Publications by authors named "Samad Azari"

19 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Financial Protection Indexes and the Iranian Health Transformation Plan: A Systematic Review.

Yale J Biol Med 2021 Sep 30;94(3):465-476. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), School of Public Health, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

: On May 5, 2014, the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education launched the Health Transformation Plan (HTP) as a major healthcare reform to curb out-of-pocket (OOP) expenses and protect people from catastrophic health expenditures (CHEs). Therefore, in this study, we conducted a comprehensive literature search with the aim of systematically investigating the impacts of HTP on OOP and CHE after the implementation of the plan. : Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Iranian bibliographic thesauri and repositories such as MagIran, Elmnet, and Scientific Information Database were searched. Studies published between May 2014 and December 2020 that reported the impact of HTP on the financial indicators under investigation in this study (OOP and CHEs) that were conducted in Iran. Estimated pooled change both for OOP and CHEs was calculated as effect size utilizing meta-analytical techniques. Also, heterogeneity among studies was assessed with the I statistics. : Seventeen studies were included, nine of which evaluated the OOP index, six studies assessed the CHEs index, and two studies examined both the OOP and CHEs indexes. The OOP was found to decrease after the implementation of the HTP (with an estimated decrease of 13.02% (95% CI: 9.09-16.94). Also, CHEs experienced a decrease of 5.80% (95% CI: 3.85-7.74). : The findings show that the implementation of HTP has reduced health costs. In this regard and in order to keep reducing the costs that many people are unable to pay, the government and other organizations involved in the health system should provide sustainable financial resources in order to continue running HTP. However, there remain gaps and weaknesses that can be solved through discussion with all the actors involved.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8461582PMC
September 2021

Burden of Hypertensive Heart Disease in Iran during 1990-2017: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2017.

PLoS One 2021 22;16(9):e0257617. Epub 2021 Sep 22.

Hospital Management Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Hypertension and its consequent end-organ damage including Hypertensive Heart Disease (HHD) are a major concern that impact health, resulting into impairment and reduced quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study was to describe the burden of HHD in Iran and comparing it with the World Bank upper middle-income countries (UMICs) in terms of disability-adjusted life years (DALY), mortality and prevalence.

Methods: Using data from the Global Burden of Disease study 2017, we compared the number of DALYs, deaths and prevalence trends for HHD from 1990 to 2017 in all age groups for both sex in Iran, and compared the epidemiology and trends with UMICs and globally.

Results: The age-standardized DALY rate for HHD increased by 51.6% for men (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 305.8 to 436.7 per 100,000) and 4.4% for women (95% UI 429.4 to 448.7 per 100,000) in Iran. The age-standardized prevalence of HHD in Iran was almost twice times higher than globally and 1.5-times more than the World Bank UMICs. The age-standardized death rate for HDD increased by 60.1% (95% UI 17.3 to 27.7% per 100,000) for men and by 21.7% (95% UI 25.85 to 31.48 per 100,000) for women from 1990 to 2017. Age-standardized death rate in Iran was 2.4 and 1.9 times higher than globally and UMICs, respectively.

Conclusions: The higher prevalence and death rate in Iran in comparison with UMICs and globally should encourage health care provider to perform intensive screening activities in at risk population to prevent HHD and mitigate its mortality.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0257617PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8457465PMC
November 2021

The Impact of the Social Distancing Policy on COVID-19 Incidence Cases and Deaths in Iran from February 2020 to January 2021: Insights from an Interrupted Time Series Analysis.

Yale J Biol Med 2021 03 31;94(1):13-21. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Laboratory for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (LIAM), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON, Canada.

: In December 2019, a viral outbreak occurred in China, and rapidly spread out worldwide. Due to the lack of immediately available vaccines and effective drugs, many policy- and decision-makers have focused on non-pharmacological methods, including social distancing. This study was aimed at assessing the effects of the implementation of this policy in Iran, one of the countries most affected by COVID-19. We conducted a quasi-experimental study, utilizing the interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) approach. : We collected daily data between February 20, 2020 and January 29, 2021, through governmental websites from 954 public hospitals and healthcare settings. The Iranian government launched the social distancing policy on March 27, 2020. Statistical analyses, including ITSA, were carried out with R software Version 3.6.1 (London, UK). : During the study period, 1,398,835 confirmed incidence cases and 57,734 deaths occurred. We found a decrease of -179.93 (95% CI: -380.11 to -20.25, P-value=0.078) confirmed incidence cases following the implementation of the social distancing policy, corresponding to a daily decrease in the trend of -31.17 (95% CI: -46.95 to -15.40, P-value=0.08). Moreover, we found a decrease of -28.28 (95% CI: -43.55 to -13.01, P-value=0.05) deaths, corresponding to a daily decrease in the trend of -4.52 (95% CI: -5.25 to -3.78, P-value=0.003). : The growth rate of confirmed incidence cases and deaths from COVID-19 in Iran has decreased from March 27, 2020 to January 29, 2021, after the implementation of social distancing. By implementing this policy in all countries, the burden of COVID-19 may be mitigated.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7995950PMC
March 2021

