Publications by authors named "Salsabil Hamdi"

15 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Relationship between insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene and susceptibility to type 2 diabetes mellitus in the Middle East and North Africa Region: A meta-analysis.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2022 Jan 7;16(1):102386. Epub 2022 Jan 7.

Environmental Health Laboratory, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Morocco. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: The association between insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene and the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains controversial. This study aimed to assess the effect of the ACE I/D gene polymorphism on T2DM in the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA region).

Material And Methods: Our data was extracted from PubMed, Science Direct, and the Web of Science. The predefined inclusion criteria included only the human case-control studies of English Peer-reviewed papers containing the data on genotype distributions of ACE I/D polymorphism and the T2DM risk. Review articles, meeting abstracts, editorials, animal studies, and studies not providing genotype distribution data or without sufficient data were excluded from this work. Results of this meta-analysis were expressed using odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Indeed, the potential sources of heterogeneity and bias were examined by the Egger regression.

Results: Of 2755 identified articles, 10 studies were selected, including 2710 patients with T2DM and 2504 control subjects. Overall, we found a significant increased risk of T2DM susceptibility and the D allele of ACE I/D gene polymorphism (OR = 1.97; 95% CI = 1.33-2.93, p = 0.0007), recessive (OR = 2.16; 95% CI = 1.27-3.67; p = 0.004), dominant (OR = 2.45; 95% CI = 1.54-3.91; p = 0.0001), homozygote (OR = 3.35; 95% CI = 1.78-6.29; p = 0.0001) and heterozygote comparisons (OR = 1.76; 95% CI = 1.07-2.88; p = 0.024).

Conclusion: Our result suggests that this polymorphism may contribute to the development of T2DM in the MENA Region. This result needs to be confirmed by future well-designed studies with larger sample sizes in diverse populations and ethnicities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2021.102386DOI Listing
January 2022

Computational Analysis of Missense Variants in the Human Transmembrane Protease Serine 2 () and SARS-CoV-2.

Biomed Res Int 2021 19;2021:9982729. Epub 2021 Oct 19.

Laboratory of Biology and Health, URAC 34, Faculty of Sciences Ben M'Sik Hassan II University of Casablanca, Morocco.

The human transmembrane protease serine 2 () protein plays an important role in prostate cancer progression. It also facilitates viral entry into target cells by proteolytically cleaving and activating the S protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In the current study, we used different available tools like SIFT, PolyPhen2.0, PROVEAN, SNAP2, PMut, MutPred2, I-Mutant Suite, MUpro, iStable, ConSurf, ModPred, SwissModel, PROCHECK, Verify3D, and TM-align to identify the most deleterious variants and to explore possible effects on the stability, structure, and function. The six missense variants tested were evaluated to have deleterious effects on the protein by SIFT, PolyPhen2.0, PROVEAN, SNAP2, and PMut. Additionally, V160M, G181R, R240C, P335L, G432A, and D435Y variants showed a decrease in stability by at least 2 servers; G181R, G432A, and D435Y are highly conserved and identified posttranslational modifications sites (PTMs) for proteolytic cleavage and ADP-ribosylation using ConSurf and ModPred servers. The 3D structure of native and mutants was generated using 7 meq as a template from the SwissModeller group, refined by ModRefiner, and validated using the Ramachandran plot. Hence, this paper can be advantageous to understand the association between these missense variants rs12329760, rs781089181, rs762108701, rs1185182900, rs570454392, and rs867186402 and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9982729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8531787PMC
October 2021

Analysis of High-Risk Missense Variants in Human Gene and Susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Biomed Res Int 2021 9;2021:6685840. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Virology Unit, Immunovirology Laboratory, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, 20360 Casablanca, Morocco.

SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus uses for entry to human host cells a SARS-CoV receptor of the angiotensin-converting enzyme () that catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin II into angiotensin (1-7). To understand the effect of missense variants on protein structure, stability, and function, various bioinformatics tools were used including SIFT, PANTHER, PROVEAN, PolyPhen2.0, I. Mutant Suite, MUpro, SWISS-MODEL, Project HOPE, ModPred, QMEAN, ConSurf, and STRING. All twelve nsSNPs were analyzed. Six high-risk pathogenic nsSNPs (D427Y, R514G, R708W, R710C, R716C, and R768W) were found to be the most damaging by at least six software tools (cumulative score between 6 and 7) and exert deleterious effect on the protein structure and likely function. Additionally, they revealed high conservation, less stability, and having a role in posttranslation modifications such a proteolytic cleavage or ADP-ribosylation. This analysis provides information about functional nucleotide variants that have an impact on the protein structure and function and therefore susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6685840DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8040925PMC
April 2021

Metagenomics Approaches to Investigate the Gut Microbiome of COVID-19 Patients.

