severe hypotension and cyanosis during surgery and suffered from congenital heart failure and had undergone open heart surgery for correcting her atrial heart defect. In this study pectus excavatum, Phrygian cap gallbladder, liver hemangioma, polycystic ovarian disease, and breast fibrocystic cysts was reported for first time in this case of EVC syndrome. This case was reported and all articles regarding common, uncommon, rare, and extremely rare presentations of this syndrome were reviewed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14664DOI Listing
January 2021

Phosphodiesterase inhibitors and prostaglandin analogues in dermatology: A comprehensive review.

Dermatol Ther 2021 Jan 21;34(1):e14669. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Dermatology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Due to immune-mediated nature, medicines with immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects can used to treat many dermatologic diseases. Phosphodiesterase and prostaglandins are involved in many inflammatory pathways that cause cutaneous disorders. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDEIs) and prostaglandin analogues are currently employed to treat several dermatologic disorders. Given the few comprehensive reviews in this context, focusing on the dermatologic applications and efficacy of these medicines appears valuable. The present comprehensive review was, therefore, performed on the applications of PDEIs and prostaglandin analogues in different cutaneous disorders. All the relevant articles were selected to perform this review by searching databases such as Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science. Oral PDEIs, especially apremilast, is an effective medicine in psoriasis and a number of other cutaneous disorders such as vitiligo. Topical PDEIs, including crisaborole ointment 2%, is a safe and effective treatment in atopic dermatitis. Prostaglandin analogues, especially their topical forms such as latanoprost and bimatoprost, have different applications in cutaneous disorders, including pigmentary disorders, especially vitiligo and hair repigmentation; for instance, bimatoprost is used for eyelash repigmentation. Prostaglandin analogues are also used in alopecia, including androgenetic alopecia and alopecia areata. Oral (apremilast) and topical (crisaborole) PDEIs and topical prostaglandin analogues, including latanoprost and bimatoprost, were found safe and effective in different skin diseases. In terms of efficiency and safety, these medicines compete with other medications of similar use even with higher efficacy and fewer side effects that necessitate further studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.14669DOI Listing
January 2021

Immune system changes during COVID-19 recovery play key role in determining disease severity.

Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol 2020 Jan-Dec;34:2058738420966497

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory infection, is largely associated with dysregulation and impairment of the immune system. This study investigated how the immune system changes were related to disease severity in COVID-19 patients. The frequencies of different immune cells and levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in whole blood of participants were determined by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The values of other inflammatory agents were also studied. In the late recovery stage, unlike CD56 CD16 NK cells and monocytes, CD56 CD16 NK cell numbers were increased ( < 0.0001-0.05). Th1, Th2, and Th17 cell percentages were significantly lower in patients than healthy control ( < 0.0001-0.05), while their frequencies were increased following disease recovery ( < 0.0001-0.05). The numbers of Tregs, activated CD4+ T cells, and exhausted CD8+ T cells were significantly decreased during a recovery ( < 0.0001-0.05). No significant change was observed in exhausted CD4+ T cell number during a recovery ( > 0.05). B cell showed an increased percentage in patients compared to healthy subjects ( < 0.0001-0.05), whereas its number was reduced following recovery ( < 0.0001-0.05). IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 levels were significantly decreased in the late recovery stage ( < 0.0001-0.05). However, TGF-β1 level was not significantly changed during the recovery ( > 0.05). Lymphocyte numbers in patients were significantly decreased ( < 0.001), unlike ESR value ( < 0.001). Lymphocyte number was negatively correlated to ESR value and Th2 number ( < 0.05), while its association with monocyte was significantly positive at the first day of recovery ( < 0.05). The immune system changes during the disease recovery to improve and regulate immune responses and thereby may associate with the reduction in disease severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2058738420966497DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7594220PMC
October 2020

Cutaneous manifestations and considerations in COVID-19 pandemic: A systematic review.