Assessing Iran's health system according to the COVID-19 strategic preparedness and response plan of the World Health Organization: health policy and historical implications.

J Prev Med Hyg 2020 Dec 14;61(4):E508-E519. Epub 2021 Jan 14.

Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), Postgraduate School of Public Health, University of Genoa, Italy.

Background: The role of health systems in the management of disasters, including natural hazards like outbreaks and pandemics, is crucial and vital. Healthcare systems which are unprepared to properly deal with crises are much more likely to expose their public health workers and health personnel to harm and will not be able to deliver healthcare provisions in critical situations. This can lead to a drammatic toll of deaths, even in developed countries. The possible occurrence of global crises has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to devise instruments, guidelines and tools to assess the capacity of countries to deal with disasters. Iran's health system has been hit hardly by the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, we aimed to assess its preparedness and response to the outbreak.

Methods: The present investigation was designed as a qualitative study. We utilized the "COVID-19 Strategic Preparedness and Response Plan" devised by WHO as a conceptual framework.

Results: The dimension/pillar which scored the highest was national laboratories, followed by surveillance, rapid response teams and case investigations. Risk communication and community engagement was another pillar receiving a high score, followed by infection prevention and control and by country-level coordination, planning and monitoring. The pillars/dimensions receiving the lowest scores were operational support and logistics; case management; and points of entry.

Discussion: The COVID-19 pandemic has represented an unprecedent event that has challenged healthcare systems and facilities worldwide, highlighting their weaknesses and the need for inter-sectoral cooperation and collaboration during the crisis. Analyzing these experiences and capitalizing on them, by strengthening them,will help countries to be more prepared to face possible future crises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2020.61.4.1613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7888405PMC
December 2020

Cost-effectiveness analysis of mitral valve repair with the MitraClip delivery system for patients with mitral regurgitation: a systematic review.

Heart Fail Rev 2021 May 24;26(3):587-601. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Laboratory for Industrial and Applied Mathematics (LIAM), Department of Mathematics and Statistics, York University, Toronto, Canada.

To assess the cost-effectiveness of mitral valve repair with the MitraClip delivery system for patients with mitral regurgitation and heart failure, a systematic literature search was conducted in various electronic databases to January 3, 2020. Eligibility criteria are the population (patients with mitral regurgitation (MR)), intervention (transcatheter mitral valve repair using the MitraClip), comparator (conventional medical treatment), outcomes, and designs (Model-based or trial-based full economic evaluations).The quality of included studies was assessed using the CHEERS checklist. Mortality and survival rate, quality-adjusted life year (QALY), life years gained (LYG), total cost, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) regarding the use of MitraClip System were considered as the key outcomes. Eight articles were eligible for full-text assessment. Ultimately, a total of seven studies were considered in the current systematic review. Results demonstrated that MitraClip reduces mortality rate and increases survival rate. The mortality rate at 1 year and 10 years was 16.7% versus 29.77% and 70.9% versus 98.8%, respectively. Total cost data based on 2019 USD show that the MitraClip has the highest cost in the USA ($121,390) and the lowest cost in Italy ($33,062). The results showed that in all selected countries, willingness-to-pay (WTP) thresholds are upper than the cost per QALY; also, the highest ICER for the MitraClip is in the USA ($55,600/QALY) and the lowest in Italy ($10,616/QALY). To conclude, evidence from this systematic review suggests that MitraClip Delivery System improved both life expectancy and QALY compared with medical treatment in patients at high surgical risk and it was also a cost-effective treatment option for patients with mitral regurgitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10741-020-10055-9DOI Listing
May 2021

Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Inj Prev 2020 10 24;26(Supp 1):i96-i114. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Faculty of Health Sciences - Health Management and Policy, American University of Beirut, Beirut, Lebanon.

