Publications by authors named "Salvatore Chirumbolo"

241 Publications

Iron Deficiency in Obesity and after Bariatric Surgery.

Biomolecules 2021 Apr 21;11(5). Epub 2021 Apr 21.

Faculty of Medicine, Ovidius University of Constanta, 900470 Constanta, Romania.

Iron deficiency (ID) is particularly frequent in obese patients due to increased circulating levels of acute-phase reactant hepcidin and adiposity-associated inflammation. Inflammation in obese subjects is closely related to ID. It induces reduced iron absorption correlated to the inhibition of duodenal ferroportin expression, parallel to the increased concentrations of hepcidin. Obese subjects often get decreased inflammatory response after bariatric surgery, accompanied by decreased serum hepcidin and therefore improved iron absorption. Bariatric surgery can induce the mitigation or resolution of obesity-associated complications, such as hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and hyperlipidemia, adjusting many parameters in the metabolism. However, gastric bypass surgery and sleeve gastrectomy can induce malabsorption and may accentuate ID. The present review explores the burden and characteristics of ID and anemia in obese patients after bariatric surgery, accounting for gastric bypass technique (Roux-en-Y gastric bypass-RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG). After bariatric surgery, obese subjects' iron status should be monitored, and they should be motivated to use adequate and recommended iron supplementation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biom11050613DOI Listing
April 2021

Individual risk management strategy for SARS-CoV-2 infection: A step toward personalized healthcare.

Int Immunopharmacol 2021 Apr 1;96:107629. Epub 2021 Apr 1.

Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM), Mo i Rana, Norway. Electronic address:

Lethal or critical COVID-19 occurs most in infected hosts with certain risk factors such as advanced age or pre-existing disease. Host metabolic status significantly affects the clinical presentations of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Individual risk management is thus crucial for preventing severe COVID-19. Such susceptibility is individual, depending on a multitude of factors. Personalized risk assessment requires the inclusive analysis of big health data to stratify individual risk and derive a customized action plan. Personalized medicine requires shifting from the virology aspect per se to the whole individual's consideration, including dietary pattern, nutritional status, supporting lifestyle, co-existing diseases, and environmental factors. In this short communication, we discuss the individual management strategy for SARS-CoV2 infection as a step towards future personalized healthcare.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2021.107629DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8015431PMC
April 2021

COVID-19 and cancer: A deadly pairing.

Int J Cancer 2021 Apr 16. Epub 2021 Apr 16.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33600DOI Listing
April 2021

The role of B vitamins in stroke prevention.

Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 2021 Mar 16:1-14. Epub 2021 Mar 16.

Faculty of Medicine, Ovidius University of Constanta, Constanta, Romania.

Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy) are a recognized risk factor for stroke. This relationship represents one aspect of the debated `Hcy hypothesis'. Elevated Hcy may be an independent and treatable cause of atherosclerosis and thrombotic vascular diseases. Further observations indicate that proper dietary supplementation with B-vitamins decreases total plasma Hcy concentrations and may be an effective intervention for stroke prevention. Metabolic vitamin B deficiency is a nutritional determinant of total Hcy and stroke risk. Genetic factors may link B vitamins with stroke severity due to the impact on Hcy metabolism of polymorphism in the genes coding for methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, methionine-synthase, methionine synthase reductase, and cystathionine β-synthase. Several meta-analyses of large randomized controlled trials exist. However, they are not completely in agreement about B vitamins' role, particularly folic acid levels, vitamin B, and B, in lowering the homocysteine concentrations in people at high stroke risk. A very complex relationship exists between Hcy and B vitamins, and several factors appear to modify the preventive effects of B vitamins in stroke. This review highlights the regulating factors of the active role of B vitamins active in stroke prevention. Also, inputs for further large, well-designed studies, for specific, particularly sensitive subgroups are given.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10408398.2021.1885341DOI Listing
March 2021

Molecules, Information and the Origin of Life: What Is Next?

Molecules 2021 Feb 14;26(4). Epub 2021 Feb 14.

Verona-Unit of Immunology, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata, 37134 Verona, Italy.

