Publications by authors named "Salman Zahid"

55 Publications

Prevalence and outcomes in STEMI patients without standard modifiable cardiovascular risk factors: A National Inpatient Sample Analysis.

Curr Probl Cardiol 2022 Aug 4:101343. Epub 2022 Aug 4.

Inova Center of Outcomes Research, Inova Heart and Vascular Institute, Falls Church, VA, USA.

Objective: To evaluate the in-hospital mortality and acute STEMI-related complications in a SMuRF-less STEMI population compared with a SMuRF STEMI population in the United States.

Methods: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) Database (2005-2014) was analyzed to identify patients with STEMI using ICD-9. Patients were grouped into SMuRF and SMuRF-less based on the presence of ≥1 SMuRF risk factor. The primary outcomes were the prevalence and in-hospital mortality of SMuRF-less patients. Secondary outcomes were rates of in-hospital complications in STEMI patients.

Results: 434,111 STEMI patients were identified with 318,281 (73.4%) and 115830 (26.6%) patients in the SMuRF and SMuRF-less categories, respectively. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, SMuRF-less patients had a higher in-hospital mortality rate (odds ratio [OR]: 1.670; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.620-1.722) and acute renal failure (OR: 1.724; 95% CI: 1.662-1.787).

Conclusion: SMuRF-less STEMI patients have higher odds of in-hospital mortality and in-hospital STEMI-related complications compared with SMuRF STEMI patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2022.101343DOI Listing
August 2022

Trends, Predictors, and Outcomes of 30-Day Readmission With Heart Failure After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Insights From the US Nationwide Readmission Database.

J Am Heart Assoc 2022 Aug 5:e024890. Epub 2022 Aug 5.

Division of Cardiology West Virginia University Heart & Vascular Institute Morgantown WV.

BACKGROUND Data on trends, predictors, and outcomes of heart failure (HF) readmissions after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) remain limited. Moreover, the relationship between hospital TAVR discharge volume and HF readmission outcomes has not been established. METHODS AND RESULTS The Nationwide Readmission Database was used to identify 30-day readmissions for HF after TAVR from October 1, 2015, to November 30, 2018, using () codes. A total of 167 345 weighted discharges following TAVR were identified. The all-cause readmission rate within 30 days of discharge was 11.4% (19 016). Of all the causes of 30-day rehospitalizations, HF comprised 31.4% (5962) of all causes. The 30-day readmission rate for HF did not show a significant decline during the study period (=0.06); however, all-cause readmission rates decreased significantly (=0.03). HF readmissions were comparable between high- and low-volume TAVR centers. Charlson Comorbidity Index >8, length of stay >4 days during the index hospitalization, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, atrial fibrillation, chronic HF, preexisting pacemaker, complete heart block during index hospitalization, paravalvular regurgitation, chronic kidney disease, and end-stage renal disease were independent predictors of 30-day HF readmission after TAVR. HF readmissions were associated with higher mortality rates when compared with non-HF readmissions (4.9% versus 3.3%; <0.01). Each HF readmission within 30 days was associated with an average increased cost of $13 000 more than for each non-HF readmission. CONCLUSIONS During the study period from 2015 to 2018, 30-day HF readmissions after TAVR remained steady despite all-cause readmissions decreasing significantly. All-cause readmission mortality and HF readmission mortality also showed a nonsignificant downtrend. HF readmissions were comparable across low-, medium-, and high-volume TAVR centers. HF readmission was associated with increased mortality and resource use attributed to the increased costs of care compared with non-HF readmission. Further studies are needed to identify strategies to decrease the burden of HF readmissions and related mortality after TAVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.024890DOI Listing
August 2022

Trend, predictors, and outcomes of combined mitral valve replacement and coronary artery bypass graft in patients with concomitant mitral valve and coronary artery disease: a National Inpatient Sample database analysis.

Eur Heart J Open 2022 Jan 13;2(1):oeac002. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Aims: Combined mitral valve replacement (MVR) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) procedures have been the norm for patients with concomitant mitral valve disease (MVD) and coronary artery disease (CAD) with no large-scale data on their safety and efficacy.

Methods And Results: The National Inpatient Sample database (2002-18) was queried to identify patients undergoing MVR and CABG. The major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and its components were compared using a propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis to calculate adjusted odds ratios (OR). A total of 6 145 694 patients (CABG only 3 971 045, MVR only 1 933 459, MVR + CABG 241 190) were included in crude analysis, while a matched cohort of 724 237 (CABG only 241 436, MVR only 241 611 vs. MVR + CABG 241 190) was selected in PSM analysis. The combined MVR + CABG procedure had significantly higher adjusted odds of MACE [OR 1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.14 and OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.93-1.99] and in-hospital mortality (OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.27-1.31 and OR 2.1, 95% CI 2.05-2.14) compared with CABG alone and MVR alone, respectively. Similarly, the risk of post-procedure bleeding, major bleeding, acute kidney injury, cardiogenic shock, sepsis, need for intra-aortic balloon pump, mean length of stay, and total charges per hospitalization were significantly higher for patients undergoing the combined procedure. These findings remained consistent on yearly trend analysis favouring the isolated CABG and MVR groups.

Conclusion: Combined procedure (MVR + CABG) in patients with MVD and CAD appears to be associated with worse in-hospital outcomes, increased mortality, and higher resource utilization compared with isolated CABG and MVR procedures. Randomized controlled trials are needed to determine the relative safety of these procedures in the full spectrum of baseline valvular and angiographic characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjopen/oeac002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9242072PMC
January 2022

In-hospital outcomes of TAVR patients with a bundle branch block: Insights from the National Inpatient Sample 2011-2018.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2022 Jul 16. Epub 2022 Jul 16.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, West Virginia University Heart & Vascular Institute, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA.

Introduction: Data on the outcomes following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in patients with a bundle branch block (BBB) remains limited.

Methods: We studied the outcomes of TAVR patients with a BBB from the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) database between 2011 and 2018 using ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM codes.

Results: Between 2011 and 2018, 194,237 patients underwent TAVR, where 1.7% (n = 3,232) had a right BBB (RBBB) and 13.7% (n = 26,689) had a left BBB (LBBB). Patients with a RBBB and LBBB had a higher rate of new permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation (31.5% - RBBB, 15.7% LBBB vs. 10.2% - no BBB). RBBB was associated with a significantly longer median length of stay (5 days) and total hospitalization cost ($53,669) compared with LBBB (3 days and $47,552) and no BBB (3 days and $47,171). Trend analysis revealed lower rates of PPM implantation and reduced lengths of stay and costs across all comparison groups.