Dermatol Ther 2020 11 6;33(6):e13986. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Dermatology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

COVID-19 had a great impact on medical approaches among dermatologist. This systematic review focuses on all skin problems related to COVID-19, including primary and secondary COVID-related cutaneous presentations and the experts recommendations about dermatological managements especially immunomodulators usage issues. Search was performed on PubMed, Scopus, Embase and ScienceDirect. Other additional resources were searched included Cochrane, WHO, Medscape and coronavirus dermatology resource of Nottingham university. The search completed on May 3, 2020. Three hundred seventy-seven articles assigned to the inclusion and exclusion groups. Eighty-nine articles entered the review. Primary mucocutaneous and appendageal presentations could be the initial or evolving signs of COVID-19. It could be manifest most commonly as a maculopapular exanthamatous or morbiliform eruption, generalized urticaria or pseudo chilblains recognized as "COVID toes" (pernio-like acral lesions or vasculopathic rashes). During pandemic, Non-infected non-at risk patients with immune-medicated dermatologic disorders under treatment with immunosuppressive immunomodulators do not need to alter their regimen or discontinue their therapies. At-risk o suspected patients may need dose reduction, interval increase or temporary drug discontinuation (at least 2 weeks). Patients with an active COVID-19 infection should hold the biologic or non-biologic immunosuppressives until the complete recovery occur (at least 4 weeks).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13986DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7362033PMC
November 2020

Treatment of COVID-19 with pentoxifylline: Could it be a potential adjuvant therapy?

Dermatol Ther 2020 Jul 26;33(4):e13733. Epub 2020 Jun 26.

Department of Dermatology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

The world is facing a viral pandemic of a new coronavirus called COVID-19. Pentoxifylline is a methyl-xanthine derivative and it inhibits the phosphodiesterase IV (PDE IV). This drug is known for its unique features as an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent, also it could have antiviral affects. This is a scoping review, in which all related articles on COVID-19 and the probable benefits of Pentoxifylline against COVID-19 pathogenesis, in Medline, Scopus, Web of Sciences, and Google Scholar up to 20 March 2020 with proper keywords including: pentoxifylline, Pentoxil, COVID-19, coronavirus, treatment, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, antifibrosis, oxygenation, circulation, bronchodilator, ARDS, and organ failure. We found many confirmatory data on proper efficacy of pentoxifylline on controlling COVID-19 and its consequences. The antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, immune-modulatory, bronchodilator and respiratory supportive effects and protective roles in organ failures of PTX, along with its main functions means better circulation-oxygenation properties, low price and safety, make it a promising drug to be considered for COVID-19 treatment, especially as an adjuvant therapy in combination with other drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13733DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7300917PMC
July 2020

The potential of probiotics for treating acne vulgaris: A review of literature on acne and microbiota.

Dermatol Ther 2020 05 7;33(3):e13279. Epub 2020 Apr 7.

Department of Dermatology, Rasoul Akram Hospital, Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS), Tehran, Iran.

Acne is known as a chronic inflammatory skin disease with sever adverse effects on quality of life in the patients. The increasing resistance to antibiotics has decreased their effectiveness in treating acne. As viable microbial dietary supplements, probiotics provide health benefits through fighting pathogens and maintaining the homeostasis of the gut and skin microbiome. The present article reviewed the potential of probiotics as beneficial microorganisms for treating acne vulgaris. This review of literature was conducted through a bibliographic search of popular databases, including Science Direct, PubMed, Scielo and Medline, using keywords such as probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, microbiome, and acne vulgaris to determine potential applications of these beneficial microbiomes in treating acne vulgaris. Acne lesions are associated with increases in proportion of Propionibacterium acnes as a skin commensal bacterium. The environmental studies showed inhibitory effects of probiotics on P. acnes, mediating by antibacterial proteins and bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, and their immunomodulatory effects onkeratinocytes and epithelial cells. Probiotics were also found to inhibit cytokine IL-8 in epithelial cells and keratinocytes, suggesting immunomodulatory activities. Moreover, glycerol fermentation by Staphylococcus epidermidis was found to be a natural skin defense against acne and an overgrowth inhibitor of P. acnes. As an antimicrobial agent in lotions and cosmetic formulations, Lactococcus sp. can decrease the inflammatory mediators that are produced by P. acnes and cause vasodilation, edema, mast cell degranulation and TNF-alpha release. Oral administration of probiotics was found to constitute an adjuvant therapy to conventional modalities for treating mild-to-moderate acne vulgaris.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/dth.13279DOI Listing
May 2020

Evaluation of combination therapy with peeling added to minimal invasive blepharoplasty in lower eyelid rejuvenation.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 Nov 3;19(11):2922-2928. Epub 2020 Apr 3.

