Publications by authors named "Salvador D Aznar-Cervantes"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Nanoporous silk films with capillary action and size-exclusion capacity for sensitive glucose determination in whole blood.

Lab Chip 2021 02 6;21(3):608-615. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Instituto de Microelectrónica de Barcelona (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Bellaterra, Barcelona 08193, Spain.

In optical biosensing, silk fibroin (SF) appears as a promising alternative where other materials, such as paper, find limitations. Besides its excellent optical properties and unmet capacity to stabilize biomacromolecules, SF in test strips exhibits additional functions, i.e. capillary pumping activity of 1.5 mm s, capacity to filter blood cells thanks to its small, but tuneable, porosity and enhanced biosensing sensitivity. The bulk functionalization of SF with the enzymes glucose oxidase and peroxidase and the mediator ABTS produces colourless and transparent SF films that respond to blood glucose increasing 2.5 times the sensitivity of conventional ABTS-based assays. This enhanced sensitivity results from the formation of SF-ABTS complexes, where SF becomes part of the bioassay. Additionally, SF films triple the durability of most stable cellulose-based sensors. Although demonstrated for glucose, SF microfluidic test strips may incorporate other optical bioassays, e.g. immunoassays, with the aim of transferring them from central laboratories to the place of patient's care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0lc00702aDOI Listing
February 2021

First steps for the development of silk fibroin-based 3D biohybrid retina for age-related macular degeneration (AMD).

J Neural Eng 2020 10 31;17(5):055003. Epub 2020 Oct 31.

Neuro-computing & Neuro-robotics Research Group, Complutense University of Madrid, Spain. Innovation Research Group, Institute for Health Research San Carlos Clinical Hospital (IdISSC), Madrid, Spain. These authors equally contributed to this article.

Age-related macular degeneration is an incurable chronic neurodegenerative disease, causing progressive loss of the central vision and even blindness. Up-to-date therapeutic approaches can only slow down he progression of the disease.

Objective: Feasibility study for a multilayered, silk fibroin-based, 3D biohybrid retina.

Approach: Fabrication of silk fibroin-based biofilms; culture of different types of cells: retinal pigment epithelium, retinal neurons, Müller and mesenchymal stem cells ; creation of a layered structure glued with silk fibroin hydrogel.

Main Results: In vitro evidence for the feasibility of layered 3D biohybrid retinas; primary culture neurons grow and develop neurites on silk fibroin biofilms, either alone or in presence of other cells cultivated on the same biomaterial; cell organization and cellular phenotypes are maintained in vitro for the seven days of the experiment.

Significance: 3D biohybrid retina can be built using silk silkworm fibroin films and hydrogels to be used in cell replacement therapy for AMD and similar retinal neurodegenerative diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/abb9c0DOI Listing
October 2020

Chemoprevention of Experimental Periodontitis in Diabetic Rats with Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles Loaded with Resveratrol.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2020 Jan 19;9(1). Epub 2020 Jan 19.

Department of Bucal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Murcia, Av. Marqués de los Vélez, 2 Floor. 3008, Murcia, Spain.

Objective: the objective of the present work is to study the effectiveness of treatment with silk fibroin nanoparticles loaded with resveratrol in experimental periodontitis in a diabetic rat model.

Introduction: Periodontitis is an inflammatory pathology highly related to other diseases, such as type II diabetes. Both diseases have a specific inflammatory condition, with Interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β and Transforming Grow Factor (TGF)-1β being the most relevant proinflammatory factors. Silk fibroin (SF) nanoparticles loaded with resveratrol (Res-SFN) are a new alternative as a treatment.

Methods: 40 diabetic Sprague Dawley male rats were used and periodontitis was induced by ligation. The animals were divided into 5 treatment groups, and 1 mL of treatment was administered once a day for 4 weeks. The groups were: I: Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) 0.8%, II: CMC 0.8% + SF 1%, III: CMC 0.8% + RES-SFN 3 mg/mL, IV: CMC 0.8% + SF 1% + RES-SFN 3 mg/mL, V: Water. A peripheral blood sample was taken every week to quantify the inflammatory profile by ELISA (IL-6, IL-1β and TGF-1β). After 4 weeks the sacrifice was carried out and biopsies of the gum were taken.