Bioinform Biol Insights 2021 12;15:1177932221999428. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of fundamental sciences, School of Medicine, Mohammed VI University of Health Sciences, Casablanca, Morocco.

Over the last decade, it has become increasingly apparent that the microbiome is a central component in human well-being and illness. However, to establish innovative therapeutic methods, it is crucial to learn more about the microbiota. Thereby, the area of metagenomics and associated bioinformatics methods and tools has become considerable in the study of the human microbiome biodiversity. The application of these metagenomics approaches to studying the gut microbiome in COVID-19 patients could be one of the promising areas of research in the fight against the SARS-CoV-2 infection and disparity. Therefore, understanding how the gut microbiome is affected by or could affect the SARS-CoV-2 is very important. Herein, we present an overview of approaches and methods used in the current published studies on COVID-19 patients and the gut microbiome. The accuracy of these researches depends on the appropriate choice and the optimal use of the metagenomics bioinformatics platforms and tools. Interestingly, most studies reported that COVID-19 patients' microbiota are enriched with opportunistic microorganisms. The choice and use of appropriate computational tools and techniques to accurately investigate the gut microbiota is therefore critical in determining the appropriate microbiome profile for diagnosis and the most reliable antiviral or preventive microbial composition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1177932221999428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7961713PMC
March 2021

A review on current diagnostic techniques for COVID-19.

Expert Rev Mol Diagn 2021 02 18;21(2):141-160. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

Department of Fundamental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Mohammed VI University of Health Sciences (UM6SS), Casablanca, Morocco.

Introduction: SARS-Cov-2 first appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and spread all over the world soon after that. Given the infectious nature ofSARS-CoV-2, fast and accurate diagnosis tools are important to detect the virus. In this review, we discuss the different diagnostic tests that are currently being implemented in laboratories and provide a description of various COVID-19 kits.

Areas Covered: We summarize molecular techniques that target the viral load, serological methods used for SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies detection as well as newly developed faster assays for the detection of SARS-COV 2 in various biological samples.

Expert Opinion: In the light of the widespread pandemic, the massive diagnosis of COVID-19, using various detection techniques, appears to be the most effective strategy for monitoring and containing its propagation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14737159.2021.1886927DOI Listing
February 2021

Cancer Omics in Africa: Present and Prospects.

Front Oncol 2020 14;10:606428. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Fundamental Sciences, School of Medicine, Mohammed VI University of Health Sciences, Casablanca, Morocco.

During the last century, cancer biology has been arguably one of the most investigated research fields. To gain deeper insight into cancer mechanisms, scientists have been attempting to integrate multi omics data in cancer research. Cancer genomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, proteomics, and metagenomics are the main multi omics strategies used currently in the diagnosis, prognosis, treatment, and biomarker discovery in cancer. In this review, we describe the use of different multi omics strategies in cancer research in the African continent and discuss the main challenges facing the implementation of these approaches in African countries such as the lack of training programs in bioinformatics in general and omics strategies in particular and suggest paths to address deficiencies. As a way forward, we advocate for the establishment of an "African Cancer Genomics Consortium" to promote intracontinental collaborative projects and enhance engagement in research activities that address indigenous aspects for cancer precision medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.606428DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7793679PMC
December 2020

Seroprevalence of Leptospirosis among High-Risk Individuals in Morocco.

Interdiscip Perspect Infect Dis 2020 20;2020:5236045. Epub 2020 May 20.

National Reference Center and The WHO Collaborating Center for Leptospirosis, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

Background: Leptospirosis is an anthropozoonotic reemerging neglected infectious disease underreported in most developing countries. A cross-sectional study was performed between 17 and 23 February 2014 to estimate the seroprevalence of leptospirosis among high-risk populations in Casablanca (Morocco).

Methods: A total of 490 human serum samples (97.6% males) were collected in 3 high-risk occupational sites including the biggest meat slaughterhouse ( = 208), a poultry market ( = 121), and the fish market ( = 161). A total of 125 human blood samples were also collected from the general population and used in this study as a control group. To detect the presence of anti-, sera were screened with in-house IgG and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Positive samples were tested by Microscopic Agglutination Technique (MAT) using a panel of 24 serovar cultures and cut point of 1 : 25.