Department of Dermatology, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: Aging is an inevitable process in life that can pose unsatisfactory changes in appearance. Recently, rejuvenation surgeries have opened an exciting new window toward people who are vulnerable according to their facial appearance. Periocular plastic microsurgeries are among the most common aesthetic surgeries with various outcomes. The current study was aimed to compare outcomes of blepharoplasty with and without peeling regarding lower eyelid rejuvenation.

Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial study conducted on 30-patients referred for inferior lid rejuvenation in 2017-18. Patients were randomly divided into two 15-member subgroups of microinvasive blepharoplasty with and without peeling. Peeling for the group underwent blepharopeeling was performed all over the inferior periocular region using Phenol 89%. Then, skin and underlying muscle were incised superficially, and underlying fat tissue was excised. The other group underwent blepharoplasty without peeling. Patients were followed daily for 2 months to assess complications, patients' and physicians' satisfaction.

Results: Two assessed groups were not statistically different regarding age and gender distribution (P-value = .417 and .666, respectively). Considering patients' opinion, symmetry, scar formation, skin laxity, swelling, and total satisfaction score were not different between two groups (P-value > .05) while physicians presented similar outcomes except for better scar formation status of peeling add-on therapy (P-value = .042). Rate of adverse effects was significantly higher among those under blepharoplasty plus peeling treatment (P-value < .05).

Conclusion: Outcomes of blepharoplasty alone versus blepharoplasty plus peeling were not significantly different regarding both patients' and physicians' assessments in general while fewer complications due to blepharoplasty without peeling were presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13394DOI Listing
November 2020

An experience of slow-Mohs micrographic surgery for the treatment of Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans: A long-term cohort study.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2020 Oct 10;19(10):2701-2705. Epub 2020 Feb 10.

Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans (DFSP) is a rare dermal mesenchymal tumor known as a low-grade, slow-growing malignancy. The local invasion and high rate of recurrence following surgical treatment are the main concerns to plan the best surgical approach of treatment.

Aims: In the current study, it is aimed to provide an experience of slow-Mohs surgery for the treatment of patients with DSFP.

Patients/methods: Number of 25 patients with the diagnosis of DFSP through histological and immunostaining study was included. The slow-Mohs was performed by excision of the tumor with margins accounting for 1-2 cm from both the tumor margins and three-dimensional thickness. The obtained tissue margins were horizontally, and if any of the specimens was not margin-free, the procedure was repeated. The patients' opinion about the procedure was assessed using Patient-Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS).

Results: Number of 25 patients were included and followed for a median of 46.9 months. The median of the area of excision was 35.56 cm , and the median clinical excision margins were 19 mm (tumor excision margins + thickness of the three-dimensional excision). The surgery was performed once for 16 (64%), and postoperative skin closure within 5-7 days after the procedure was performed for 19 (76%) patients. None of the patients represented any recurrence. The patients' overall opinion and satisfaction POSAS score accounted for 2.3 ± 1.65 and 1.6 ± 0.59, respectively.

Conclusion: The findings of the current study are in favor of slow-Mohs surgery for the management of DFSP, while more extensive studies are strongly recommended for generalization of this procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.13319DOI Listing
October 2020

Effects of the programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1) polymorphisms in susceptibility to systemic lupus erythematosus.

Int J Immunogenet 2020 Feb 29;47(1):57-64. Epub 2019 Sep 29.