Results: Treatment with SF and RES-SFN reduced the amount of chemical inflammation mediators (with the exception of IL-1β in comparisons I-IV and II-IV ( > 0.05)), as well as the anatomopathological variables linked to it, in a significant way ( < 0.05).

Conclusion: treatment with RES-SFN has reduced local inflammation in this experimental periodontitis model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox9010085DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7022414PMC
January 2020

Revealing the Influence of the Degumming Process in the Properties of Silk Fibroin Nanoparticles.

Polymers (Basel) 2019 Dec 9;11(12). Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia (UMU), Campus de Espinardo, 30100 Murcia, Spain.

Several studies have stated that the process used for sericin removal, or degumming, from silk cocoons has a strong impact in the silk fibroin integrity and consequently in their mechanical or biochemical properties after processing it into several biomaterials (e.g. fibers, films or scaffolds) but still, there is a lack of information of the impact on the features of silk nanoparticles. In this work, silk cocoons were degummed following four standard methods: autoclaving, short alkaline (NaCO) boiling, long alkaline (NaCO) boiling and ultrasounds. The resultant silk fibroin fibers were dissolved in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and used for nanoparticle synthesis by rapid desolvation in polar organic solvents. The relative efficiencies of the degumming processes and the integrity of the resulting fibroin fibers obtained were analyzed by mass loss, optical microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and SDS-PAGE. Particle sizes and morphology were analyzed by Dynamic Light Scattering and Field Emission Scanning Electronic Microscopy. The results showed that the different treatments had a remarkable impact on the integrity of the silk fibroin chains, as confirmed by gel electrophoresis, which can be correlated with particle mean size and size distribution changes. The smallest nanoparticles (156 ± 3 nm) and the most negative Z potential (-30.2 ± 1.8 mV) were obtained with the combination of long treatment (2 h) of boiling in alkaline solution (NaCO 0.02 eq/L). The study confirms that parameters of the process, such as composition of the solution and time of the degumming step, must be controlled in order to reach an optimum reproducibility of the nanoparticle production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym11122045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6960545PMC
December 2019

Effect of different cocoon stifling methods on the properties of silk fibroin biomaterials.

Sci Rep 2019 04 30;9(1):6703. Epub 2019 Apr 30.

Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDA), Department of Biotechnology. La Alberca (Murcia), E-30150, Murcia, Spain.

Stifling treatments are applied to silk cocoons in order to kill the pupae, preventing the emergence of moths and allowing to preserve the silk during long periods of time. All of them involve the application of aggressive steps, such as sun exposure, hot steam from boiling water or hot air, during hours or even days. None of the scientific articles related to silk fibroin biomaterials has previously taken into account this fact in its section of materials and methods. In this work, the consequences of the stifling treatments most commonly used by the silk producing countries and companies are explored in depth, using fibroin films as biomaterial model. The protein degradation (visualised by SDS-PAGE) was dramatically increased in all the fibroin dissolutions produced from stifled cocoons; heavy and light chains of fibroin were specially degraded, reducing their presence along the lanes of the gel compared to the negative control (untreated fresh cocoons). Structural changes are also described for annealed silk fibroin films. The β-sheet content, analysed by means of infrared spectroscopy, was significantly higher when stifling was performed at higher temperature (70 °C and 85 °C). It is also exposed the impact of the stifling on the mechanical properties of the materials. Tensile strength and strain at break values were detected as significantly lower when this procedure was carried out by means of dry heat (85 °C) and sun exposure. On the other hand, and contrary to expectations, the proliferation of fibroblasts growing on the materials was improved by all the different stifling methods, compared to negative control, being this improvement, especially accentuated, on the films produced with fibroin purified from cocoons treated with dry heat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-43134-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6491555PMC
April 2019

Silk fibroin scaffolds seeded with Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells enhance re-epithelialization and reduce formation of scar tissue after cutaneous wound healing.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2019 04 27;10(1):126. Epub 2019 Apr 27.