Conclusion: In conclusion, patients undergoing TAVR with a BBB are associated with higher new rates of PPM implantation. RBBB is the strongest independent predictor for new PPM implantation following TAVR. Rates of new PPM implantation in TAVR patients with and without a BBB have improved over time including reductions in length of stay and hospital costs. Further study is needed to reduce the risks of PPM implantation in TAVR patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.30341DOI Listing
July 2022

HIV Dementia: A Bibliometric Analysis and Brief Review of the Top 100 Cited Articles.

Cureus 2022 May 19;14(5):e25148. Epub 2022 May 19.

Physical Therapy, Datta Meghe Institute of Medical Sciences, Wardha, IND.

Dementia is a syndrome of cognitive impairment that affects an individual's ability to live independently. The number of people living with dementia worldwide in 2015 was estimated at 47.47 million. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) criteria for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated dementia (HAD) require an acquired abnormality in at least two cognitive (non-motor) domains and either an abnormality in motor function or specified neuropsychiatric/psychosocial domains. HIV is the most common cause of dementia below 60 years of age. Citation frequencies are commonly used to assess the scholarly impact of any scientific publication in bibliometric analyses. It helps depict areas of higher interest in terms of research frequency and trends of citations in the published literature and identify under-explored domains of any field, providing useful insight and guidance for future research avenues. We used the database "Web of Science" (WOS) to search for the top 100 cited articles on HIV-associated dementia. The keywords "HIV dementia" and "HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders" (HAND) were used. The list was generated by two authors after excluding articles not pertaining to HIV dementia. The articles were then assigned to authors to extract data to make tables and graphical representations. Finally, the manuscript was organized and written describing the findings of the bibliometric study. These 100 most cited articles on HIV dementia were published between years 1986 and 2016. The highest number of the articles was from 1999 (n=9). The year 1993-2007 contributed consistently two publications to the list. The articles are from 42 journals, and among them, the Annals of Neurology (n=16) and the Journal of Neurology (n=15) published most of the articles. Justin C. McArthur with 25 publications contributed the highest number of papers to the list by any author. The USA collaborated in the highest number of publications (n=87). American institutes were leading the list with the most publications. The Johns Hopkins University collaborated on 37 papers. The most widely studied aspect of HIV dementia was pathogenesis. Incidence and prevalence, clinical features, and pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era were also discussed in the articles. Beyond America, the research should be expanded to low-income countries and those affected more by HIV. Therefore, other countries and their institutes should participate more in HIV-associated dementia research. Anticipating the rising resistance to existing antiretrovirals, we should develop new therapeutic options. There is room for research in many aspects of HIV dementia care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.25148DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9205453PMC
May 2022

Trends, Predictors, and Outcomes of Cardiovascular Complications Associated With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome During Delivery Hospitalizations: A National Inpatient Sample Analysis (2002-2019).

J Am Heart Assoc 2022 Jun 16:e025839. Epub 2022 Jun 16.

Division of Cardiology Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine Baltimore MD.

Background Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of pregnancy-associated complications. However, data on peripartum cardiovascular complications remain limited. Hence, we investigated trends, outcomes, and predictors of cardiovascular complications associated with PCOS diagnosis during delivery hospitalizations in the United States. Methods and Results We used data from the National Inpatient Sample (2002-2019). (), or (), codes were used to identify delivery hospitalizations and PCOS diagnosis. A total of 71 436 308 weighted hospitalizations for deliveries were identified, of which 0.3% were among women with PCOS (n=195 675). The prevalence of PCOS, and obesity among those with PCOS, increased during the study period. Women with PCOS were older (median, 31 versus 28 years; <0.01) and had a higher prevalence of diabetes, obesity, and dyslipidemia. After adjustment for age, race and ethnicity, comorbidities, insurance, and income, PCOS remained an independent predictor of cardiovascular complications, including preeclampsia (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.56 [95% CI, 1.54-1.59]; <0.01), eclampsia (adjusted OR, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.54-1.59]; <0.01), peripartum cardiomyopathy (adjusted OR, 1.79 [95% CI, 1.49-2.13]; <0.01), and heart failure (adjusted OR, 1.76 [95% CI, 1.27-2.45]; <0.01), compared with no PCOS. Moreover, delivery hospitalizations among women with PCOS were associated with increased length (3 versus 2 days; <0.01) and cost of hospitalization ($4901 versus $3616; <0.01). Conclusions Women with PCOS had a higher risk of preeclampsia/eclampsia, peripartum cardiomyopathy, and heart failure during delivery hospitalizations. Moreover, delivery hospitalizations among women with PCOS diagnosis were associated with increased length and cost of hospitalization. This signifies the importance of prepregnancy consultation and optimization for cardiometabolic health to improve maternal and neonatal outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.025839DOI Listing
June 2022

Same-Day Discharge After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Insights from the Nationwide Readmission Database 2015 to 2019.

J Am Heart Assoc 2022 06 27;11(11):e024746. Epub 2022 May 27.

Sands-Constellation Heart InstituteRochester General Hospital Rochester NY.

Background There is a paucity of data on the feasibility of same-day discharge (SDD) following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) at a national level. Methods and Results This study used data from the Nationwide Readmission Database from the fourth quarter of 2015 through 2019 and identified patients undergoing TAVI using the claim code 02RF3. A total of 158 591 weighted hospitalizations for TAVI were included in the analysis. Of the patients undergoing TAVI, 961 (0.6%) experienced SDD. Non-SDDs included 65 814 (41.5%) patients who underwent TAVI who were discharged the next day, and 91 816 (57.9%) discharged on the second or third day. The 30-day readmission rate for SDD after TAVI was similar to non-SDD TAVI (9.8% versus 8.9%, =0.31). The cumulative incidence of 30-day readmissions for SDD was higher compared with next-day discharge (log-rank =0.01) but comparable to second- or third-day discharge (log-rank =0.66). At 30 days, no differences were observed in major or minor vascular complications, heart failure, or ischemic stroke for SDD compared with non-SDD. Acute kidney injury, pacemaker implantation, and bleeding complications were lower with SDD. Predictors associated with SDD included age <85 years, male sex, and prior pacemaker placement, whereas left bundle-branch block, right bundle-branch block, second-degree heart block, heart failure, prior percutaneous coronary intervention, and atrial fibrillation were negatively associated with SDD. Conclusions SDD following TAVI is associated with similar 30-day readmission and complication rates compared with non-SDD. Further prospective studies are needed to assess the safety and feasibility of SDD after TAVI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.024746DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9238699PMC
June 2022

Polycystic ovary syndrome: a "risk-enhancing" factor for cardiovascular disease.