Background: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries.

Methods: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

Findings: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505).

Interpretation: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571366PMC
October 2020

Global, Regional, and National Burden of Calcific Aortic Valve and Degenerative Mitral Valve Diseases, 1990-2017.

Circulation 2020 05 29;141(21):1670-1680. Epub 2020 Mar 29.

Institute of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of Tartu, Tartumaa, Estonia (M.J.).

Background: Nonrheumatic valvular diseases are common; however, no studies have estimated their global or national burden. As part of the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017, mortality, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) for calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), degenerative mitral valve disease, and other nonrheumatic valvular diseases were estimated for 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017.

Methods: Vital registration data, epidemiologic survey data, and administrative hospital data were used to estimate disease burden using the Global Burden of Disease Study modeling framework, which ensures comparability across locations. Geospatial statistical methods were used to estimate disease for all countries, because data on nonrheumatic valvular diseases are extremely limited for some regions of the world, such as Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Results accounted for estimated level of disease severity as well as the estimated availability of valve repair or replacement procedures. DALYs and other measures of health-related burden were generated for both sexes and each 5-year age group, location, and year from 1990 to 2017.

Results: Globally, CAVD and degenerative mitral valve disease caused 102 700 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 82 700-107 900) and 35 700 (95% UI, 30 500-42 500) deaths, and 12.6 million (95% UI, 11.4 million-13.8 million) and 18.1 million (95% UI, 17.6 million-18.6 million) prevalent cases existed in 2017, respectively. A total of 2.5 million (95% UI, 2.3 million-2.8 million) DALYs were estimated as caused by nonrheumatic valvular diseases globally, representing 0.10% (95% UI, 0.09%-0.11%) of total lost health from all diseases in 2017. The number of DALYs increased for CAVD and degenerative mitral valve disease between 1990 and 2017 by 101% (95% UI, 79%-117%) and 35% (95% UI, 23%-47%), respectively. There is significant geographic variation in the prevalence, mortality rate, and overall burden of these diseases, with highest age-standardized DALY rates of CAVD estimated for high-income countries.

Conclusions: These global and national estimates demonstrate that CAVD and degenerative mitral valve disease are important causes of disease burden among older adults. Efforts to clarify modifiable risk factors and improve access to valve interventions are necessary if progress is to be made toward reducing, and eventually eliminating, the burden of these highly treatable diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.119.043391DOI Listing
May 2020

Cost-effectiveness analysis of PCSK9 inhibitors in cardiovascular diseases: a systematic review.

Heart Fail Rev 2020 11;25(6):1077-1088

School of Public Health, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Aims: To assess the cost-effectiveness of pro-protein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitors in cardiovascular disease.

Methods And Results: We performed a comprehensive search strategy in electronic databases from January 2015 to January 2019. Out of 475 articles, 16 were entered into the study. Quality-adjusted life year, life years gained (LYG), annual cost, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) regarding the use of PCSK9 inhibitors were considered as the key outcomes. The cost-effectiveness threshold varied from $45,000 in Spain to $150,000 in the USA. The annual cost of PCSK9 inhibitors for studies undertaken in the USA was in the range of $14,000 to $15,000, while it was about $7000 for other developed countries. The results showed that reduction in the price of PCSK9 inhibitors changed from 20 to 88%. The means of QALY were 0.65 and 0.67 in the Markov and Cardiovascular Disease Policy Modeling (CVDPM) models; also, the ICER means were $197,707 and $625,555 for the Markov and CVDPM model, respectively.

Conclusion: According to the current study, the effectiveness of PCSK9 inhibitors is well documented, although all studies pointed out a higher cost of these inhibitors.

Trial Registration: This study was registered within the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO) database of the University of York (CRD42018088472).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10741-019-09874-2DOI Listing
November 2020

A systematic review of the cost-effectiveness of heart valve replacement with a mechanical versus biological prosthesis in patients with heart valvular disease.

Heart Fail Rev 2020 05;25(3):495-503

Laboratory for industrial and applied mathematics (LIAM), Department of mathematics and statistics, York university, Toronto, Canada.