Hematopoietic Transplant and Cellular Therapy Unit, Instituto Murciano de Investigación Biosanitaria-Arrixaca, Virgen de la Arrixaca University Hospital, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain.

Background: The treatment of extensive and/or chronic skin wounds is a widespread and costly public health problem. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proposed as a potential cell therapy for inducing wound healing in different clinical settings, alone or in combination with biosynthetic scaffolds. Among them, silk fibroin (SF) seeded with MSCs has been shown to have increased efficacy in skin wound healing experimental models.

Methods: In this report, we investigated the wound healing effects of electrospun SF scaffolds cellularized with human Wharton's jelly MSCs (Wj-MSCs-SF) using a murine excisional wound splinting model.

Results: Immunohistopathological examination after transplant confirmed the presence of infiltrated human fibroblast-like CD90-positive cells in the dermis of the Wj-MSCs-SF-treated group, yielding neoangiogenesis, decreased inflammatory infiltrate and myofibroblast proliferation, less collagen matrix production, and complete epidermal regeneration.

Conclusions: These findings indicate that Wj-MSCs transplanted in the wound bed on a silk fibroin scaffold contribute to the generation of a well-organized and vascularized granulation tissue, enhance reepithelization of the wound, and reduce the formation of fibrotic scar tissue, highlighting the potential therapeutic effects of Wj-MSC-based tissue engineering approaches to non-healing wound treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-019-1229-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6487033PMC
April 2019

Preparation and characterization of Nephila clavipes tubuliform silk gut.

Soft Matter 2019 Apr;15(14):2960-2970

Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223, Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid, Spain.

Tubuliform silk glands were dissected from Nephila clavipes spiders, and silk gut fibers were produced by immersing the glands in a mild acid solution and subsequent stretching. The tensile properties of the as produced fibers were obtained through tensile tests, and the stress-strain curves were compared with those of naturally spun tubuliform silk fibers. The influence on the mechanical properties of the fibers after immersion in water and drying was also discerned. The microstructure of the silk guts was obtained by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). It was found that the stress-strain curves of the stretched tubuliform silk guts concur with those of their natural counterparts (tubuliform silk fibers).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c9sm00212jDOI Listing
April 2019

Potential use of silkworm gut fiber braids as scaffolds for tendon and ligament tissue engineering.

J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater 2019 10 24;107(7):2209-2215. Epub 2019 Jan 24.

Department of Biotechnology, Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDA), Murcia, Spain.

Tendon and ligament tissue engineering require scaffolds for the treatment of various conditions in the medical field. These must meet requirements such as high tensile strength, biocompatibility, fast and stable repair and a rate of degradation that allows the repair of the damaged tissue. In this work, we propose the use of silkworm gut fiber braids as materials to temporarily replace and repair this type of tissues. The mechanical characterization of the braids made with different number of silk gut fibers is provided, as well as a descriptive analysis of the proliferation and adhesion of cultures of adult human mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow and fibroblasts (L929) on the braids. As expected, the breaking force increases linearly in the scaffold with the number of fibers, thus being a parameter adaptable to the specific requirements of the tissue to repair and the animal model of study. On the other hand, in all of the cases studied, the values obtained for the elastic modulus of the hydrated fibers were in the range of the ones reported for various human tendons and ligaments. Moreover, the scaffold demonstrated excellent biocompatibility in vitro, allowing the adhesion and proliferation, in the same culture conditions, of the two cell types studied, therefore posing as an ideal candidate to be employed in future in vivo studies that allow elucidating its behavior in the articular environment or extra-articular tendinous areas. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res B Part B: 2019. © 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater 107B: 2209-2215, 2019.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbm.b.34300DOI Listing
October 2019

Silk Fibroin Films for Corneal Endothelial Regeneration: Transplant in a Rabbit Descemet Membrane Endothelial Keratoplasty.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017 07;58(9):3357-3365

Instituto Universitario Fernández-Vega, Fundación de Investigación Oftalmológica, Universidad de Oviedo, Asturias, Spain.