Results: Seroprevalence of leptospirosis among the control group was 10.4% (13/125). A high seropositivity among the overall seroprevalence of 24.1% (118/490) was observed in the high-risk groups of which 7.3% (36/490), 13.7% (67/490), and 3.1% (15/490) were for anti- IgM, IgG, and both IgG and IgM antibodies, respectively. Most of the positive individuals were occupationally involved in poultry (37.2%), followed by the market fish (26.1%) and the meat slaughterhouse (14.9%) workers. Among all ELISA-positive serum samples, 20.3% ( = 24) had positive MAT responses, of which the Icterohaemorrhagiae ( = 7) is the most common infecting serogroup followed by Javanica (4), Australis (2), and Sejroe, Mini, and Panama (one in each). In the remaining 8 MAT-positive sera, MAT showed equal titers against more than one serogroup.

Conclusion: Individuals engaged in risk activities are often exposed to leptospiral infection. Therefore, control and prevention policies toward these populations are necessary.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5236045DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7256772PMC
May 2020

Supplementing Conventional Treatment with Pycnogenol® May Improve Hepatitis C Virus-Associated Type 2 Diabetes: A Mini Review.

J Clin Transl Hepatol 2016 Sep 29;4(3):228-233. Epub 2016 Jul 29.

Virology Unit, Viral Hepatitis Laboratory, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco.

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) present a significant health burden, with increasing complications and mortality rates worldwide. Pycnogenol® (PYC), a natural product, possesses antidiabetic and antiviral properties that may improve HCV-associated T2DM. In this review, we present previously published data on the effectiveness of PYC against HCV replication and T2DM. We believe that supplementing conventional treatment with PYC may improve the current HCV therapy, attenuate HCV-associated T2DM, and reduce the risk of complications such as cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma and cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14218/JCTH.2016.00021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5075005PMC
September 2016

Knowledge of Human Papillomavirus and Acceptability to Vaccinate in Adolescents and Young Adults of the Moroccan Population.

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol 2016 Jun 21;29(3):292-8. Epub 2015 Nov 21.

Laboratory of Neurosciences, Integrated Diseases and Natural Substances, Faculty of Sciences and Technics, Hassan II University, Mohammedia, Morocco.

Study Objective: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is estimated to play an etiologic role in 99.7% of cervical cancer. Vaccines can prevent up to 70% of the cervical cancer caused by HPV 16 and 18. The present study was designed to define the knowledge of HPV and HPV vaccine acceptability among Moroccan youth. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTIONS, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: A nationwide anonymous questionnaire with a sample of 688 adolescents (12-17 years) and 356 young adults (18-30 years) was organized, that asked about HPV, origin of cervical cancer, Papanicolaou (Pap) test, and acceptability of HPV vaccine. Data were analyzed using univariate and multivariate logistic regression methods.

Results: Overall, a low frequency (213/1044 = 20%) of HPV knowledge was observed among the studied population. A multivariate model analysis showed that age, educational level, and knowledge of the Pap test remained significantly associated factors with HPV knowledge. Additionally, only 27% (282/1044) of participants were willing to accept HPV vaccination. Highest acceptability was observed among young adults compared with adolescents (166/356 = 46.6% vs 116/688 = 16.9%). Sixty-two percent (103/165) of male participants accepted the HPV vaccine compared with only 20.4% (179/879) of female participants. Educational level, type of school, and knowledge of the Pap test were associated factors with HPV vaccine acceptability in a multivariate model analysis.

Conclusion: The present study showed a low level of HPV knowledge and HPV vaccine acceptability among Moroccan youth. Promotion of activities and sensitization are required to maximize public awareness in the future. This objective can be achieved with the use of media, active efforts by health care providers, and introduction of sexual education in school programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpag.2015.11.002DOI Listing
June 2016

Phlebotomus sergenti a common vector of Leishmania tropica and Toscana virus in Morocco.

J Vector Borne Dis 2014 Jun;51(2):86-90

Laboratoire de parasitologie et de maladies vectorielles, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco.

Background & Objectives: An entomological study using CDC miniature light-traps was performed in El Hanchane locality, where cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) was emerging during the summer of 2011. The aim of this study is to identify the vectors of Leishmania and of phleboviruses.