How life did originate and what is life, in its deepest foundation? The texture of life is known to be held by molecules and their chemical-physical laws, yet a thorough elucidation of the aforementioned questions still stands as a puzzling challenge for science. Focusing solely on molecules and their laws has indirectly consolidated, in the scientific knowledge, a mechanistic (reductionist) perspective of biology and medicine. This occurred throughout the long historical path of experimental science, affecting subsequently the onset of the many theses and speculations about the origin of life and its maintenance. Actually, defining what is life, asks for a novel epistemology, a ground on which living systems' organization, whose origin is still questioned via chemistry, physics and even philosophy, may provide a new key to focus onto the complex nature of the human being. In this scenario, many issues, such as the role of information and water structure, have been long time neglected from the theoretical basis on the origin of life and marginalized as a kind of scenic backstage. On the contrary, applied science and technology went ahead on considering molecules as the sole leading components in the scenery. Water physics and information dynamics may have a role in living systems much more fundamental than ever expected. Can an organism be simply explained by a mechanistic view of its nature or we need "something else"? Probably, we can earn sound foundations about life by simply changing our prejudicial view about living systems simply as complex, highly ordered machines. In this manuscript we would like to reappraise many fundamental aspects of molecular and chemical biology and reading them through a new paradigm, which includes Prigogine's dissipative structures and informational dissipation (Shannon dissipation). This would provide readers with insightful clues about how biology and chemistry may be thoroughly revised, referring to new models, such as informational dissipation. We trust they are enabled to address a straightforward contribution in elucidating what life is for science. This overview is not simply a philosophical speculation, but it would like to affect deeply our way to conceive and describe the foundations of organisms' life, providing intriguing suggestions for readers in the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26041003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7917628PMC
February 2021

Vaccination hesitancy and the "myth" on mRNA-based vaccines in Italy in the COVID-19 era: Does urgency meet major safety criteria?

J Med Virol 2021 Mar 5. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination campaign in Italy has started with a huge perplexity about vaccine efficacy, vaccine-borne adverse effects and vaccine clinical trial studies. In this commentary I tried to elucidate these issues, which represent a fundamental topic to be thoroughly addressed in COVID-19 pandemic.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8014645PMC
March 2021

The Role of Diet and Supplementation of Natural Products in COVID-19 Prevention.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Feb 25. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM), Toften 24, 8610, Mo i Rana, Norway.

Recently, a discussion has begun on the global management strategy against COVID-19 based on the hypothesis that individuals' macro- and micronutrient status combined with antiviral drugs and herbs can be an ally against the infection. The hypothesis is that people's nutritional and oxidative scavenging capacity may provide fundamental data to predict severe and acute pulmonary distress following SARS-Cov2 infection. Consequently, the scientific community has addressed the role of balanced diets, nutritional supplements, and micronutrients, including folk herbal formulations, in reducing hospitalization and the severity of pulmonary impact in COVID-19 by preventing the most serious forms of the infection. This led to an animated debate on the potential effectiveness of some vitamins, micronutrients, and traditional Chinese medicine in preventing COVID-19, with some authors convinced that plant extracts could act oppositely, exacerbating the effect of the infection. While current research is still far to assess the suggestions and issues raised in this short communication, it is undoubtedly true that determining an individual's current metabolic status, including macro- and micronutrients, is an essential factor in defining any individuals' deficiencies, which will need to be addressed urgently through a proper diet, specific personalized nutritional supplementation, and lifestyle changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02623-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7905195PMC
February 2021

Commentary on: A Systematic Review on Extracellular Vesicle-Enriched Fat Grafting: A Shifting Paradigm.

Aesthet Surg J 2021 Feb 9. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjaa356DOI Listing
February 2021

The impact of glutathione metabolism in autism spectrum disorder.

Pharmacol Res 2021 Apr 22;166:105437. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy; CONEM Scientific Secretary, Verona, Italy.

This paper reviews the potential role of glutathione (GSH) in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). GSH plays a key role in the detoxification of xenobiotics and maintenance of balance in intracellular redox pathways. Recent data showed that imbalances in the GSH redox system are an important factor in the pathophysiology of ASD. Furthermore, ASD is accompanied by decreased concentrations of reduced GSH in part caused by oxidation of GSH into glutathione disulfide (GSSG). GSSG can react with protein sulfhydryl (SH) groups, thereby causing proteotoxic stress and other abnormalities in SH-containing enzymes in the brain and blood. Moreover, alterations in the GSH metabolism via its effects on redox-independent mechanisms are other processes associated with the pathophysiology of ASD. GSH-related regulation of glutamate receptors such as the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor can contribute to glutamate excitotoxicity. Synergistic and antagonistic interactions between glutamate and GSH can result in neuronal dysfunction. These interactions can involve transcription factors of the immune pathway, such as activator protein 1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB, thereby interacting with neuroinflammatory mechanisms, ultimately leading to neuronal damage. Neuronal apoptosis and mitochondrial dysfunction are recently outlined as significant factors linking GSH impairments with the pathophysiology of ASD. Moreover, GSH regulates the methylation of DNA and modulates epigenetics. Existing data support a protective role of the GSH system in ASD development. Future research should focus on the effects of GSH redox signaling in ASD and should explore new therapeutic approaches by targeting the GSH system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2021.105437DOI Listing
April 2021

The need for a correct oxygen-ozone autohemotherapy (O-AHT) in patients with mild to moderate COVID-19 pneumonia.