Heart valve disease (HVD) affects 2.5% of the US population and one million individuals aged 65 years and older in the UK. Given its burden, the aim of the present review was to assess the cost-effectiveness of heart valve replacement with mechanical versus biological prosthesis in HVD patients. We performed a systematic search in various electronic databases from January 1990 to June 2019. Five out of 542 articles were entered into the study, from which 2 papers were subsequently excluded not meeting the minimum number of items of the CHEERS checklist. Quality-Adjusted Life Year, Life Years Gained, and the Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio (ICER) regarding the type of replaced heart valve were extracted and reported. Studies were conducted in three different countries (Iran, France, and USA). ICER ranged from $1253 in Iran to €54,634 in France. Survival rate of mitral mechanical versus biological valves at 10 and 20 years was 72.9% versus 76.0% and 51% versus 30%, respectively. Survival rate at 20 years in patients undergoing atrial valve replacement was 20%. Ten- and 20-year death rates for biological valves were higher with respect to mechanical prosthesis (15.5% versus 8.4% at 10 years), with this difference becoming more relevant at 20 years (36.9% versus 13.9%). Due to higher ICER, mortality rate, and lower success rates in the long term for biological prostheses compared to mechanical ones, these appear to be more suitable for older patients (aged ≥ 70 years).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10741-019-09897-9DOI Listing
May 2020

The challenges of hepatitis C management in Iran: A qualitative study with patients.

Int J Health Plann Manage 2020 Jan 3;35(1):e56-e65. Epub 2019 Nov 3.

Postgraduate School of Public Health, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Background: The patient's perspective concerning the treatment process and the knowledge of the challenges and problems that they encounter can help to improve their treatment conditions.

Aim: The present study aimed at analyzing the experiences of hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients in Iran and the challenges encountered during the management and treatment process.

Methods: Semi-structured in-depth and face-to-face interviews were conducted. The criteria for selecting patients were as follows: HCV-positive subjects, with confirmed diagnosis of HCV, and under treatment. Content analysis was used to analyze the data. MAXQDA Ver11 software was used to better manage data. This study is based on the "Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Research" (COREQ) checklist.

Results: Twenty-one HCV patients were interviewed. The mean age of participants was 36.14 ± 11.29 years. Seven themes with 20 subthemes emerged from the content analysis of the interviews, namely, (a) disease-related stigma, (b) lack of knowledge, (c) psychological problems, (d) financial problems, (e) complications of treatment, (f) lack of family and community support, and (g) health-care system.

Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that a range of economic, social, and cultural problems could affect the treatment of HCV patients. Health policy and decision makers should try to provide them with a better management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hpm.2927DOI Listing
January 2020

Mapping 123 million neonatal, infant and child deaths between 2000 and 2017.

Nature 2019 10 16;574(7778):353-358. Epub 2019 Oct 16.

School of Health Sciences, Madda Walabu University, Bale Goba, Ethiopia.

Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6800389PMC
October 2019

The effect of the health transformation plan on cesarean section in Iran: a systematic review of the literature.

BMC Res Notes 2019 Jan 18;12(1):37. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

School of Public Health, Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Objective: Cesarean section (CS) is one of the most common surgical procedures in the world. In developed and developing countries, CS has grown significantly over the past decades. The Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education has developed a health transformation plan (HTP) in order to reduce CS rate and promote vaginal delivery. This study was conducted with the aim of reviewing the results of published studies on the impact of the HTP on CS in Iran.

Results: We searched Embase, PubMed/MEDLINE, ISI/Web of Sciences, Scopus, as well as Iranian databases (MagIran, SID and Barakatkns), from May 2014 to October 2018. To assess the quality of studies, the checklist "A Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool: for Non-Randomized Studies of Interventions" was utilized. Twelve studies were selected. Seven studies reported statistically significant results, showing a positive impact of the implementation of the HTP on CS reduction. Despite the decreased CS rate in Iran after about 4 years of the implementation of this policy, the goal of a yearly reduction by 10% has not been achieved yet. Increasing access to maternity services and community-based education through mass media could help changing the attitudes of Iranian mothers towards CS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13104-019-4081-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6339382PMC
January 2019

The challenges of implementation of clinical governance in Iran: a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies.

Health Res Policy Syst 2019 Jan 9;17(1). Epub 2019 Jan 9.

Department of Health Services Management, School of Health Management and Information Sciences, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Policy- and decision-makers seek to improve the quality of care in the health sector and therefore aim to improve quality through appropriate policies. Higher quality of care will satisfy service providers and the public, reduce costs, increase productivity, and lead to better organisational performance. Clinical governance is a method through which management can be improved and made more accountable, and leads to the provision of better quality of care. In November 2009, the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education implemented new clinical guidelines to standardise and improve clinical services as well as to increase efficiency and reduce costs. The purpose of this study was to assess the challenges of implementing clinical governance through a meta-synthesis of qualitative studies published in Iran.