Fertil Steril 2022 05;117(5):924-935

Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland; Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland. Electronic address:

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age and is hallmarked by hyperandrogenism, oligo-ovulation, and polycystic ovarian morphology. Polycystic ovary syndrome, particularly the hyperandrogenism phenotype, is associated with several cardiometabolic abnormalities, including obesity, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and prediabetes or type 2 diabetes. Many, but not all, studies have suggested that PCOS is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), including coronary heart disease and stroke, independent of body mass index and traditional risk factors. Interpretation of the data from these observational studies is limited by the varying definitions and ascertainment of PCOS and CVD across studies. Recent Mendelian randomization studies have challenged the causality of PCOS with coronary heart disease and stroke. Future longitudinal studies with clearly defined PCOS criteria and newer genetic methodologies may help to determine association and causality. Nevertheless, CVD risk screening remains critical in this patient population, as improvements in metabolic profile and reduction in CVD risk are achievable with a combination of lifestyle management and pharmacotherapy. Statin therapy should be implemented in women with PCOS who have elevated atherosclerotic CVD risk. If CVD risk is uncertain, measurement of subclinical atherosclerosis (carotid plaque or coronary artery calcium) may be a useful tool to guide shared decision-making about initiation of statin therapy. Other medications, such as metformin and glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, also may be useful in reducing CVD risk in insulin-resistant populations. Additional research is needed to determine the best pathways to mitigate PCOS-associated CVD risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.fertnstert.2022.03.009DOI Listing
May 2022

Extended, standard or De-escalation antiplatelet therapy for patients with CAD undergoing PCI? A trial-sequential, bivariate, influential and network meta-analysis.

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Pharmacother 2022 Mar 24. Epub 2022 Mar 24.

Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: The relative safety and efficacy of de-escalation, extended duration (ED) (>12-months) and standard dual antiplatelet therapy for 12-months (DAPT-12) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains controversial.

Methods: Online databases were queried to identify relevant randomized control trials (RCTs). ED-DAPT, high-potency (HP) DAPT, shorter duration (SD) DAPT and low-dose (LD) DAPT were compared with DAPT-12. A trial sequential, bivariate, influential and frequentist network meta-analysis (NMA) was performed to determine the pooled estimates.

Results: A total of 30 RCTs comprising 81 208 (40 839 experimental, 40 369 control arm) patients with CAD were included in the quantitative analysis. On NMA, compared with DAPT-12, all types of de-escalation, HP-DAPT-12 and ED-DAPT strategies had a statistically non-significant difference in the incidence of MACE at a median follow-up of 1-year. Similarly, there was no significant difference in the incidence of stroke, stent thrombosis, target lesion revascularization (TLR), target vessel revascularization (TVR) and all-cause mortality between DAPT-12 and all other strategies. The network estimates showed a significantly lower incidence of major bleeding with DAPT for 3-months followed by P2Y12-inhibitor monotherapy (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45-0.84), while a higher risk of bleeding with HP-DAPT for 12 months (RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.16-2.06). The net clinical benefit and rankograms also favored DAPT-3 (P2Y12) and discouraged the use of HP-DAPT-12 and ED-DAPT. A subgroup analysis of 19 RCTs restricted to patients who presented with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) mirrored the findings of pooled analysis. A sensitivity analysis revealed no influence of any individual study or individual strategy on net ischemic estimates. The trial sequential analysis (TSA) illustrated a consistently non-significant difference at the interim analysis of trials, reaching the futility area for MACE, while the cumulative Z-values line surpassed the monitoring boundary as well as the required information size for major bleeding favoring de-escalation strategy.

Conclusion: DAPT for 3 months followed by ticagrelor-only and use of aspirin + clopidogrel after a short period of high potency DAPT appears to be a safe strategy for treating post-PCI patients. However, given the methodological limitations and inclusion of a small number of trials in novel de-escalation strategies, these findings need validation by future large scale RCTs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ehjcvp/pvac020DOI Listing
March 2022

Outcomes, Trends, and Predictors of Gastrointestinal Bleeding in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (from the National Inpatient Sample).

Am J Cardiol 2022 05 19;170:83-90. Epub 2022 Feb 19.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, West Virginia University Heart & Vascular Institute, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Major bleeding has been identified as one of the most common complications after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with some suffering gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB). This study aimed at assessing the incidence and predictors of GIB after TAVI in the United States. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from the National Inpatient Sample database from 2011 to 2018. A total of 216,023 hospitalizations for TAVI were included. Of the included patients, 2,188 (1%) patients had GIB, whereas 213,835 (99%) patients did not have GIB. The presence of arteriovenous malformation was associated with the highest odds of having a gastrointestinal bleed (odds ratio (OR) 24.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 17.13 to 35.92). Peptic ulcer disease was associated with an eightfold increased risk of bleeding (OR 8.74, 95% CI, 6.69 to 11.43) followed closely by colorectal cancer (OR 7.89, 95% CI, 5.33 to 11.70). Other comorbidities that were associated with higher propensity-matched rates of GIB were chronic kidney disease (OR 1.27,95% CI, 1.14 to 1.41), congestive heart failure (OR 1.18, 95% CI,1.06 to 1.32), liver disease (OR1.83, 95% CI,1.53 to 2.19), end-stage renal disease (OR 2.08,95% CI, 1.75 to 2.47), atrial fibrillation (OR1.63,95% CI,  1.49 to 1.78), and lung cancer (OR 2.80, 95% CI,1.77 to 4.41). Patients with GIB had higher propensity-matched rates of mortality than those without GIB, (12.1% vs 3.2%, p <0.01). Patients with GIB had a higher median cost of stay ($68,779 vs $46,995, p <0.01) and a longer length of hospital stay (11 vs 3 days, p <0.01). In conclusion, health care use and mortality are higher in hospitalizations of TAVI with a GIB. Baseline comorbidities like peptic ulcer disease, chronic kidney disease, liver disease, atrial fibrillation and, colorectal cancer are significant predictors of this adverse event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.01.022DOI Listing
May 2022

Gender Differences in International Cardiology Guideline Authorship: A Comparison of the US, Canadian, and European Cardiology Guidelines From 2006 to 2020.

J Am Heart Assoc 2022 03 22;11(5):e024249. Epub 2022 Feb 22.

Division of Cardiology University of Arizona Phoenix AZ.