Autoimmune Diseases Research Center, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The failure of immunological tolerance to self-antigens plays a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). PD-1 is an inhibitory receptor for regulating the immune system and preventing development of autoimmune disorders. This study aimed to determine the role of four single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within programmed cell death 1 (PDCD1 or PD-1) gene and haplotypes defined by these SNPs in susceptibility to SLE in the Iranian population. Blood samples were obtained from 253 SLE and 564 healthy subjects. Red blood cells were lysed and genomic DNAs were extracted using salting-out method. Genotype determinations of PD1.1, PD1.3, PD1.5 and PD1.9 SNPs were performed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), and 12 haplotypes were constructed by PDCD1 SNPs. Our results showed significant differences in PD1.5 genotype frequencies between patient and control groups (p < .001). The frequencies of PD1.5 C/C, C/T and T/T genotypes versus other genotypes in SLE patients significantly differed from healthy subjects (p < .001, p = .001 and p = .002, respectively). Allelic analysis indicated a significant association between the frequency of PD1.5C allele and development of SLE in our population (odds ratio [OR] = 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.51-2.42, p < .001). At the haplotype level, GGCC, GACT and GGCT haplotypes were significantly different between SLE and control groups (OR = 2.14, 95% CI = 1.73-2.66, p < .001; OR = 9.76, 95% CI = 4.47-21.3, p < .001; and OR = 0.32, 95% CI = 0.24-0.42, p < .001, respectively). Based on these findings, PD1.5 SNP and some haplotypes of PDCD1 contribute to SLE risk in the Iranian population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/iji.12456DOI Listing
February 2020

Author's reply.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2019 Jul-Aug;85(4):411

Department of Dermatology, Faculty of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_133_19DOI Listing
January 2020

Comparison of two methods of subcision Nokor and blunt blade in acne scars treatment.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2019 Dec 18;18(6):1788-1793. Epub 2019 May 18.

Department of Dermatology, Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Context: Subcision is a simple surgical method that can be effective in treatment of acne scars.

Aims: This study was conducted to evaluate and compare the two methods of Nokor needle and blunt blade (BB) subcision in treatment of acne scars.

Settings And Design: This clinical trial study was conducted on 28 patients with acne scars.

Patients And Methods: One side of the face was treated with BB subcision method, and the other side was treated with Nokor needle method. Followed up period was 6 months after treatment.

Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 20) software using independent sample t test, Mann-Whitney test, Friedman test, and Fisher's exact test.

Results: In follow-up period, the improvement of acne scars was comparable in both groups (P > 0.05). Complications were lower in BB method than another method (P < 0.05). The patient satisfaction was higher in BB method (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: Both of modalities offered similar improvement, but the complication rate was lower and the patient satisfaction was also higher in the BB method than another method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12981DOI Listing
December 2019

Efficacy of mesotherapy with tranexamic acid and ascorbic acid with and without glutathione in treatment of melasma: A split face comparative trial.

J Cosmet Dermatol 2019 Feb 8. Epub 2019 Feb 8.

Department of Dermatology, School of Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: Melasma is a prevalent annoying skin hyperpigmentation disorder that commonly involves reproductive-aged females. Variety of treatments with controversial results has been recommended. The aim of the current study was to evaluate combination therapy of tranexamic acid (TA) and vitamin C with and without glutathione with mesotherapy technique for treatment of melasma.

Methods And Materials: This is a randomized clinical trial study conducted on 30 patients referred to Dermatology Clinics. Patients were examined under wood lamp in order of melasma type (epidermal, dermal, or mixed) determination. Then, patients underwent melasma therapy using Cocktail A (TA 4 mg/mL; vitamin C 3% and glutathione 2%) on their right half of the face and Cocktail B (TA 4 mg/mL and vitamin C 3%) on their left half of the face, with mesotherapy technique. This procedure was done for six times with 2-week intervals. Patients' modified Melasma Area and Severity Scoring (mMASI) was assessed at initiation and end of the study.

Results: According to mMASI score changes 12 weeks after intervention, both cocktails had significant efficacy in reduction of mMASI score in each side. Mean of mMASI in left side had decrease of 1.82 ± 0.88 (P-value < 0.001) and in right side had decrease of 3.046 ± 1.25 (P-value < 0.001) from base line. Comparison between two groups 12 weeks after treatment showed significantly more reduction (1.28 ± 0.64) of mMASI score with cocktail A than B (P-value < 0.001). Erythema, edema, and ecchymosis was not significantly different among two cocktails (P-value > 0.05).

Conclusion: Use of combination mesotherapy in treatment of melasma was accompanied with appropriate outcomes regardless of type of agents but treatment with glutathione containing cocktail A presented superior results compared with cocktail of TA and vitamin C but not glutathione.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12874DOI Listing
February 2019

The effectiveness of adding low-level light therapy to minoxidil 5% solution in the treatment of patients with androgenetic alopecia.

Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol 2018 Sep-Oct;84(5):547-553

Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Skin Diseases and Leishmaniasis Research Center, Health Faculty, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Androgenetic alopecia is the commonest type of alopecia affecting over half of men and women. Low-level light therapy is a new technique for stimulating hair growth in both genders.

Aims: To overcome the shortcomings of previous epidemiological studies and a lack of controlled clinical trials on the subject, this study compared the effectiveness of adding low-level light therapy to minoxidil topical solution in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia in patients presenting to two skin clinics in Isfahan, Iran during 2014-2015.

Materials And Methods: This clinical trial included 50 patients aged 17-45 presenting to Khorshid and Alzahra educational centers and skin diseases research center for androgenetic alopecia during 2014-2015. The patients were randomly divided into a control and a case group. The case group received topical minoxidil 5% solution plus low-level light therapy twice per day. The control group was given the same topical solution and a laser comb system that was turned off to act as a placebo. Changes in patients' hair density and diameter and its overall regrowth as well as their satisfaction with the treatment were assessed at months 0 (baseline), 3, 6, 9 and 12.

Results: The percentage of recovery from androgenetic alopecia and the patients' satisfaction with their treatment were significantly higher in the case group compared to the control group. The patients' mean hair density and diameter were found to be higher in the case group after the intervention compared to the control group.

Limitations: The study limitations included patient compliance, small sample size, patient insight due to novelty of the method and clinical judgement.

Conclusion: As a new method of treatment, low-level light therapy can help improve the percentage of recovery from androgenetic alopecia and increase patients' satisfaction with their treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ijdvl.IJDVL_1156_16DOI Listing
December 2018

Micropunch blepharopeeling versus blepharoplasty; what is the best procedure for upper eyelid rejuvenation?

J Cosmet Dermatol 2018 Dec 17;17(6):1182-1188. Epub 2018 May 17.

Department of Community Medicine, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Introduction: Periocular rejuvenation is the most common aesthetic plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to determine effects of micropunch blepharopeeling (MBP) approach vs blepharoplasty (BP) in periocular rejuvenation.

Methods And Materials: This is a clinical trial study on 22 patients who underwent periorbital rejuvenation referred to University Skin Clinics. Patients were randomly divided into two groups of blepharoplasty or micropunch blepharopeeling. After procedure, all patients were followed in 2 weeks and 2 months and were asked about complications. Patients' satisfaction was scored based on 5-grade scale. Physician satisfaction was assessed based on patients' photographs taken before and 2 months after surgery based on 4-grade scale.

Results: The mean age of group MBP was 48.45 ± 7.71 and group BP was 45.45 ± 7.20 (P-value = .36) and Fitzpatrick skin type was not significantly different. Scar was significantly different between groups that 4 (36.4%) patients of BP complained from scars, while none of MBP had significant scar (P-value = .04). Patients were statistically more satisfied with MBP in terms of symmetry, pain, and scar (P-value = .048, .040, and<.001, respectively). Also, MBP was significantly more satisfying for physicians in terms of symmetry and scar (P-value = .047 and <.001, respectively).

Conclusion: Micropunch blepharopeeling can be considered as an acceptable procedure of upper eyelid rejuvenation mentioned by patients and physicians. Micropunch blepharopeeling causes fewer scars, better symmetry, and less pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jocd.12506DOI Listing
December 2018

Acquired Bilateral Longitudinal True Leukonychia in a 35-year-old Woman.

Int J Prev Med 2016 26;7:118. Epub 2016 Oct 26.

Skin and Stem Cell Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Acquired bilateral longitudinal true leukonychia is a rare disorder. We present a case of a 35-year-old healthy woman presented with this unusual and rare manifestation. She mentioned a history of unprotected exposure to detergents and bleaching chemical agents. Considering her low zinc level, she was prescribed with zinc capsules and recommended to avoid chemical substances for 6 months. During bimonthly follow-up, her zinc level turned normal, and leukonychia subsequently disappeared. Bilateral longitudinal true leukonychia in the nails due to zinc deficiency and exposure to chemical substances has not been reported previously. Direct and indirect effects of chemical substances on matrix and the effect of zinc deficiency on healing process should be considered in these cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/2008-7802.193093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5093880PMC
October 2016