Publications by authors named "Salvatore Ingala"

5 Publications

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Efficacy and safety of aspirin for cardiovascular risk prevention in younger and older age: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis.

Thromb Haemost 2021 Oct 12. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Cardiology Unit, University of Catania, Catania, Italy.

Aims - The efficacy and safety of aspirin for primary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention is controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the merits of aspirin in subjects with no overt CVD, with a focus on age as a treatment modifier. Methods and results - Randomized trials comparing aspirin use versus no aspirin use or placebo were included. The primary efficacy outcome was all-cause death. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding. Subgroups analyses were conducted to investigate the consistency of the effect sizes in studies including younger and older individuals, using a cut-off of 65 years. A total of 21 randomized trials including 173,810 individuals at a mean follow-up of 5.3 years were included. Compared with control, aspirin did not reduce significantly the risk of all-cause death (risk ratio 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-1.00, p=0.057). Major adverse cardiovascular events were significantly reduced by 11%, paralleled by significant reductions in myocardial infarction and transient ischemic attack. Major bleeding, intracranial hemorrhage, and gastrointestinal bleeding were significantly increased by aspirin. There was a significant age interaction for death (p for interaction=0.007), with aspirin showing a statistically significant 7% relative benefit on all-cause death in studies including younger patients. Conclusions - The use of aspirin in subjects with no overt cardiovascular disease was associated with a neutral effect on all-cause death and a modest lower risk of major cardiovascular events at the price of an increased risk in major bleeding. The benefit of aspirin might be more pronounced in younger individuals.
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October 2021

Mechanisms of ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction in patients with atrial fibrillation, prior stenting and long-standing chronic coronary syndrome.

Cardiol J 2020 21;27(1):8-15. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

University of Catania.

Background: The optimal antithrombotic regimen for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) and chronic coronary syndromes beyond 1 year after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a matter of debate. For these patients, guidelines recommend oral anticoagulation (OAC) alone, but the risk of thrombotic complications remains a concern. The aim of this study was to characterize the incidence, presentation and use of antithrombotic therapy in patients with AF, prior stenting > 12 months and new ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).

Methods: Consecutive patients were selected from an institutional registry over a 3-year period if they matched the following criteria: 1) STEMI undergoing primary PCI; 2) AF; 3) chronic coronary syndrome with prior stenting > 12 months.

Results: Among 852 consecutive STEMI patients undergoing primary PCI, the prevalence of AF was 4.1%, and 6 (0.9%) patients met all the inclusion criteria. Substantial heterogeneity in antithrombotic treatment for these patients was noted (e.g., OAC alone, OAC plus a single antiplatelet agent, no antithrombotic therapy). In 50% of patients, the STEMI episode was linked to a previously stented lesion or documented plaque.

Conclusions: This case review illustrates the wide heterogeneity in antithrombotic pharmacotherapy among AF patients presenting with STEMI > 12 months after PCI. The underlying reason for STEMI is only partly related to disease progression or stent-related events. This finding suggests that multiple mechanisms of recurrence may be advocated, and are not only limited to antithrombotic therapy but may be explained by the natural history of coronary artery disease in remote vessels.
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June 2021

Aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: latest evidence.

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2019 Sep 16;17(9):633-643. Epub 2019 Aug 16.

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine , Jacksonville , FL , USA.

: While the clinical merits of aspirin in secondary cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention remain undisputed, its role in primary prevention is controversial. Recently, three trials of primary prevention reported neutral net benefit results or evidence of harm for aspirin in patients with no overt CVD. : This article aims to inform clinical practitioners by appraising the current body of evidence on the use of aspirin for primary CVD prevention, ranging from general pharmacology to clinical outcomes and future directions. : Based on meta-analyses incorporating latest trials in the field of primary prevention, the modest reduction in ischemic events with aspirin, if any, is offset by a modest increase in nonfatal bleeding. Improved control of CVD risk factors and broader use of statins may have reduced the thrombotic complications of atherosclerosis, thus limiting the opportunity for aspirin to prevent clinical CVD events in the contemporary era. As such, decision-making about aspirin for primary prevention is challenging even when selected patients are considered and involves careful weighing of risks and benefits. Ongoing investigations conducted in patients with cancer could rapidly modify the current perception of the unfavorable benefit-risk ratio of aspirin in patients with no overt CVD.
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September 2019