Background Women continue to be underrepresented in cardiology and even more so in leadership positions. We evaluated the trends and gender differences in the guideline writing groups of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association (ACC/AHA), Canadian Cardiovascular Society (CCS), and European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines from 2006 to 2020. Methods and Results We extracted all guidelines authors from 2006 to 2020, assessed their gender from publicly available profiles, and compared differences based on subspecialties and specific societies. Stratified and trend analyses were performed using χ and average annual percentage change/average 5 year percentage change. A total of 80 ACC/AHA (1288 authors [28% women]), 64 CCS (988 authors [26% women]), and 59 ESC (1157 authors [16% women]) guidelines were analyzed. A significant increase in inclusion of women was seen in ACC/AHA (12.6% [2006] to 42.6% [2020]; average annual percentage change, 6.6% [2.3% to 11.1%]; =0.005) and ESC (7.1% [2006] to 25.8% [2020]; average annual percentage change, 6.6% [0.2% to 13.5%]; =0.04), but the trend remained similar in CCS (20.6% [2006] to 36.3% [2020]; average annual percentage change, -0.1% (-3.7% to 3.5%); =0.94), guideline authors. More women were coauthors in the ACC/AHA and ESC guidelines when women were chairs of guidelines. There was a persistent disparity of women among guideline authors for general cardiology and all subspecialties, except for pediatric cardiology and heart failure guidelines. The appointment of women authors as a chair was significantly low in all societies (22.4% [ACC/AHA], 16.9% [CCS], and 7.2% [ESC]; =0.008). Conclusions There is a significant disparity in the inclusion of women on all national guideline committees, in addition to serving as a chair of cardiology guidelines. Further advocacy is required to promote equity, diversity, and inclusion in our cardiology guidelines globally.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.024249DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9075085PMC
March 2022

Stroke Incidence and Outcome Disparity in Rural Regions of Southern West Virginia.

J Emerg Trauma Shock 2021 Oct-Dec;14(4):201-206. Epub 2021 Dec 24.

CAMC Vascular Center of Excellence, Charleston Area Medical Center, Charleston, WV, USA.

Introduction: West Virginia has the highest incidence of obesity, smoking, and diabetes within the United States, placing its population at higher risk of stroke. In addition to these endemic risk factors, Appalachia faces various socioeconomic and health care access challenges that could negatively impact stroke incidence and outcomes. At present, there are limited data regarding geographic variables on stroke outcomes in rural Appalachia. We set out to quantify Appalachian geographic patterns of stroke incidence and outcomes.

Methods: This is a retrospective analysis of all patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of stroke in West Virginia's largest tertiary hospital. During the study (2000-2018), 14,488 patients were analyzed, with an emphasis on those who died from stroke ( = 1022). We first used institutional ICD-9/10 data alongside demographics information and chart reviews to evaluate disease patterns while also exploring emerging hot spot pattern changes over time; we then exploited an emerging time series analysis using temporal trends to assess differing instances of stroke occurrence regionally with hot spots defined as higher than expected incidences of stroke and stroke death.

Results: Data analysis revealed several hot spots of increasing stroke and mortality rates, many of which achieved statistically significant variance compared to expected norms ( = 0.001). Moreover, this study revealed high-risk zones in rural West Virginia wherein the incidence and mortality rates of stroke are suggestively higher and less resistance to economic change than urban centers.

Conclusions: Stroke incidence and mortality were found to be higher than expected in many areas of rural West Virginia. The higher stroke risk populations correlate with area that may be impacted by socioeconomic factors and limited access to primary care. These high-risk areas may therefore benefit from investments in infrastructure, patient education, and unrestricted primary care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/JETS.JETS_191_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8780634PMC
December 2021

Cerebral Embolic Protection during Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation: Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Curr Probl Cardiol 2022 Feb 3:101127. Epub 2022 Feb 3.

Sands-Constellation Heart Institute, Rochester General Hospital, Rochester, NY, USA. Electronic address:

In patient undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), stroke remains a potentially devastating complication associated with significant morbidity, and mortality. To reduce the risk of stroke, cerebral protection devices (CPD) were developed to prevent debris from embolizing to the brain during TAVI. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the safety and efficacy of CPD in TAVI. The MEDLINE (PubMed, Ovid) and Cochrane databases were queried with various combinations of medical subject headings to identify relevant articles. Statistical analysis was performed using a random-effects model to calculate unadjusted odds ratio (OR), including subgroup analyses based on follow-up duration, study design, and type of CPD. Using a pooled analysis, CPD was associated with a significant reduction in major adverse cardiovascular events MACE (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.70-0.81, P < 0.01), mortality (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.58-0.74, P < 0.01) and stroke (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.76-0.93, P < 0.01) in patients undergoing TAVI. Similarly, on MRI volume per lesion were lower for patients with CPD use. No significant difference was observed in acute kidney injury (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.42-1.37, P = 0.68), bleeding (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.71-1.20, P = 0.55) or vascular complications (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.62-1.31, P = 0.6) for patients undergoing TAVI with CPD. In conclusion, CPD device use in TAVI is associated with a reduction of MACE, mortality, and stroke compared with patients undergoing TAVI without CPD. However, the significant reduction in mortality is driven mainly by observational studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2022.101127DOI Listing
February 2022

Therapeutic Hypothermia Is Associated With a Decrease in All-cause Mortality in Cardiac Arrest Due to Shockable Rhythm.

Crit Pathw Cardiol 2022 03;21(1):47-56

Department of Cardiovascular Disease, Reading Hospital-Tower Health, Reading, PA.

Background: The benefits of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) in comatose patients postcardiac arrest remain uncertain. While some studies have shown benefit, others have shown equivocal results. We pooled data from randomized controlled trials to better study the outcomes of TH.

Methods: Electronic research databases were queried up till September 21, 2021. Randomized controlled trials comparing TH (32-34 °C) with control (normothermia or temperature ≥36 °C) in comatose postcardiac arrest patients were included.

Results: The study included 10 randomized controlled trials with 3988 subjects (1999 in the TH arm and 1989 in the control arm). There was no difference in all-cause mortality between TH and control (odds ratio [OR], 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.66-1.05; P = 0.08; I2 = 41%). There was no difference in the odds of poor neurological outcomes (OR, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.61-1.01; P = 0.07; I2 = 43%). Subgroup analysis showed a decrease in all-cause mortality and poor neurological outcomes with TH in shockable rhythms (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.37-0.80; P = 1.00; I2 = 0% and OR, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.32-0.72; P = 0.92; I2 = 0%, respectively).

Conclusions: TH may be beneficial in reducing mortality and poor neurological outcomes in comatose postcardiac arrest patients with shockable rhythms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HPC.0000000000000277DOI Listing
March 2022

Safety and efficacy of drug-coated balloon for peripheral artery revascularization-A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2022 03 18;99(4):1319-1326. Epub 2022 Jan 18.

Department of Cardiology, Detroit Medical Center, Heart Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Background: The relative merits of the drug-coated balloon (DCB) versus uncoated balloon (UCB) angioplasty in endovascular intervention for patients with symptomatic lower extremity peripheral arterial disease (PAD) remains controversial.

Methods: Online databases were queried with various combinations of keywords to identify relevant articles. Net adverse events (NAEs) and its components were compared using a random effect model to calculate unadjusted odds ratios (ORs).