Purpose: Develop a silk fibroin (SF)-based artificial endothelial graft for its use in a rabbit Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK).

Methods: Human and rabbit artificial corneal endothelial grafts were developed through the culture of human and rabbit corneal endothelial cells (CECs) on SF films. Rabbit artificial SF endothelial grafts were transplanted in a DMEK surgery into a rabbit in vivo model.

Results: SF artificial endothelial grafts showed the characteristic endothelial markers: zonula occludens (ZO-1) and Na+/K+ ATPase. In a rabbit model of DMEK surgery, SF artificial endothelial graft restored the corneal transparency and thickness at 6 week of follow-up. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography revealed the SF graft as a fully integrated component in the corneal tissue, displaying a similar corneal thickness and endothelial cell count when compared with its healthy contralateral cornea. Histologic analysis showed that the SF artificial endothelial graft was attached and integrated on the surface of the corneal stroma without a significant inflammatory reaction, and rabbit CECs consisted in a monolayer that showed their characteristic markers ZO-1 and Na+/K+ ATPase, suggesting proper intercellular junctions and cellular pump function.

Conclusions: We have developed SF films with biological properties that supported the growth of rabbit and human CECs, which showed normal morphology and characteristic markers; and with mechanical properties that allowed its use in a DMEK surgery, proving its in vivo functionality in a rabbit model of endothelial dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.17-21797DOI Listing
July 2017

Impact of Covalent Functionalization on the Aqueous Processability, Catalytic Activity, and Biocompatibility of Chemically Exfoliated MoS Nanosheets.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2016 Oct 5;8(41):27974-27986. Epub 2016 Oct 5.

Instituto Nacional del Carbón, INCAR-CSIC , Apartado 73, 33080 Oviedo, Spain.

Chemically exfoliated MoS (ce-MoS) has emerged in recent years as an attractive two-dimensional material for use in relevant technological applications, but fully exploiting its potential and versatility will most probably require the deployment of appropriate chemical modification strategies. Here, we demonstrate that extensive covalent functionalization of ce-MoS nanosheets with acetic acid groups (∼0.4 groups grafted per MoS unit) based on the organoiodide chemistry brings a number of benefits in terms of their processability and functionality. Specifically, the acetic acid-functionalized nanosheets were furnished with long-term (>6 months) colloidal stability in aqueous medium at relatively high concentrations, exhibited a markedly improved temporal retention of catalytic activity toward the reduction of nitroarenes, and could be more effectively coupled with silver nanoparticles to form hybrid nanostructures. Furthermore, in vitro cell proliferation tests carried out with murine fibroblasts suggested that the chemical derivatization had a positive effect on the biocompatibility of ce-MoS. A hydrothermal annealing procedure was also implemented to promote the structural conversion of the functionalized nanosheets from the 1T phase that was induced during the chemical exfoliation step to the original 2H phase of the starting bulk material, while retaining at the same time the aqueous colloidal stability afforded by the presence of the acetic acid groups. Overall, by highlighting the benefits of this type of chemical derivatization, the present work should contribute to strengthen the position of ce-MoS as a two-dimensional material of significant practical utility.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.6b08444DOI Listing
October 2016

Silkworm Gut Fiber of Bombyx mori as an Implantable and Biocompatible Light-Diffusing Fiber.

Int J Mol Sci 2016 Jul 16;17(7). Epub 2016 Jul 16.

Departamento de Electromagnetismo y Electrónica, Universidad de Murcia, Murcia 30003, Spain.