Intern Emerg Med 2021 04 5;16(3):793-794. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Italian Society for Oxygen-Ozone Therapy (SIOOT), High School in Oxygen Ozone Therapy, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11739-020-02592-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7782567PMC
April 2021

Ultrastructural features of the double capsulated connective tissue around silicone prostheses.

Microsc Res Tech 2020 Dec 10. Epub 2020 Dec 10.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

The implantation of breast prostheses for both aesthetic and reconstructive purposes has been growing exponentially in the last 20 years. Safety and prosthesis lifespan are majorly debated issues in relation to the correlated long-term complications. Mainly the periprosthetic capsule that develops around the implant is often the cause of complications and particularly for macrotextured silicone breast implants. Some reports have tried to elucidate the mechanism by which macrotextured silicone implants undergo damage and cause double capsule formation. In this study, we investigated the morphological characteristics of double capsule of macrotextured implants surgically removed from patients. With the use of microscopy techniques, this work analyzed the newly formed tissue observed in the interaction between synthetic and biological surfaces.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23673DOI Listing
December 2020

SARS-CoV2 virions in PM pollutants. May further research reject this thesis?

J Med Virol 2021 Mar 30;93(3):1247-1249. Epub 2020 Oct 30.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jmv.26590DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7675441PMC
March 2021

The extra-lymphoid compartment of breast milk: Not a simple transfer of passive immunization.

J Leukoc Biol 2021 04 8;109(4):693-695. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine-Unit of Pediatrics, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy.

Discussion on how breast milk shows similarity to the immune gut micro-environment, creating a sort of immune "extended gut" between mother and child; helps advance the newborn's immune endowment by further tuning mucosal immunity and CD8 memory cells in the early life intestine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.1CE0720-447RRDOI Listing
April 2021

Biomarkers of Senescence during Aging as Possible Warnings to Use Preventive Measures.

Curr Med Chem 2021 ;28(8):1471-1488

Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM), Mo i Rana, Norway.

Human life expectancy is increasing significantly over time thanks to the improved possibility for people to take care of themselves and the higher availability of food, drugs, hygiene, services, and assistance. The increase in the average age of the population worldwide is, however, becoming a real concern, since aging is associated with the rapid increase in chronic inflammatory pathologies and degenerative diseases, very frequently dependent on senescent phenomena that occur alongside with senescence. Therefore, the search for reliable biomarkers that can diagnose the possible onset or predict the risk of developing a disease associated with aging is a crucial target of current medicine. In this review, we construct a synopsis of the main addressable biomarkers to study the development of aging and the associated ailments.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867327999200917150652DOI Listing
May 2021

Swabbing Thoroughly People for COVID-19 Positivity. Insights on the Main Bio-analytical and Microbiology Bias and Concerns.

Curr Microbiol 2020 Nov 19;77(11):3680-3684. Epub 2020 Aug 19.

Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Thorough swabbing is becoming an increasing approach to fight COVID-19 transmission, particularly among asymptomatic subjects, who are thought to represent the majority of potentially-contacting people. Particularly in the current management of COVID-19 emergency, the 3T approach, i.e., testing, tracing and treating, is felt as particularly crucial to fight COVID-19 pandemic. Aside from the time-consuming, cost expensive and the many burdensome issues associated with a thorough swabbing, adopting easy-to-make criteria such as "drive-thru-swab" may exacerbate the burden of critical biases and pre-analytical errors, which may impair the analytical reliability of these tests. This manuscript addresses some major points about.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00284-020-02167-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7437638PMC
November 2020

Association between the gut and oral microbiome with obesity.

Anaerobe 2020 Aug 14:102248. Epub 2020 Aug 14.

Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM), Mo i Rana, Norway. Electronic address:

In recent decades, obesity has become one of the most common lifestyle-associated disorders. Obesity is a major contributing factor for several other lifestyles associated disorders such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Although genetics and lifestyle have been directly implicated in the onset and progression of obesity, recent studies have established that gut microbiome plays a crucial role in obesity progression. A higher proportion of Firmicutes and a skewed Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio may contribute to gut dysbiosis and subsequent disturbances in the overall body metabolisms. Like gut microbiome, the oral cavity of humans also harbors a characteristic microbial population called "oral microbiome". The oral microbiome has also been implicated in the development of obesity due to its modulating effects on the gut microbiome. Due to its critical role in obesity, alteration in the gut microbiome has been suggested as one of the therapeutic strategies to manage obesity itself. For example, fecal microbiome transfer, or the use of probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested. These therapies not only restore the gut microbiome to the "pre-obese stage" but also ameliorate many functional aspects of the metabolic syndrome such as systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and fat accumulation. However, the efficacy and safety of some of the methods have not been tested for their long-term implications, and further research in this area is warranted to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in this process completely.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anaerobe.2020.102248DOI Listing
August 2020

Oxygen-ozone (O-O) immunoceutical therapy for patients with COVID-19. Preliminary evidence reported.

Int Immunopharmacol 2020 Nov 8;88:106879. Epub 2020 Aug 8.

SIOOT INTERNATIONAL, Communian Clinic, Gorle Bergamo, Italy; Department of Drug Science, University of Pavia, Italy.

Objective: This study evaluated the potential efficacy of a novel approach to treat COVID-19 patients, using an oxygen-ozone (O-O) mixture, via a process called Oxygen-Ozone- Immunoceutical Therapy. The methodology met the criteria of a novel, promising approach to treat successfully elderly COVID-19 patients, particularly when hospitalized in intensive care units (ICUs) Experimental design: We investigated the therapeutic effect of 4 cycles of O-O in 50 hospitalized COVID-19 subjects suffering from acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS), aged more than 60 years, all males and undergoing non invasive mechanical ventilation in ICUs.

Results: Following O-O treatment a significant improvement in inflammation and oxygenation indexes occurred rapidly and within the first 9 days after the treatment, despite the expected 14-20 days. A significant reduction of inflammatory and thromboembolic markers (CRP, IL-6, D-dimer) was observed. Furthermore, amelioration in the major respiratory indexes, such as respiratory and gas exchange markers (SatO%, PaO/FiO ratio), was reported.

Conclusion: Our results show that O-O treatment would be a promising therapy for COVID-19 patients. It leads patients to a fast recovery from ARDS via the improvement of major respiratory indexes and blood gas parameters, following a relatively short time of dispensed forced ventilation (about one to two weeks). This study may encourage the scientific community to further investigate and evaluate the proposed method for the treatment of COVID-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106879DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7414302PMC
November 2020

The role of glutathione redox imbalance in autism spectrum disorder: A review.

Free Radic Biol Med 2020 11 31;160:149-162. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

IM Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia; Federal Research Centre of Biological Systems, Agro-technologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Orenburg, Russia.

The role of glutathione in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is emerging as a major topic, due to its role in the maintenance of the intracellular redox balance. Several studies have implicated glutathione redox imbalance as a leading factor in ASD, and both ASD and many other neurodevelopmental disorders involve low levels of reduced glutathione (GSH), high levels of oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and abnormalities in the expressions of glutathione-related enzymes in the blood or brain. Glutathione metabolism, through its impact on redox environment or redox-independent mechanisms, interferes with multiple mechanisms involved in ASD pathogenesis. Glutathione-mediated regulation of glutamate receptors [e.g., N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor], as well as the role of glutamate as a substrate for glutathione synthesis, may be involved in the regulation of glutamate excitotoxicity. However, the interaction between glutathione and glutamate in the pathogenesis of brain diseases may vary from synergism to antagonism. Modulation of glutathione is also associated with regulation of redox-sensitive transcription factors nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and activator protein 1 (AP-1) and downstream signaling (proinflammatory cytokines and inducible enzymes), thus providing a significant impact on neuroinflammation. Mitochondrial dysfunction, as well as neuronal apoptosis, may also provide a significant link between glutathione metabolism and ASD. Furthermore, it has been recently highlighted that glutathione can affect and modulate DNA methylation and epigenetics. Review analysis including research studies meeting the required criteria for analysis showed statistically significant differences between the plasma GSH and GSSG levels as well as GSH:GSSG ratio in autistic patients compared with healthy individuals (P = 0.0145, P = 0.0150 and P = 0.0202, respectively). Therefore, the existing data provide a strong background on the role of the glutathione system in ASD pathogenesis. Future research is necessary to investigate the role of glutathione redox signaling in ASD, which could potentially also lead to promising therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2020.07.017DOI Listing
November 2020

Wheat and chaffs in the interpretation of the current COVID19 outbreak in Italy.