Results: A total of 26 studies comprising 26,845 patients (UCB: 17,770 and DCB: 9075) were included. On pooled analysis, DCB was associated with significantly lower odds of NAE (OR: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.36-0.61), vessel restenosis (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.37-0.57), major amputation (OR: 0.68, 95% CI: 0.47-99), need for repeat target lesion (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.31-0.47) and target vessel revascularization (OR: 0.62, 95% CI: 0.47-0.81) compared with UCB. Similarly, the primary patency rate was significantly higher in patients undergoing DCB angioplasty (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.19-1.75), while the odds for all-cause mortality (OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.85-1.09) were not significantly different between the two groups. A subgroup analysis based on follow-up duration (6 months vs. 1 vs. 2 years) followed the findings of the pooled analysis with few exceptions.

Conclusions: The use of DCB in lower extremity PAD intervention is associated with higher primary patency, lower restenosis, lower amputation rate, and decreased need for repeat revascularization with similar all-cause mortality as compared to UCB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.30074DOI Listing
March 2022

Gender Differences in Age-Stratified Inhospital Outcomes After Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (from the National Inpatient Sample 2012 to 2018).

Am J Cardiol 2022 03 3;167:83-92. Epub 2022 Jan 3.

Division of Cardiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland.

Contemporary data on gender differences in outcomes after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI), after stratification by age, remain limited. We studied age-stratified (60 to 70, 71 to 80, and 81 to 90 years) inhospital outcomes by gender after TAVI from the National Inpatient Sample database between 2012 and 2018. We analyzed National Inpatient Sample data using the International Classification of Diseases, Clinical Modification, Ninth Revision, and Tenth Revision claims codes. Between the years 2012 and 2018, a total of 188,325 weighted hospitalizations for TAVI were included in the analysis. A total of 21,957 patients were included in the 60 to 70 age group (44% females), 60,770 (45% females) in the 71 to 80 age group, and 105,580 (50% females) in the 81 to 90 age groups, respectively. Propensity-matched inhospital mortality rates were significantly higher for females than males for the age group of 81 to 90 years (3.0% vs 2.1%, p <0.01). Vascular complications and a need for blood transfusions remained significantly higher for females on propensity-matched analysis across all categories of ages. Conversely, acute kidney injury and the need for pacemaker implantation remained significantly higher for males across all age groups. In conclusion, we report that mortality is higher in female patients who underwent TAVI between the ages of 81 to 90. Moreover, the female gender was associated with higher vascular complications and bleeding requiring transfusions. Conversely, the male gender was associated with higher rates of pacemaker implantation and acute kidney injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.11.038DOI Listing
March 2022

Arrhythmias in patients with in-hospital alcohol withdrawal are associated with increased mortality: Insights from 1.5 million hospitalizations for alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

Heart Rhythm O2 2021 Dec 11;2(6Part A):614-621. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota.

Background: Atrial arrhythmias are commonly noted in patients with alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS), requiring inpatient admission.

Objective: The burden of arrhythmias and the association with in-hospital outcomes are incompletely defined in patients hospitalized with AWS.

Methods: The nationwide inpatient sample database was accessed from September 2015 to December 2018 to identify hospitalizations for AWS. We studied a cohort of patients with arrhythmias noted during hospitalization using the appropriate International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision billing codes. We compared patient characteristics, outcomes, and hospitalization costs between alcohol withdrawal hospitalizations with and without documented arrhythmias. Propensity score matching (PSM) and multivariate regression were performed to control confounders and develop odds ratios (OR), respectively.

Results: Among 1,511,155 hospitalization with AWS, 146,825 (9.72%) had concurrent arrhythmias. After PSM, we identified 135,540 cases in each group. Hospitalizations with AWS and concurrent arrhythmias had higher in-hospital mortality (4.19% vs 1.95%, OR 1.76, confidence interval [CI] 1.67-1.85, < .0001). The most common arrhythmia was atrial fibrillation (66.7%). Arrhythmias in AWS were also associated with poorer in-hospital outcomes, including a higher risk of acute heart failure (8.40% vs 4.58%, OR 1.97, CI 1.90-2.05, < .0001), acute kidney injury (21.32% vs 15.27%, OR 1.39, CI 1.36-1.43, < .0001), and acute respiratory failure (9.19% vs 5.49%, OR 1.70, CI 1.64-1.76, < .0001) requiring intubation. The length of hospital stay (6 days vs 4 days < .0001) and cost of hospital care ($12,615 [$6683-$27,330] vs $7860 [$4482-$15,868], < .0001) were higher in AWS with arrhythmias.

Conclusion: Arrhythmia in AWS is associated with higher in-hospital mortality and poorer in-hospital outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hroo.2021.09.014DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8703122PMC
December 2021

Angiographic-only or intravascular ultrasound-guided approach for left-main coronary artery intervention: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2021 Nov 26;19(11):1029-1035. Epub 2021 Nov 26.

Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Kentucky, Lexington, USA.

Introduction: The use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) in percutaneous revascularization of left-main coronary artery disease (LMCAD) warrants further exploration. We aimed to collate all available data on the merits of IVUS in LMCAD to help decision-making.

Methods: The MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane databases were queried for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational cohort studies (OCS). The data were analyzed using random-effects model to calculate unadjusted odds ratio (OR) between IVUS-guided and angiography-only LMCA revascularization.

Results: A total of 14 studies (2 RCTs and 12 OCS), comprising 18944 patients, were included. The pooled odds of all-cause mortality (OR 0.57, 95%CI 0.46-0.70, p = <0.00001), cardiovascular mortality (OR 0.37, 95%CI 0.26-0.54, p = <0.00001), left-main revascularization (OR 0.63, 95%CI 0.45-0.89, p = 0.009) and myocardial infarction (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.97, p = 0.02) were significantly lower with IVUS-guidance. There was no difference observed in the odds of the stent thrombosis (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.31-1.05, p = 0.07) and stroke (OR 1.7, 95%CI 0.56-5.14, p = 0.35) between the two groups. A subgroup analysis based on the study design and follow-up duration mirrored the pooled estimates.

Conclusion: IVUS-guided LMCA intervention is associated with overall improved cardiovascular outcomes than the angiography-only approach. This needs to be tested in a large randomized controlled trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14779072.2021.2004122DOI Listing
November 2021

Association of chronic kidney disease and end-stage renal disease with procedural complications and in-hospital outcomes from left atrial appendage occlusion device implantation in patients with atrial fibrillation: Insights from the national inpatient sample of 36,065 procedures.

Heart Rhythm O2 2021 Oct 21;2(5):472-479. Epub 2021 Aug 21.

Section of Electrophysiology, Division of Cardiology, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California.

Background: Left atrial appendage occlusion (LAAO) has emerged as an alternative strategy to oral anticoagulation for mitigating ischemic stroke risk in selected patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), but safety data in patients with significant kidney disease are limited.