Methods: In the field, a total of 643 sandfly specimens were collected, identified by morphological keys and categorized by sex and species. A total of nine distinct species were morphologically identified where seven belonged to the Phlebotomus genus and two species to the Sergentomyia genus. Phlebotomus sergenti was the most abundant species (76%). Phleboviruses were detected by nested RT-PCR using 30 pooled sandflies while P. sergenti females were tested individually for infections of Leishmania species.

Results: By using ITS1-PCR-RFLP approach, Leishmania tropica DNA was detected in 10 females, caught in this emerging focus, and provide additional evidence in favour of the role of P. sergenti as vector of L. tropica in Morocco. Real-time PCR screening for phlebovirus RNA, using an assay targeting the polymerase gene, showed positive result in one pool of male P. sergenti.

Interpretation & Conclusion: In this study, P. sergenti were infected by L. tropica and Toscana virus. To our knowledge, actually this is the first time that Toscana virus has been detected in P. sergenti.
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June 2014

Moroccan Leishmania infantum: genetic diversity and population structure as revealed by multi-locus microsatellite typing.

PLoS One 2013 17;8(10):e77778. Epub 2013 Oct 17.

Faculty of Pharmacy, Alquds University, Jerusalem, Palestine ; Institute of Microbiology and Hygiene, Charité University Medicine, Berlin, Germany.

Leishmania infantum causes Visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis in northern Morocco. It predominantly affects children under 5 years with incidence of 150 cases/year. Genetic variability and population structure have been investigated for 33 strains isolated from infected dogs and humans in Morocco. A multilocus microsatellite typing (MLMT) approach was used in which a MLMtype based on size variation in 14 independent microsatellite markers was compiled for each strain. MLMT profiles of 10 Tunisian, 10 Algerian and 21 European strains which belonged to zymodeme MON-1 and non-MON-1 according to multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) were included for comparison. A Bayesian model-based approach and phylogenetic analysis inferred two L.infantum sub-populations; Sub-population A consists of 13 Moroccan strains grouped with all European strains of MON-1 type; and sub-population B consists of 15 Moroccan strains grouped with the Tunisian and Algerian MON-1 strains. Theses sub-populations were significantly different from each other and from the Tunisian, Algerian and European non MON-1 strains which constructed one separate population. The presence of these two sub-populations co-existing in Moroccan endemics suggests multiple introduction of L. infantum from/to Morocco; (1) Introduction from/to the neighboring North African countries, (2) Introduction from/to the Europe. These scenarios are supported by the presence of sub-population B and sub-population A respectively. Gene flow was noticed between sub-populations A and B. Five strains showed mixed A/B genotypes indicating possible recombination between the two populations. MLMT has proven to be a powerful tool for eco-epidemiological and population genetic investigations of Leishmania.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0077778PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3798341PMC
June 2014

Detection and molecular typing of Leishmania tropica from Phlebotomus sergenti and lesions of cutaneous leishmaniasis in an emerging focus of Morocco.

Parasit Vectors 2013 Jul 26;6:217. Epub 2013 Jul 26.

Laboratoire de Parasitologie et Maladies Vectorielles, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, 1 Place Louis Pasteur, Casablanca, Morocco.

Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by flagellate protozoa of the genus Leishmania. In Morocco, anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica is considered as a public health problem, but its epidemiology has not been fully elucidated. The main objective of this study was to detect Leishmania infection in the vector, Phlebotomus sergenti and in human skin samples, in the El Hanchane locality, an emerging focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis in central Morocco.

Methods: A total of 643 sand flies were collected using CDC miniature light traps and identified morphologically. Leishmania species were characterized by ITS1 PCR-RFLP and ITS1-5.8S rRNA gene nested-PCR of samples from 123 females of Phlebotomus sergenti and 7 cutaneous leishmaniasis patients.

Results: The sand flies collected consisted of 9 species, 7 of which belonged to the genus Phlebotomus and two to the genus Sergentomyia. Phlebotomus sergenti was the most predominant (76.67%).By ITS1 PCR-RFLP Leishmania tropica was found in three Phlebotomus sergenti females and four patients (4/7). Using nested PCR Leishmania tropica was identified in the same three Phlebotomus sergenti females and all the 7 patients. The sequencing of the nested PCR products recognized 7 haplotypes, of which 6 have never been described.

