Publications by authors named "Sam Robson"

9 Publications

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The BODY-Q Stretch Marks Scale: A Development and Validation Study.

Aesthet Surg J 2018 Aug;38(9):990-997

Department of Pediatrics and Associate Member of the Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

Background: Stretch marks are common permanent dermal lesions that can cause psychosocial distress. A number of treatment modalities are available, with the majority targeted towards collagen production.

Objectives: To develop and field test a new BODY-Q scale to measure appearance of stretch marks in order to provide a means to incorporate the patient perspective into future treatment studies.

Methods: We previously described the development of the BODY-Q conceptual framework, which involved a literature review, 63 patient interviews, 22 cognitive interviews and input from 9 experts, and the international field-test study that involved 403 weight loss and 331 body contouring patients. To develop the Stretch Marks scale, we reexamined appearance codes from the original interviews. The scale was field tested in an international study. Rasch measurement theory (RMT) analysis was used to refine the scale and examine measurement properties.

Results: The Stretch Marks scale was completed by 630 participants, who provided 774 assessments. After dropping 3 items, the data fit the Rasch model (P = 0.56). Items (eg, length, width, amount, location, up close) mapped out a well-targeted clinical hierarchy. All items had ordered thresholds and good item fit. There was no evidence of differential item functioning (bias) by gender, age group or language (English vs Danish). The scale evidenced high reliability (ie, person separation index = 0.94, Cronbach's alpha = 0.97). For construct validity, the mean score correlated with the total number of body areas with stretch marks, higher BMI before bariatric surgery, and other BODY-Q scales.

Conclusions: This scale could be used to measure the impact of innovative treatments for stretch marks.

Level Of Evidence 4:
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjy081DOI Listing
August 2018

A lncRNA fine tunes the dynamics of a cell state transition involving , and DNA methylation.

Elife 2017 08 18;6. Epub 2017 Aug 18.

Wellcome Trust - Medical Research Council Stem Cell Institute, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom.

Execution of pluripotency requires progression from the naïve status represented by mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to a state capacitated for lineage specification. This transition is coordinated at multiple levels. Non-coding RNAs may contribute to this regulatory orchestra. We identified a rodent-specific long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) hereafter (), that modulates the dynamics of exit from naïve pluripotency. deletion delays the extinction of ESC identity, an effect associated with perduring Nanog expression. In the absence of , expression is reduced which results in persistence of the up-regulation of de novo methyltransferases Dnmt3a/b is delayed. deletion retards ES cell transition, correlating with delayed promoter methylation and phenocopying loss of or . The connection from lncRNA to miRNA and DNA methylation facilitates the acute extinction of naïve pluripotency, a pre-requisite for rapid progression from preimplantation epiblast to gastrulation in rodents. illustrates how lncRNAs may introduce species-specific network modulations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.23468DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5562443PMC
August 2017

Scottish perspective on regulation of cosmetic treatments.

Authors:
Sam Robson

BMJ 2017 07 14;358:j3424. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Temple Medical, Aberdeen AB11 6DL, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.j3424DOI Listing
July 2017

Body Contouring and Skin Tightening Using a Unique Novel Multisource Radiofrequency Energy Delivery Method.

J Clin Aesthet Dermatol 2017 Apr;10(4):24-29

Temple Medical, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.

The objective of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of the latest multisource radiofrequency handpiece, specially designed for body area skin treatments. The new handpiece features six concentric electrodes, each connected to an independently controlled radiofrequency generator. This was an international multicenter study across two sites. Twenty-five patients were enrolled into the study. Patients underwent at least five sessions of body skin tightening and circumference reduction. The first four sessions were held at one-week intervals and the other 1 to 4 remaining sessions, at two-week intervals. Twenty-five patients (23 women and 2 men). Overall change was graded by the physicians using the global aesthetic improvement scale. Patients were asked to complete satisfaction questionnaires at the end of the treatment sessions. Images were taken prior to the treatments, before every treatment session, and at the follow-up visit. No adverse events were reported as a result of the treatment. Measured body weight of the patients, as monitored during the study period, was stable (±2kg). Ninety-two percent of the patients were pleased with the results and finished all the treatment sessions. Twenty-four patients (96%) saw an improvement in body shape. Ninety-two percent of the patients would recommend the treatment to others. Overall change graded by the physician by the global aesthetic improvement scale provided the following results: 44 percent of the patients had more than 75-percent improvement, 32 percent of the patients between 50- to 75-percent improvement, 20 percent of the patients had between 25- to 50-percent improvement and only four percent had less than 25-percent improvement. The authors' data show that the handpiece examined provides high efficacy in skin tightening and body contouring after 5 to 8 painless treatments. Patient subjective questionnaires show very high satisfaction rates.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5404777PMC
April 2017

Self-Report Scales to Measure Expectations and Appearance-Related Psychosocial Distress in Patients Seeking Cosmetic Treatments.