Objective: To determine the association of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) with procedural complications and in-hospital outcomes after LAAO in AF patients.

Methods: Data were extracted from National Inpatient Sample for calendar years 2015-2018. Watchman implantations were identified on the basis of International Classification of Diseases, 9th and 10th Revision, Clinical Modification codes of 37.90 and 02L73DK. The outcomes assessed in our study included complications, inpatient mortality, and resource utilization with LAAO.

Results: A total of 36,065 Watchman recipients were included in the final analysis. CKD (9.8%, n = 3545) and ESRD (3%, n = 1155) were associated with a higher prevalence of major complications and mortality in crude analysis compared to no CKD. After multivariate adjustment for potential confounders, CKD was associated with length of stay (LOS) >1 day (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.355; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.234-1.488), median cost >$24,663 (aOR 1.267; 95% CI 1.176-1.365), and acute kidney injury (aOR 4.134; 95% CI 3.536-4.833), while ESRD was associated with in-patient mortality (aOR 7.156; 95% CI 3.294-15.544).

Conclusion: The prevalence of CKD and ESRD was approximately 13% in AF patients undergoing Watchman LAAO implantations. CKD was independently associated with prolonged LOS, higher hospitalization costs, and acute kidney injury, while ESRD was independently associated with in-patient mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hroo.2021.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8505197PMC
October 2021

Vitamin D Deficiency and Associated Risk Factors in Muslim Housewives of Quetta, Pakistan: A Cross-Sectional Study.

Cureus 2021 Sep 1;13(9):e17643. Epub 2021 Sep 1.

Internal Medicine Department, Baptist Medical Center South, Montgomery, USA.

Background Vitamin D (Vit-D) plays a central role in calcium homeostasis and maintains skeletal integrity. Housewives in Quetta, Pakistan are at increased risk of vitamin D deficiency (VDD). They spend a greater part of their day in cleaning, washing, cooking, managing daily groceries, and other household chores. Thus, little time is left for self-care and outdoor activities. They wear hijab and have very little exposure to sunlight. In addition, their diet is deficient in Vit-D-rich food items, rendering them at high risk of VDD. Fear of getting tanned, melasma, and preference for a fair complexion further limit their sun exposure. This study evaluates the prevalence of VDD in housewives and determines its various risk factors to recommend screening guidelines for VDD. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed between November 2020 and April 2021 and recruited housewives aged >18 from the outpatient department of a tertiary care hospital in Quetta. Informed consent was obtained from all participants. VDD was defined as a serum 25(OH)-D level <20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). Sociodemographic variables and information about the dietary habits, perception, attitudes towards sunlight, and daily duration of sunlight exposure were collected. Mean and standard deviation (SD) were calculated for continuous variables and counts, and proportions were calculated for categorical variables like education, age. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the risk factors and associations of VDD. Data were analyzed by SAS/STAT software (version 9.4). Results Among 151 housewives, 58.9% of housewives had VDD. VDD group had a higher proportion of females aged 18-30 years and a lower proportion of graduates. The reported use of Vit-D supplements was much lower in the VDD group compared with the non-deficient group, 38.2% versus 71.0 %, P-value <0.001. History of fragility fractures was reported by 10.1% of housewives in the VDD group compared to 4.8% in the non-deficient group, P-value: 0.03. Around 77.5% of housewives in the VDD group spent 15 minutes or less outdoors versus 51.6% in the non-deficient group; 55.1% of housewives in the VDD group reported that they never consumed milk versus 17.7 % in the non-deficient group, P-value <0.00001. In the univariate logistic regression model, housewives with an 11-12th grade of education had 4.80-fold higher odds of VDD compared to those who had undergraduate or graduate degrees (OR: 4.80, 95 % CI: 1.07-21.45). Housewives who never consumed milk had 9.72-fold (95 % CI: 3.69-25.58) higher odds of VDD compared to those who consumed milk on daily basis. Odds of VDD were 3.61-fold (95% CI: 1.06-12.31) higher in those who never consumed fish as compared to those who ate fish at least 1-2 days/week. In multivariate logistic regression, age group 18-30 (OR: 17.07, 95% CI: 1.18-246.86), and never consuming milk (OR: 7.33, 95 % CI: 1.99-26.89) were independently associated with VDD. Conclusion VDD is highly prevalent (58.9%) in housewives of Quetta. It is the need of time to increase awareness regarding the health benefits, sources, and deficiency symptoms of Vit-D. Our study revealed VDD in housewives irrespective of education and income. Dietary supplementations were greater predictors of VDD. Daily sun exposure should be encouraged, and food items should be fortified with Vit-D. Recommendations for Vitamin D screening would be a good step, especially in Muslim housewives.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.17643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8485963PMC
September 2021

Uropathogens Antimicrobial Sensitivity and Resistance Pattern From Outpatients in Balochistan, Pakistan.

Cureus 2021 Aug 28;13(8):e17527. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Internal Medicine, Jinnah Medical and Dental College, Karachi, PAK.

Objective To determine the pattern of microbes responsible for urinary tract infections and their susceptibility to different antibiotics. Method This is a cross-sectional study conducted at Quetta, Pakistan. The urine samples of 400 patients were collected and sent for culture and sensitivity analysis. The results were recorded on an excel datasheet. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the data. Results Out of 400 urine samples, 266 samples were culture positive for microorganisms. The most common organism on analysis was 123/266 (46.24%) followed by 59/266 (22.18%) and 49/266 (18.42%). Gram-negative microorganisms were most susceptible to fosfomycin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, and meropenem. Gram-positive microorganisms were most susceptible to fosfomycin, cefoperazone/sulbactam, meropenem, and amoxicillin/clavulanate. High rates of resistance in were observed to most commonly prescribed broad-spectrum antibiotics; ceftriaxone (64.35%), cefotaxime (76.54%), ceftazidime (49.43%), cefepime (53.44%), levofloxacin (71.26%), and amoxicillin/clavulanate (70.31%). was the major multidrug-resistant organism. Conclusion High rates of antibiotic resistance and multi-drug resistance were revealed in this study due to the widespread and injudicious use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Thus, it is highly recommended to regulate the pharmacies. Physicians should judiciously prescribe antibiotics and practice the culture and sensitivity of urine samples rather than blind prescription. Continued surveillance on uropathogens prevalence and resistance, new and next-generation antibiotics, and rapid diagnostic tests to differentiate viral from bacterial infections is the need of time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.17527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8485873PMC
August 2021

Outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement in patients with and without atrial fibrillation: Insight from national inpatient sample.

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2021 Oct 3;19(10):939-946. Epub 2021 Nov 3.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA.