Conclusions: This is the first molecular detection and identification of Leishmania tropica in human skin samples and Phlebotomus sergenti in support of its vector status in El Hanchane. The finding of seven Leishmania tropica haplotypes underscores heterogeneity of this species at a high level in Morocco.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-6-217DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3751070PMC
July 2013

Epidemiologic study and molecular detection of Leishmania and sand fly species responsible of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Foum Jamâa (Azilal, Atlas of Morocco).

Acta Trop 2013 Jul 21;127(1):1-5. Epub 2013 Mar 21.

Laboratory of Management and Valorization of Naturals Resources, FST, Sultan Moulay, Slimane University, M'GHILA Route de Fes, B.P. 523, Beni Mellal 23000, Morocco.

The region of Foum Jamâa (province of Azilal) has become endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) since 2006. The objective of this study was to investigate molecular identification of the etiological agent of CL in this region; we also carried out an entomological survey of Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in this focus to study the sand fly fauna, species composition, and the monthly prevalence of sand flies during 1 year. In the period between 2009 and 2010, skin scrapings spotted on glass slides were collected from 119 patients, aged from 9 months to 70 years old, who came from 43 localities distributed in 3 sectors in Foum Jamâa (FJ). The ITS1 PCR-RFLP was used to identify the Leishmania parasite responsible for the recent cases of CL in FJ. Our results revealed that the disease is caused by L. tropica. No significant association was observed between gender and the rate of CL in presenting patients, while the highest rate of positive lesions was found in the age group of 9 years old or under (86.67%). In this study, we found also that L. tropica infection mostly caused single lesions (67.90%) that were located in the face (96.30%). Morphological identification was performed on a total of 1152 sand flies (23% females and 77% males) collected by sticky paper traps. 57% of the total collected flies were identified as Phlebotomus (Paraphlebotomus) sergenti (Parrot).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2013.03.005DOI Listing
July 2013

A variant in the promoter of MBL2 is associated with protection against visceral leishmaniasis in Morocco.

Infect Genet Evol 2013 Jan 18;13:162-7. Epub 2012 Sep 18.

Laboratoire des recherches et d'étude sur les Leishmanioses, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco.

Progressive visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is fatal if not treated; yet, most infections with the causative agents are asymptomatic. We hypothesized that genetic factors contribute to this variable response to infection. The mannose-binding lectin 2 gene (MBL2) is a candidate that merits examination in the context of VL because it enhances infection with intracellular pathogens. Four functional MBL2 polymorphisms at codons 52, 54, 57 and in the promoter at the -221 position (X/Y) are known to be associated with the outcome of several diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether these functional variants were associated with VL in Moroccan children. Here, we genotyped polymorphisms by sequencing and PCR-RFLP in 112 individuals with VL, 97 asymptomatic subjects and 42 healthy individuals who had no evidence of present or past infection. Regression analysis showed no significant association between polymorphisms in exon 1 genotypes and outcome of infection with Leishmania infantum. However, the genotype XY in -221 conferred a protective role against VL in our study population with a significant difference (OR=0.291; CI [0.158-0.538]; p=0.0006). Subjects with YY genotypes in -221 had a higher risk to developing VL. We concluded that MBL2 polymorphism at the -221 promoter region plays a protective role in L. infantum infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meegid.2012.09.002DOI Listing
January 2013

PCR detection of Leishmania in skin biopsies.

J Infect Dev Ctries 2009 Sep 15;3(2):115-22. Epub 2009 Sep 15.

Laboratoire des recherche et d'étude sur les Leishmanioses, Institut Pasteur du Maroc, Casablanca, Morocco.

Introduction: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic disease and one of the major health problems in Morocco. In 2006, the recorded total number of cases of CL was 3361, occurring predominantly in the rural population. A new and more sensitive diagnostic technique than current methods used is needed in this setting. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect leishmanial parasites in skin biopsies of patients from different areas of endemicity in Morocco.

Methodology: Biopsies from 26 patients with cutaneous ulcers suggestive of leishmaniasis were analysed by PCR using primers from the small subunit ribosomal gene. The ability of PCR to detect Leishmania was compared with smear-stained and in vitro culture.

Results: PCR exhibited superior sensitivity (84,6%) compared with direct microscopy smear (69,2%) and in vitro culture (69,2%). Our PCR assay also showed good specificity (100%).

Conclusions: PCR should be considered a valuable, sensitive, and faster diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis, especially for those patients with negative parasitologic examination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3855/jidc.511DOI Listing
September 2009
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