Aesthet Surg J 2016 Oct 24;36(9):1068-78. Epub 2016 May 24.

Dr Klassen is an Associate Professor, Department of Pediatrics, and Associate Member, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Dr Cano is the Chief Scientific Officer of Modus Outcomes, Boston, MA. Dr Alderman is a plastic surgeon in private practice in Alpharetta, GA. Mr East is a Facial Plastic Surgeon in the Craniofacial Service, University College London Hospitals, and an Honorary Senior Lecturer, University College London Hospitals, London, UK. Ms Badia is a facial plastic surgeon in private practice in London, UK. Dr Baker is a Professor and Program Director, Department of Plastic Surgery, Medstar Georgetown University Hospital, Washington, DC. Dr Robson is a physician in private practice in Aberdeen, Scotland. Dr Pusic is a Plastic Surgeon and Associate Professor, Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, NY.

Background: The use of screening scales in cosmetic practices may help to identify patients who require education to modify inappropriate expectations and/or psychological support.

Objectives: To describe the development and validation of scales that measure expectations (about how one's appearance and quality of life might change with cosmetic treatments) and appearance-related psychosocial distress.

Methods: The scales were field-tested in patients 18 years and older seeking facial aesthetic or body contouring treatments. Recruitment took place in clinics in the United States, United Kingdom, and Canada between February 2010 and January 2015. Rasch Measurement Theory (RMT) analysis was used for psychometric evaluation. Scale scores range from 0 to 100; higher scores indicate more inappropriate expectations and higher psychosocial distress.

Results: Facial aesthetic (n = 279) and body contouring (n = 90) patients participated (97% response). In the RMT analysis, all items had ordered thresholds and acceptable item fit. Person Separation Index and Cronbach alpha values were 0.88 and 0.92 for the Expectation scale, and 0.81 and 0.89 for the Psychosocial Distress scale respectively. Higher expectation correlated with higher psychosocial distress (R = 0.40, P < .001). In the facial aesthetic group, lower scores on the FACE-Q Satisfaction with Appearance scale correlated with higher expectations (R = -0.27, P = .001) and psychosocial distress (R = -0.52, P < .001). In the body contouring group, lower scores on the BODY-Q Satisfaction with Body scale correlated with higher psychosocial distress (R = -0.31, P = .003). Type of treatment and marital status were associated with scale scores in multivariate models.

Conclusions: Future research could examine convergent and predictive validity. As research data are accumulated, norms and interpretation guidelines will be established.

Level Of Evidence: 2 Risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjw078DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5029370PMC
October 2016

The BODY-Q: A Patient-Reported Outcome Instrument for Weight Loss and Body Contouring Treatments.

Plast Reconstr Surg Glob Open 2016 Apr 13;4(4):e679. Epub 2016 Apr 13.

Department of Pediatrics, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Modus Outcome, Letchworth Garden City, UK; Swan Center for Plastic Surgery, Alpharetta, Ga.; Plastic and Reconstructive Department, St Georges Hospital NHS Trust, Tooting, London, United Kingdom; Department of Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Temple Medical, Aberdeen, Scotland; School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Institute of Applied Health Sciences, Hamilton, ON, Canada; Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; Women's College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada; and Department of Surgery, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, N.Y.

Background: Body contouring performed for cosmetic purposes, or after weight loss, has the potential to improve body image and health-related quality of life (HRQL). The BODY-Q is a new patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument designed to measure patient perceptions of weight loss and/or body contouring. In this article, we describe the psychometric properties of the BODY-Q scales after an international field-test.

Methods: Weight loss and body contouring patients from Canada, United States, and United Kingdom were recruited between November 2013 and February 2015. Data were collected using an iPad directly into a web-based application or a questionnaire booklet. Rasch measurement theory analysis was used for item reduction and to examine reliability, validity, and ability to detect change.

Results: The sample included 403 weight loss and 331 body contouring patients. Most BODY-Q items had ordered thresholds (134/138) and good item fit. Scale reliability was acceptable, ie, Person separation index >0.70 for 16 scales, Cronbach α ≥0.90 for 18 of 18 scales, and Test-retest ≥0.87 for 17 of 18 scales. Appearance and HRQL scores were lower in participants with more obesity-related symptoms, higher body mass index, and more excess skin and in those pre- versus postoperative body contouring. The 134 weight loss patients who completed the BODY-Q twice, either 6 weeks (weight loss/nonsurgical body contouring program) or 6 months (bariatric program) later, improved significantly on 7 appearance and 4 HRQL scales.