Background: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the most frequent rhythm disturbance encountered in the population in general. Our study aims to evaluate the in-hospital outcomes of TAVR with AF.

Methods: We used National Inpatient Sample database from 2011 to 2018. Baseline characteristics and in-hospital outcomes were evaluated in TAVR based on AF status or not in both unmatched and propensity-matched cohorts.

Results: A total of 215,938 patients underwent TAVR during our study period and out of these AF was encountered in 89,587 (41.5%) patients. AF patients undergoing TAVR had a higher mean age and had an increased burden of key co-morbidities in the unmatched cohort. With propensity matched 1:1 analysis, AF had higher mortality as compared to no-AF group (2.4% vs. 2.1%, p < 0.01). The rate of cardiogenic shock (2.9% vs 2.1%), respiratory complications (9.9% vs 8.2%), acute kidney injury (15.6% vs 12.0%), vascular complications (5.0% vs 4.7%), and blood transfusion (10.4% vs 8.6%) was higher in TAVR patients with AF. A lower proportion of patients had routine discharge to home for TAVR with AF (80.8% vs 74.4%). Cost of hospitalization (23,0171[SD, 20,5242] vs 210,608[28,4203]) and length of stay (5.7[SD, 11.8] vs 4.29[7.2] days) were considerably higher in patients undergoing TAVR with AF.

Conclusion: Patients undergoing TAVR with concomitant AF tended to have increased mortality, complications, length, and cost of stay compared to non-AF patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14779072.2021.1988852DOI Listing
October 2021

Safety and efficacy of the polymer-free and polymer-coated drug-eluting stents in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 11 12;98(6):E802-E813. Epub 2021 Sep 12.

Department of Cardiology, Detroit Medical Center, Heart Hospital, Detroit, Michigan, USA.

Introduction: The relative safety and efficacy of polymer-free (PF) versus polymer-coated (PC) drug-eluting stents (DES) in patients with angina or acute coronary syndrome (ACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention has received limited study.

Method: Digital databases were queried to identify relevant studies. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and secondary outcomes were compared using a random effect model to calculate unadjusted odds ratios (OR).

Results: A total of 28 studies consisting of 23,198 patients were included in the final analysis. On pooled analysis, there was no significant difference in the odds of MACE (OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.91-1.08) and major bleeding (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.61-1.24) between patients undergoing PF-DES versus PC-DES. Similarly, the odds of myocardial infarction, stroke, stent thrombosis, cardiovascular mortality and need for target vessel revascularization was similar between the two groups. PF-DES was favored due to significantly lower odds of non-cardiac death (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.68-89) and all-cause mortality (OR 0.87, 95% CI 0.80-0.95), but had a higher need for target lesion revascularization (OR 1.2, 95% CI 1.02-1.42). A subgroup analysis based on follow up duration, clinical presentation, presence of diabetes and class of eluting drugs mirrored the net estimates for all outcomes with a few exceptions. A sensitivity and meta-regression analysis showed no influence of single-study and duration of antiplatelet therapy on pooled outcomes.

Conclusion: In patients presenting with angina or ACS, PF-DES might be favored due to lower all-cause mortality and equal risk of ischemic adverse cardiovascular and major bleeding events compared with PC-DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29953DOI Listing
November 2021

Redo Surgical Mitral Valve Replacement Versus Transcatheter Mitral Valve in Valve From the National Inpatient Sample.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 09 28;10(17):e020948. Epub 2021 Aug 28.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine West Virginia University Heart & Vascular Institute Morgantown WV.

Background Redo mitral valve surgery is required in up to one-third of patients and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity. Valve-in-valve transcatheter mitral valve replacement (ViV TMVR) is less invasive and could be considered in those at prohibitive surgical risk. Studies on comparative outcomes of ViV TMVR and redo surgical mitral valve replacement (SMVR) remain limited. Our study aimed to investigate the real-world outcomes of the above procedures using the National Inpatient Sample database. Methods and Results We analyzed National Inpatient Sample data using the () from September 2015 to December 2018. A total of 495 and 2250 patients underwent redo ViV TMVR and SMVR, respectively. The patients who underwent ViV TMVR were older (77 versus 68 years, <0.01). Adjusted mortality was higher in the redo SMVR group compared with the ViV TMVR group (7.6% versus <2.8%, <0.01). Perioperative complications were higher among patients undergoing redo SMVR including blood transfusions (38% versus 7.6%, <0.01) and acute kidney injury (36.7% versus 13.9%, <0.01). Cost of care was higher (USD$57 172 versus USD$52 579, <0.01), length of stay was longer (10 versus 3 days, <0.01), and discharge to home was lower (20.3% versus 64.6%, <0.01) in the SMVR group compared with the ViV TMVR group. Conclusions ViV TMVR is associated with lower mortality, periprocedural morbidity, and resource use compared with patients undergoing redo SMVR. ViV TMVR may be a viable option for some patients with mitral prosthesis dysfunction. Studies evaluating long-term outcomes and durability of ViV TMVR are needed. A patient-centered approach by the heart team, local institutional expertise, and careful preprocedure planning can help decision-making about the choice of intervention for the individual patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.020948DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8649266PMC
September 2021

Trends and Outcomes of Ischemic Stroke after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation, A US National Propensity Matched Analysis.

Curr Probl Cardiol 2021 Aug 13:100961. Epub 2021 Aug 13.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, West Virginia University Heart & Vascular Institute, Morgantown, WV.

Contemporary data on stroke predictors and outcomes in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) remains limited. We analyzed National Inpatient Sample data from the year 2011 to 2018. A total of 215,938 patients underwent TAVI. Of the patients who underwent TAVI, 4579 (2.2%) suffered from stroke and 211359 (97.8%) did not have a stroke. Adjusted mortality was higher in patients who had a stroke (10.9%) as compared to patients who did not have a stroke (3.1%). Lower percentage of patients were discharged home who developed a stroke compared to patients without a stroke (10.2% vs 52.3%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that at baseline, age, female sex, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease and peripheral vascular disease were significant predictors of stroke. Median Cost of care ($63367 vs $48070) and length of stay (8 vs 4 days) were considerably higher for patients with stroke when compared to the comparison group (P < 0.01 for all). In conclusion we report that stroke is associated with increased mortality, morbidity, and resource utilization in patients undergoing TAVI. Baseline characteristics like age, gender, atrial fibrillation, chronic kidney disease and peripheral vascular disease are significant predictors of this adverse event.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2021.100961DOI Listing
August 2021

Comparative analysis of revascularization with percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass surgery for patients with end-stage renal disease: a nationwide inpatient sample database.

Expert Rev Cardiovasc Ther 2021 Aug 6;19(8):763-768. Epub 2021 Aug 6.

Department of Medicine, Section of Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, USA.

