University of Malaya
PLoS ONE 11 (9): e0162773. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0162773
The lingual nerve is a terminal branch of the mandibular nerve. It is varied in its course and in its relationship to the mandibular alveolar crest, submandibular duct and also the related muscles in the floor of the mouth. This study aims to understand the course of the lingual nerve from the molar area until its insertion into the tongue muscle. This cadaveric research involved the study of 14 hemi-mandibles and consisted of two parts: (i) obtaining morphometrical measurements of the lingual nerve to three landmarks on the alveolar ridge, and (b) understanding non-metrical or morphological appearance of its terminal branches inserting in the ventral surface of the tongue. The mean distance between the fourteen lingual nerves and the alveolar ridge was 12.36 mm, and they were located 12.03 mm from the lower border of the mandible. These distances were varied when near the first molar (M1), second molar (M2) and third molar (M3). The lingual nerve coursed on the floor of the mouth for approximately 25.43 mm before it deviated toward the tongue anywhere between the mesial of M1 and distal of M2. Thirteen lingual nerves were found to loop around the submandibular duct for an average distance of 6.92 mm (95% CI: 5.24 to 8.60 mm). Their looping occurred anywhere between the M2 and M3. In 76.9% of the cases the loop started around the M3 region and the majority (69.2%) of these looping ended at between the first and second molars and at the lingual developmental groove of the second molar. It gave out as many as 4 branches at its terminal end at the ventral surface of the tongue, with the presence of 2 branches being the most common pattern. An awareness of the variations of the lingual nerve is important to prevent any untoward complications or nerve injury and it is hoped that these findings will be useful for planning of surgical procedures related to the alveolar crest, submandibular gland/ duct and surrounding areas.
J Appl Biomater Funct Mater 2016; 14(3): e307 - e313
J Appl Biomater Funct Mater
Background The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the obturation quality between canals obturated with gutta-percha/AH Plus sealer (GP group) and resin-coated GP/EndoREZ® sealer (ER group). Methods A total sample of 90 mandibular premolar teeth was divided into 2 groups (2 × 45 canals): the GP group and ER group. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups (n = 15): cold lateral compaction (CLC), warm lateral compaction (WLC) and single cone (SC). The teeth were subsequently embedded in resin and sectioned horizontally at 1, 3, 6 and 9 mm. All sections were then viewed with a stereomicroscope at ×40 magnification. The area occupied by core filling materials was determined using Cell^D software. Results With CLC, the percentage of core filling materials in the ER group was significantly higher than in the GP group at the 1- and 3-mm levels. Similarly, with WLC, the percentage of core filling material in the ER group was significantly higher than in the GP group at the 1-, 3- and 9-mm levels. With SC, the percentage of core filling materials in the ER group was significantly higher than in the GP group at all levels. Conclusions It can be concluded that the resin-coated GP/EndoREZ® sealer is superior to the gutta-percha/AH Plus in the percentage of core filling material.
PLoS One 2015 13;10(2):e0117251
The maxillary incisive canal connects the roof of the oral cavity with the floor of nasal cavity and has the incisive and nasal foramina respectively at its two opposite ends. Its close proximity with the anterior incisors affects one's ability to place immediate implants in ideal position. To avoid causing complication, variations in their dimensions were studied. Images of ninety Mongoloids patients examined with i-CAT Cone Beam Computed Tomography were included. The sizes of the nasopalatine foramen, the incisive canal and foramen, and anterior maxillary bone thickness were measured. The direction and course of the canals were assessed. The mean labiopalatal and mesiodistal measurements of the incisive foramen were 2.80 mm and 3.49 mm respectively, while the labiopalatal width of the nasal foramen was 6.06 mm. The incisive canal was 16.33 mm long and 3.85 mm wide. The anterior maxillary bone has an average thickness of 7.63 mm. The dimensions of the incisive foramen and incisive canal, and anterior maxillary bone thickness demonstrated gender differences with males showing greater values. The anterior maxillary bone thickness was affected by age but this difference was not observed in canal dimensions. The majority of subjects have a funnel shape-like incisive canal with the broader opening located at its superior. They seem to have a longer slanted-curve canal with one channel at its middle portion and a narrower incisive foramen opening than those reported elsewhere. This study found that gender is an important factor that affected the characteristics of the IC and the amount of bone anterior to it. Male generally had bigger IC and thicker anterior bone. In addition, the anterior maxillary bone thickness was affected by aging, where it becomes thinner with increased age even though the subjects were fully dentate.
The Scientific World Journal (Impact Factor: 1.73). 11/2013; 2013(4):213757
The Scientific World Journal
Orangutans are believed to have close biological affinities to humans. Teeth being the hardest tissue provide useful information on primate evolution. Furthermore, knowledge of the pulp chamber and root canal morphology is important for dental treatment. A female Bornean orangutan and a Sumatran male orangutan skull were available for this study. Both of their dentitions, comprising 50 teeth, were scanned employing the cone-beam computed tomography for both metrical and nonmetrical analyses. Measurements included tooth and crown length, root length, enamel covered crown height, root canal length (posterior teeth), length of pulpal space (anterior teeth), and root canal width. Nonmetrical parameters included number of canals per root, number of foramina in each root, and root canal morphology according to Vertucci’s classification. It was found that the enamel covered crown height was the longest in the upper central incisors although the canine was the longest amongst the anterior teeth. Both the upper premolars were three-rooted while the lower second premolar of the Sumatran orangutan was two-rooted, with two foramina. The mandibular lateral incisors of the Bornean orangutan were longer than the central incisors, a feature similar to humans. In addition, secondary dentine deposition was noticed, a feature consistent with aged humans.