Conclusion: The BODY-Q is a clinically meaningful and scientifically sound patient-reported outcome instrument that can be used to measure outcomes in patients who undergo weight loss and/or body contouring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/GOX.0000000000000665DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4859238PMC
April 2016

Glutamine methylation in histone H2A is an RNA-polymerase-I-dedicated modification.

Nature 2014 Jan 18;505(7484):564-8. Epub 2013 Dec 18.

1] Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK [2] Department of Pathology, University of Cambridge, Tennis Court Road, Cambridge CB2 1QN, UK.

Nucleosomes are decorated with numerous post-translational modifications capable of influencing many DNA processes. Here we describe a new class of histone modification, methylation of glutamine, occurring on yeast histone H2A at position 105 (Q105) and human H2A at Q104. We identify Nop1 as the methyltransferase in yeast and demonstrate that fibrillarin is the orthologue enzyme in human cells. Glutamine methylation of H2A is restricted to the nucleolus. Global analysis in yeast, using an H2AQ105me-specific antibody, shows that this modification is exclusively enriched over the 35S ribosomal DNA transcriptional unit. We show that the Q105 residue is part of the binding site for the histone chaperone FACT (facilitator of chromatin transcription) complex. Methylation of Q105 or its substitution to alanine disrupts binding to FACT in vitro. A yeast strain mutated at Q105 shows reduced histone incorporation and increased transcription at the ribosomal DNA locus. These features are phenocopied by mutations in FACT complex components. Together these data identify glutamine methylation of H2A as the first histone epigenetic mark dedicated to a specific RNA polymerase and define its function as a regulator of FACT interaction with nucleosomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12819DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3901671PMC
January 2014

Origins and functional impact of copy number variation in the human genome.

Nature 2010 Apr 7;464(7289):704-12. Epub 2009 Oct 7.

The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Wellcome Trust Genome Campus, Hinxton, Cambridge, CB10 1SA UK.

Structural variations of DNA greater than 1 kilobase in size account for most bases that vary among human genomes, but are still relatively under-ascertained. Here we use tiling oligonucleotide microarrays, comprising 42 million probes, to generate a comprehensive map of 11,700 copy number variations (CNVs) greater than 443 base pairs, of which most (8,599) have been validated independently. For 4,978 of these CNVs, we generated reference genotypes from 450 individuals of European, African or East Asian ancestry. The predominant mutational mechanisms differ among CNV size classes. Retrotransposition has duplicated and inserted some coding and non-coding DNA segments randomly around the genome. Furthermore, by correlation with known trait-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we identified 30 loci with CNVs that are candidates for influencing disease susceptibility. Despite this, having assessed the completeness of our map and the patterns of linkage disequilibrium between CNVs and SNPs, we conclude that, for complex traits, the heritability void left by genome-wide association studies will not be accounted for by common CNVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature08516DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3330748PMC
April 2010

c-Myc and downstream targets in the pathogenesis and treatment of cancer.

Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov 2006 Nov;1(3):305-26

Biological Sciences, Biomedical Research Institute, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK.

The c-Myc oncoprotein is a master regulator of genes involved in diverse cellular processes. Situated upstream of signalling pathways regulating cellular replication/growth as well as apoptosis/growth arrest, c-Myc may help integrate processes determining cell numbers and tissue size in physiology and disease. In cancer, this 'dual potential' allows c-Myc to act as its own tumour suppressor. Evidently, given that deregulated expression of c-Myc is present in most, if not all, human cancers (Table 1) and is associated with a poor prognosis, by implication these in-built 'failsafe' mechanisms have been overcome. To explore the complex activity of c-Myc and its potential as a therapeutic target 'post-genome era' technologies for determining global gene expression alongside advanced new models for the study of tumourigenesis in vivo have proved invaluable. Thus, many recent studies have provided encouragement for the therapeutic targeting of c-Myc in cancer and have revealed new protein targets for manipulating aspects of c-Myc activity. The remarkable regression of even advanced and genetically unstable tumours, seen following deactivation of c-Myc in various models is particularly exciting. This review will discuss what is known about the role of c-Myc in growth deregulation and cancer and will conclude with a discussion of the most promising recent developments in Myc-targeted therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/157489206778776934DOI Listing
November 2006