Methods: Ten databases, including ISI/Web of Sciences, PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Scopus, Barakatns, MagIran and the Scientific Information Database, were searched between January 2009 and May 2018. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. This study was reported according to the Enhancing Transparency in Reporting the Synthesis of Qualitative Research guidelines. Thematic synthesis was used to analyse the data.

Results: Ten studies were selected and included based on the inclusion/exclusion criteria. In the first stage, 75 items emerged and were coded, and, following comparison and combination of the codes, 32 codes and 8 themes were finally extracted. These themes included health system structure, management, person-power, cultural factors, information and data, resources, education and evaluation.

Conclusion: The findings of the study showed that there exist a variety of challenges for the implementation of clinical governance in Iran. To successfully implement a health policy, its infrastructure needs to be created. Using the views and support of stakeholders can ensure that a policy is well implemented.

Trial Registration: CRD42017079077 . Dated October 10, 2017.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12961-018-0399-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6327528PMC
January 2019

Prevalence of nosocomial infections in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2018 11;32:48. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Student Research Committee, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Nosocomial infections represent a serious public health concern worldwide, and, especially, in developing countries where, due to financial constraints, it is difficult to control infections. This study aimed to review and assess the prevalence of nosocomial infections in Iran. Different databases were searched between January 2000 and December 2017. To determine the pooled prevalence, the stochastic DerSimonian-Laird model was used, computing the effect size with its 95% confidence interval. To examine the heterogeneity among studies, the I2 test were conducted. The reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) checklist was used to assess the methodological quality of observational studies. To further investigate the source of heterogeneity, meta-regression analyses stratified by publication year, sample size and duration of hospitalization in the hospital were carried out. 52 studies were included. Based on the random-effects model, the overall prevalence of nosocomial infection in Iran was 4.5% [95% CI: 3.5 to 5.7] with a high, statistically significant heterogeneity (I2=99.82%). A sensitivity analysis was performed to ensure the stability results. After removing each study, results did not change. A cumulative meta-analysis of the included studies was performed based on year of publication and the results did not change. In the present study, a high rate of infections caused by (urinary tract, respiratory tract, and bloodstream infections) was found. Preventing and reducing hospital infections can significantly impact on reducing mortality and health-related costs. Implementing ad hoc programs, such as training healthcare staff on admission to the hospital, may play an important role in reducing infections spreading.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14196/mjiri.32.48DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6108288PMC
June 2018

Iran's Health System Transformation Plan: A SWOT analysis.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2018 12;32:39. Epub 2018 May 12.

Department of Health Sciences (DISSAL), Section of History of Medicine and Ethics, University of Genoa, Genoa, Italy.

Societies are characterized by evolving health needs, which become more challenging throughout time, to which health system should respond. As such, a constant monitoring and a periodic review and reformation of healthcare systems are of fundamental importance to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare services delivery, equity, and sustainable funding. The establishment of President Rouhani's government in Iran, on May 5, 2014, the settlement of the new Ministry of Health and Medical Education administration (MoHME) and the need for change in the provision of healthcare services has led to the "Health System Transformation Plan" (HSTP). The aim of the current investigation was to critically evaluate the health transformation plan in Iran. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats (SWOT) analysis enables to identify and assess the strengths and weaknesses within an organization or program, as well as the threats and opportunities outside the given organization or program. To identify SWOT of the HSTP in Iran, all articles concerning this program published in scholarly databases as well as in the gray literature were systematically searched. Subsequently, all factors identified at the first round were thematically classified into four categories and for reaching consensus on this classification, the list of points and factors was sent to 40 experts - policy- and decisionmakers, professors and academicians, health department workers, health activists, journalists. Thirty-four subjects expressed comments on classification. Incorporating their suggestions, the SWOT analysis of Iran's HSTP was revised, finalized and then performed. HSTP in Iran, like many of the initiatives that have been recently introduced and not fully implemented, have various challenges, difficulties and pitfalls that health policymakers need to pay attention to. Interacting with criticisms, taking into account public opinion and strengthening the plan can make the project more effective, and it can be anticipated that in the future, better conditions in the health sector will be achieved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14196/mjiri.32.39DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6108248PMC
May 2018

A comparison of the earnings of specialist physicians and nurses before and after implementing the Iran's New Tariffs Book.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2018 5;32:37. Epub 2018 May 5.