This work describes a new approach to the delivery of light in deeper tissues, through a silk filament that is implantable, biocompatible, and biodegradable. In the present work, silkworm gut fibers (SGFs) of Bombyx mori L., are made by stretching the silk glands. Morphological, structural, and optical properties of the fibers have been characterized and the stimulatory effect of red laser light diffused from the fiber was assayed in fibroblast cultures. SGFs are formed by silk fibroin (SF) mainly in a β-sheet conformation, a stable and non-soluble state in water or biological fluids. The fibers showed a high degree of transparency to visible and infrared radiation. Using a red laser (λ = 650 nm) as source, the light was efficiently diffused along the fiber wall, promoting a significant increment in the cell metabolism 5 h after the irradiation. SGFs have shown their excellent properties as light-diffusing optical fibers with a stimulatory effect on cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms17071142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4964515PMC
July 2016

Mechanical behaviour and formation process of silkworm silk gut.

Soft Matter 2015 Dec;11(46):8981-91

Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón (Madrid), Spain and Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040, Madrid, Spain.

High performance silk fibers were produced directly from the silk glands of silkworms (Bombyx mori) following an alternative route to natural spinning. This route is based on a traditional procedure that consists of soaking the silk glands in a vinegar solution and stretching them by hand leading to the so called silkworm guts. Here we present, to the authors' best knowledge, the first comprehensive study on the formation, properties and microstructure of silkworm gut fibers. Comparison of the tensile properties and microstructural organization of the silkworm guts with those of naturally spun fibers allows gain of a deeper insight into the mechanisms that lead to the formation of the fiber, as well as the relationship between the microstructure and properties of these materials. In this regard, it is proved that an acidic environment and subsequent application of tensile stress in the range of 1000 kPa are sufficient conditions for the formation of a silk fiber.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5sm01877cDOI Listing
December 2015

Textile/metal-organic-framework composites as self-detoxifying filters for chemical-warfare agents.

Angew Chem Int Ed Engl 2015 Jun 7;54(23):6790-4. Epub 2015 May 7.

Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Universidad de Granada, Av. Fuentenueva S/N, 18071 Granada (Spain) http://www.ugr.es/local/jarn.

The current technology of air-filtration materials for protection against highly toxic chemicals, that is, chemical-warfare agents, is mainly based on the broad and effective adsorptive properties of hydrophobic activated carbons. However, adsorption does not prevent these materials from behaving as secondary emitters once they are contaminated. Thus, the development of efficient self-cleaning filters is of high interest. Herein, we report how we can take advantage of the improved phosphotriesterase catalytic activity of lithium alkoxide doped zirconium(IV) metal-organic framework (MOF) materials to develop advanced self-detoxifying adsorbents of chemical-warfare agents containing hydrolysable P-F, P-O, and C-Cl bonds. Moreover, we also show that it is possible to integrate these materials onto textiles, thereby combining air-permeation properties of the textiles with the self-detoxifying properties of the MOF material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/anie.201502094DOI Listing
June 2015

Antitumor properties of platinum(iv) prodrug-loaded silk fibroin nanoparticles.

Dalton Trans 2015 Aug;44(30):13513-21

Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDA), E-30150 La Alberca, Murcia, Spain.

Platinum(iv) complexes take advantage of the exclusive conditions that occur within the tumor to carry out their cytotoxic activity. On the other hand, silk fibroin has natural properties which make it very interesting as a biomaterial: high biocompatibility, biodegradability, low immunogenicity, high cellular penetration capacity and high reactive surface. Herein we report the preparation of silk fibroin nanoparticles (SFNs) loaded with the hydrophobic Pt(iv) complex cis,cis,trans-[Pt(NH(3))(2)Cl(2)(O(2)CC(6)H(5))(2)] (PtBz). Only a small fraction of the loaded PtBz is released (less than 10% after 48 h). PtBz-SFNs trigger strong cytotoxic effects against human ovarian carcinoma A2780 cells and their cisplatin-resistant variant A2780cisR cells. Interestingly, PtBz-SFNs are very cytotoxic (nanomolar IC(50) values) toward the triple negative breast tumor cell line MDA-MB-231, and also toward SK-BR-3 and MCF-7, while maintaining an excellent selectivity index.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c5dt00378dDOI Listing
August 2015

Influence of the protocol used for fibroin extraction on the mechanical properties and fiber sizes of electrospun silk mats.

Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl 2013 May 11;33(4):1945-50. Epub 2013 Jan 11.

Instituto Murciano de Investigación y Desarrollo Agrario y Alimentario (IMIDA), Department of Biotechnology, La Alberca (Murcia), CP 30150, Spain.

Silk fibroin (SF) was regenerated using three of the most common protocols described in the bibliography for the dissolution of raw SF (LiBr 9.3M, CaCl2 50 wt.% or CaCl2:EtOH:H2O 1:2:8 in molar ratio). The integrity of regenerated SF in aqueous solution was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and different profiles of degradation were observed depending on the protocol used. This fact was found to affect also the aqueous solubility of the freeze dried protein. These different SFs were used to produce electrospun mats using SF solutions of SF 17 wt.% in 1,1,1,1',1',1'-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) and significant differences in fiber sizes, elongation and ultimate strength values were found. This work provides a global overview of the manner that different methods of SF extraction can affect the properties of electrospun SF-mats and consequently it should be considered depending on the use they are going to be made for.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msec.2013.01.001DOI Listing
May 2013

A photoactivated nanofiber graft material for augmented Achilles tendon repair.

Lasers Surg Med 2012 Oct 21;44(8):645-52. Epub 2012 Aug 21.

Department of Burns and Plastic Surgery, No. 3 People's Hospital, and Institute of Traumatic Medicine; School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 201900, P.R. China.

Background And Objective: Suture repair of Achilles tendon rupture can cause infection, inflammation and scarring, while prolonged immobilization promotes adhesions to surrounding tissues and joint stiffness. Early mobilization can reduce complications provided the repair is strong enough to resist re-rupture. We have developed a biocompatible, photoactivated tendon wrap from electrospun silk (ES) to provide additional strength to the repair that could permit early mobilization, and act as a barrier to adhesion formation.

Study Design/material And Methods: ES nanofiber mats were prepared by electrospinning. New Zealand white rabbits underwent surgical transection of the Achilles tendon and repair by: (a) SR: standard Kessler suture + epitendinous suture (5-0 vicryl). (b) ES/PTB: a single stay suture and a section of ES mat, stained with 0.1% Rose Bengal (RB), wrapped around the tendon and bonded with 532 nm light (0.3 W/cm(2) , 125 J/cm(2) ). (c) SR + ES/PTB: a combination of (a) and (b). Gross appearance, extent of adhesion formation and biomechanical properties of the repaired tendon were evaluated at Days 7, 14, or 28 post-operatively (n = 8 per group at each time point).

Results: Ultimate stress (US) and Young's modulus (E) in the SR group were not significantly different from the ES/PTB group at Days 7 (US, P = 0.85; E, P = 1), 14 (US, P = 0.054; E, P = 1), and 28 (US, P = 0.198; E, P = 0.12) post-operatively. Adhesions were considerably greater in the SR group compared to the ES/PTB group at Days 7 (P = 0.002), 14 (P < 0.0001), and 28 (P < 0.0001). The combination approach of SR + ES/PTB gave the best outcomes in terms of E at 7 (P < 0.016) and 14 days (P < 0.016) and reduced adhesions compared to SR at 7 (P < 0.0001) and 14 days (P < 0.0001), the latter suggesting a barrier function for the photobonded ES wrap.

Conclusion: Photochemical sealing of a ES mat around the tendon repair site provides considerable benefit in Achilles tendon repair. Lasers Surg. Med. 44: 645-652, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.22066DOI Listing
October 2012
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