Virusdisease 2020 Jun 5;31(2):85-93. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM), Mo i Rana, Norway.

The COVID19 outbreak in Italy is still a big concern. The Italian Government has recommended citizens to respect faithfully any compulsory legal disposition in order to stay home and so contributing in escaping viral contacts and slowing down epidemic. Emergency has raised a widely animated debate about how to read and comprehend the daily case numbers, the medical and caregivers availability, the needs to swab asymptomatic subjects. In this review the authors discuss about the many wheat and chaffs of how this virus disease is addressed .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13337-020-00602-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7274266PMC
June 2020

Preventive treatments to slow substantia nigra damage and Parkinson's disease progression: A critical perspective review.

Pharmacol Res 2020 11 8;161:105065. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Impact Research Center, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.

Restoring the lost physiological functions of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease (PD) is an important goal of PD therapy. The present article reviews a) novel drug targets that should be targeted to slow PD progression, and b) clinical and experimental research data reporting new treatments targeting immune-inflammatory and oxidative pathways. A systematic search was performed based on the major databases, i.e., ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PubMed, CABI Direct databases, and Scopus, on relevant studies performed from 1900 to 2020. This review considers the crucial roles of mitochondria and immune-inflammatory and oxidative pathways in the pathophysiology of PD. High levels of oxidative stress in the substantia nigra, as well as modifications in glutathione regulation, contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction, with a decline in complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain reported in PD patients. Many papers suggest that targeting antioxidative systems is a crucial aspect of preventive and protective therapies, even justifying the utilization of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplementation to fortify the protection afforded by intracellular glutathione. Dietary recommended panels including ketogenetic diet, muscular exercise, nutraceutical supplementation including NAC, glutathione, nicotine, caffeine, melatonin, niacin, and butyrate, besides to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and memantine treatment are important aspects of PD therapy. The integration of neuro-immune, antioxidant, and nutritional approaches to treatment should afford better neuroprotection, including by attenuating neuroinflammation, nitro-oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and neurodegenerative processes. Future research should clarify the efficacy, and interactions, of nicotine receptor agonists, gut microbiome-derived butyrate, melatonin, and NSAIDs in the treatment of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.105065DOI Listing
November 2020

Radiation-related health hazards to uranium miners.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Oct 7;27(28):34808-34822. Epub 2020 Jul 7.

Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM), Toften 24, 8610, Mo i Rana, Norway.

Concerns on health effects from uranium (U) mining still represent a major issue of debate. Any typology of active job in U mines is associated with exposure to U and its decay products, such as radon (Rn), thorium (Th), and radium (Ra) and its decay products with alpha-emission and gamma radiation. Health effects in U miners have been investigated in several cohort studies in the USA, Canada, Germany, the Czech Republic, and France. While public opinion is particularly addressed to pay attention to the safety of nuclear facilities, health hazard associated with mining is poorly debated. According to the many findings from cohort studies, the most significant positive dose-response relationship was found between occupational U exposure and lung cancer. Other types of tumors associated with occupational U exposure are leukemia and lymphoid cancers. Furthermore, it was found increased but not statistically significant death risk in U miners due to cancers in the liver, stomach, and kidneys. So far, there has not been found a significant association between U exposure and increased cardiovascular mortality in U miners. This review tries to address the current state of the art of these studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-09590-7DOI Listing
October 2020

Gastrointestinal alterations in autism spectrum disorder: What do we know?

Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2020 11 1;118:111-120. Epub 2020 Jul 1.

CONEM Egypt Child Brain Research Group, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt; Department of Neurosciences, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Italy; CONEM Scientific Secretary, Verona, Italy.

There is an emerging body of evidence associating children having autism spectrum disorder (ASD) with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, such as abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea, constipation, vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux, intestinal infections, and increased intestinal permeability. Moreover, in many studies, large differences in the composition of intestinal microbiota and metabolic products between ASD patients and controls were reported. Deepening the role and the biology of the gut microbiome may be fundamental to elucidate the onset of GI symptoms in ASD individuals and their etiopathogenetic causes. The gut-brain axis may affect brain development and behaviors through the neuroendocrine, neuroimmune, and autonomic nervous systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neubiorev.2020.06.033DOI Listing
November 2020

Delayed-type Hypersensitivity to Metals in Newly Diagnosed Patients with Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

Cardiovasc Toxicol 2020 Dec;20(6):571-580

Department of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, University Hospital Brno and Faculty of Medicine, Masaryk University, Brno, Czech Republic.