Health Management and Economics Research Center, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

The fair wage to specialist physicians and nurses can enhance their job motivation, quality of work, job satisfaction level, and improve the delivery of services to patients. The present study aimed to compare the proportion of changes in earnings of specialist physicians and nurses before and after implementing the Iran's New Tariffs Book and compare their average income with a number of selected countries. This descriptive-analytical study was conducted cross-sectional in the hospitals affiliated to Iran University of Medical Sciences (IUMS) in 2016. Six months before and after the announcement and implementation of the Iran's New Tariffs Book, the relative values of healthcare services were compared. Study population included all specialist physicians and nurses working in the hospitals affiliated to IUMS. Sample size was determined by sampling formula. The proportion of changes in the income of medical specialists and nurses after establishing the book varied between 8% and 184%. Based on our findings, the highest increases were observed in internal medicine (184%), surgery (160%), gastroenterology (153%), and pediatrics (120%), whereas, the lowest ones belonged to ophthalmology (8%), emergency medicine (11%), neurology (24%) and anesthesia (32%). Nurses' income was surged by 43%. Pursuant to the findings, the income belonged to all examined medical specialists and nursing groups has increased after implementing the Iran's New Tariffs Book. The result suggested that income differences among groups have been broadened after the implementation of the Book. There was a wide and significant difference in specialist physicians' income vis-à-vis nursing groups' income before and after establishing the New Book.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14196/mjiri.32.37DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6108265PMC
May 2018

Effects of private and public health expenditure on health outcomes among countries with different health care systems: 2000 and 2014.

Med J Islam Repub Iran 2018 1;32:35. Epub 2018 May 1.

Dezful University of Medical Sciences, Dezful, Iran.

In the recent decades, most studies have paid more attention to community expenditures in health sector and health outcomes. This study provides econometric evidence linking countries' health expenditures to 3 health outcomes: (1) infant mortality, (2) under 5 mortality and (3) life expectancy within 4 different health care systems. In this study, we used the econometric method to estimate the effect of health expenditure on health status. Panel data were collected and grouped for 25 countries according to the health care system over 15 years (2000-2015). The random effects model was selected over the fixed effects model based on the Hausman test to assess the effect of different factors on the 3 mentioned health outcomes. A significant relationship was found between health expenditures and health indicators. The effect of private health expenditures on health outcomes in countries with mixed health financing system and traditional sickness fund insurance was higher than public expenditures. Also, after comparing the results between different health care systems, we found that the effect of health expenditure on the health outcome in countries with national health system (NHS) was more than other health care systems. To improve health status, health policymakers should focus on the factors that lie inside the health care system. Therefore, since private and public health expenditures have different effects on health outcomes in each health care system, countries should choose an optimal combination of private and public health expenditures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14196/mjiri.32.35DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6108280PMC
May 2018

The evaluation of time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah.

Glob J Health Sci 2014 Sep 28;7(1):274-9. Epub 2014 Sep 28.

Assistant professor, Abadan School of Medical Sciences and Health Services,Abadan, Iran AND kermanshah university of medical sciences, kermanshah,Iran.

This study evaluated the time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah. This study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study 500 cases of patients from Shahrivar (September) 2012 to the end of Shahrivar (September) 2013 were selected and studied by the non-probability quota method. The measuring tool included a preset cases record sheet and sampling method was completing the cases record sheet by referring to the patients' cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 and the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test, benchmark Eta (Eta), Games-Howell post hoc test). The results showed that the interval mean between receiving the mission to reaching the scene, between reaching the scene to moving from the scene, and between moving from the scene to a health center was 7.28, 16.73 and 7.28 minutes. The overall mean of time performance from the scene to the health center was 11.34 minutes. Any intervention in order to speed up service delivery, reduce response times, ambulance equipment and facilities required for accuracy, validity and reliability of the data recorded in the emergency dispatch department, Continuing Education of ambulance staffs, the use of manpower with higher specialize levels such as nurses, supply the job satisfaction, and increase the coordination with other departments that are somehow involved in this process can provide the ground for reducing the loss and disability resulting from traffic accidents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5539/gjhs.v7n1p274DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4796334PMC
September 2014
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