The causes of nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy are classified as genetic or nongenetic, but environmental factors such as metal pollutants may interact with genetic susceptibility. The presence of metal particles has been detected in the myocardium, including in those patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. It is also known that hypersensitivity reactions can induce inflammation in tissue. The present study aimed to verify if metal-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity is present in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. The patient group consisted of 30 patients with newly diagnosed dilated cardiomyopathy; the control group comprised 41 healthy subjects. All patients and control subjects provided blood samples for lymphocyte transformation testing (MELISA®) to assess possible hypersensitivity to seven common metals. Specific exposure to metals was based on interview data. Results showed that exposure to cadmium and lead (p = 0.0002), aluminum (p = 0.0006), nickel (p = 0.0012), and chromium (p = 0.0065) was more often reported by patients than controls. The patients also had significantly more frequent hypersensitivity reactions to mercury (26.7% vs. 7.3%, p = 0.014624), nickel (40% vs. 12.2%, p = 0.02341), and silver (20% vs. 4.8%, p = 0.025468) than the control group. Patients with dilated cardiomyopathy had greater exposure to certain metals compared with healthy controls. Hypersensitivity to metals was more frequent in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy, suggesting a possible association that warrants further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12012-020-09582-6DOI Listing
December 2020

The bimodal SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Italy as an effect of environmental and allergic causes.

J Allergy Clin Immunol 2020 08 28;146(2):331-332. Epub 2020 May 28.

Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM), Mo i Rana, Norway.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2020.05.011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253996PMC
August 2020

Is Mitochondria Biogenesis and Neuronal Loss Prevention in Rat Hippocampus Promoted by Apigenin?

Basic Clin Neurosci 2019 Nov-Dec;10(6):541-543

Department of Neuroscience, Biomedicine and Movement Sciences, Unit of Human Anatomy, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.32598/bcn.10.6.541DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7253803PMC
June 2020

Metals, autoimmunity, and neuroendocrinology: Is there a connection?

Environ Res 2020 08 21;187:109541. Epub 2020 Apr 21.

Department of Chemistry and Pharmacy, University of Sassari, Sassari, Italy.

It has been demonstrated that metals can induce autoimmunity. However, few studies have attempted to assess and elucidate the underlying mechanisms of action. Recent research has tried to evaluate the possible interactions of the immune system with metal ions, particularly with heavy metals. Research indicates that metals have the potential to induce or promote the development of autoimmunity in humans. Metal-induced inflammation may dysregulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and thus contribute to fatigue and other non-specific symptoms characterizing disorders related to autoimmune diseases. The toxic effects of several metals are also mediated through free radical formation, cell membrane disturbance, or enzyme inhibition. There are worldwide increases in environmental metal pollution. It is therefore critical that studies on the role of metals in autoimmunity, and neuroendocrine disorders, including effects on the developing immune system and brain and the genetic susceptibility are performed. These studies can lead to efficient preventive strategies and improved therapeutic approaches. In this review, we have retrieved and commented on studies that evaluated the effects of metal toxicity on immune and endocrine-related pathways. This review aims to increase awareness of metals as factors in the onset and progression of autoimmune and neuroendocrine disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.109541DOI Listing
August 2020

The CD45dim/CD123bright/HLADRneg BAT in the Anti-histamine Drug Allergy.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2020 Apr 16;19(2):203-205. Epub 2020 Apr 16.

Council for Nutritional and Environmental Science (CONEM), Mo i Rana, Norway.

No Abstract.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v19i2.2774DOI Listing
April 2020

Insights on dietary omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) ratio in oxidative metabolic pathways of oncological bone disease and global health.

Curr Med Chem 2020 Apr 26. Epub 2020 Apr 26.

Diabetes Clinic, Department of Internal Medicine, UZ Brussel, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Brussels. Belgium.

Various nutrients have been designated as antioxidants, with a possible effect on diseases from the likes of cancer. This is partly due to their effect on prostaglandins, thereby affecting local pathological metabolic acidosis. This paper aims to summarize the culprit pathophysiological mechanisms involved, with a focus on the bone microenvironment. The omega-6/omega-3 PUFA ratio, in particular, is investigated on its antioxidative effects, countering these pathways to fight disease. This feature is applied concerning its impact on health in general, with a particular focus on malignant bone metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867327666200427095331DOI Listing
April 2020