Background: The role of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) vs coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and concomitant end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains unknown.

Research Design & Methods: The National Inpatient Sample (NIS) (2002-2017) was queried to identify all cases of CAD and ESRD. The relative merits of PCI vs CABG were determined using a propensity-matched multivariate logistic regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (aOR) for mortality and other in-hospital complications were calculated.

Results: A total of 350,623 [CABG = 112,099 (32%) and PCI = 238,524 (68%)] hospitalizations were included in the analysis. The overall adjusted odds for major bleeding (aOR 1.28, 95% CI 1.25-1.31, P < 0.0001), post-procedure bleeding (aOR 5.19, 95% CI 4.93-5.47, P < 0.0001), sepsis (aOR 1.29, 95% CI 1.26-1.33, P < 0.0001), cardiogenic shock (aOR 1.23, 95% CI 1.20-1.26, P < 0.0001), and in-hospital mortality (aOR 1.65, 95% CI 1.61-1.69, P < 0.0001) were significantly higher for patients undergoing CABG compared with PCI. The need for intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) placement (aOR 2.52, 95% CI 2.45-2.59, P < 0.001) was higher in the CABG group, while the adjusted odds of vascular complications were similar between the two groups (aOR 0.99, 95% CI 0.94-1.06, P = 0.82). As expected, patients undergoing CABG had a higher mean length of stay and mean cost of hospitalization.

Conclusion: CABG in ESRD may be associated with higher in-hospital complications, increased length of stay, and higher resource utilization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14779072.2021.1955350DOI Listing
August 2021

Predictors of Permanent Pacemaker Implantation in Patients Undergoing Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement - A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Am Heart Assoc 2021 07 14;10(14):e020906. Epub 2021 Jul 14.

Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals Philadelphia PA.

Background As transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) technology expands to healthy and lower-risk populations, the burden and predictors of procedure-related complications including the need for permanent pacemaker (PPM) implantation needs to be identified. Methods and Results Digital databases were systematically searched to identify studies reporting the incidence of PPM implantation after TAVR. A random- and fixed-effects model was used to calculate unadjusted odds ratios (OR) for all predictors. A total of 78 studies, recruiting 31 261 patients were included in the final analysis. Overall, 6212 patients required a PPM, with a mean of 18.9% PPM per study and net rate ranging from 0.16% to 51%. The pooled estimates on a random-effects model indicated significantly higher odds of post-TAVR PPM implantation for men (OR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.04-1.28); for patients with baseline mobitz type-1 second-degree atrioventricular block (OR, 3.13; 95% CI, 1.64-5.93), left anterior hemiblock (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.09-1.86), bifascicular block (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.52-4.42), right bundle-branch block (OR, 2.48; 95% CI, 2.17-2.83), and for periprocedural atriorventricular block (OR, 4.17; 95% CI, 2.69-6.46). The mechanically expandable valves had 1.44 (95% CI, 1.18-1.76), while self-expandable valves had 1.93 (95% CI, 1.42-2.63) fold higher odds of PPM requirement compared with self-expandable and balloon-expandable valves, respectively. Conclusions Male sex, baseline atrioventricular conduction delays, intraprocedural atrioventricular block, and use of mechanically expandable and self-expanding prosthesis served as positive predictors of PPM implantation in patients undergoing TAVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.121.020906DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8483489PMC
July 2021

Comparison of In-Hospital Outcomes of Transcatheter Mitral Valve Repair in Patients With vs Without Pulmonary Hypertension (From the National Inpatient Sample).

Am J Cardiol 2021 08 29;153:101-108. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, West Virginia University Heart & Vascular Institute, Morgantown, West Virginia.

Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is common in patients with left heart disease and is present in varying degrees in patients with severe mitral valve disease. There is paucity of data regarding outcomes following transcatheter mitral valve repair (TMVr) in patients with PH. For this study, we analyzed NIS data from 2014 to 2018 using the ICD-9-CM and 10-CM codes. Baseline characteristics were compared using a Pearson chi-squared test for categorical variables and independent samples t-test for continuous variables. To account for selection bias, a 1:1 propensity match cohort was derived using logistic regression. Trend analysis was- done using linear regression. Of 21,505 encounters, 6780 encounters had PH. 6610 PH encounters were matched with 6610 encounters without PH. In-hospital mortality (3.3% versus 1.9%, p <0.01) was higher in PH population. Complications such as blood transfusion (3.6% versus 1.7%, p <0.01), GI bleed (1.4% versus 1%, p = 0.04), vascular complications (5.3% versus 3.3%, p <0.01), vasopressors use (2.9% versus 1.7%, p <0.01) and pacemaker placement (1.3% versus 0.8%, p = 0.01) remained significantly higher for encounters with PH. Multiple Logistic regression showed PH was associated with higher mortality (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.68 [95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-2.05], p <0.01). The mean length of stay (6.2 versus 5.3 days, p <0.01) and cost per hospitalization ($53,780 versus $50,801, p <0.01) remained significantly higher in the PH group when compared to group without PH. In conclusion, TMVr in PH as compared to without PH is associated with higher mortality, post-procedure complication rates, length of stay, and cost of stay.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.amjcard.2021.05.022DOI Listing
August 2021

Safety and Efficacy of Colchicine in Patients with Stable CAD and ACS: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Am J Cardiovasc Drugs 2021 Nov 21;21(6):659-668. Epub 2021 Jun 21.

Department of Medicine, Section of Cardiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospitals, Philadelphia, PA, USA.

Background: Evidence from recent trials has shown conflicting results in terms of the utility of colchicine in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).

Methods: Multiple databases were queried to identify all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the merits of colchicine in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable CAD. The pooled relative risk ratio (RR) of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), its components, and gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events were computed using a random-effect model.

Results: Ten RCTs comprising a total of 12,761 patients were identified. At a median follow-up of 12 months, there was a significantly lower risk of MACE [RR 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45-96], ACS (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96), ischemic stroke (RR 0.42, 95% CI 0.22-0.81), and need for revascularization (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42-90) in patients receiving colchicine compared with placebo. A subgroup analysis based on the clinical presentation showed that the significantly lower incidence of MACE and stroke were driven by the patients presenting with ACS. The use of colchicine in patients with stable CAD did not reduce the incidence of MACE (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.28-1.09), ACS (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.25-1.08), or stroke (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.33-1.13). There was no significant difference in the relative risk of cardiac arrest, ACS, cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality between the two groups in both ACS and stable CAD populations. The risk of GI adverse events was significantly higher in patients receiving colchicine (RR 2.10, 95% CI 1.12-3.95).

Conclusion: In patients presenting with ACS, low-dose colchicine might reduce the incidence of MACE, stroke, and the need for revascularization at long follow-up durations. Colchicine might offer no benefits in reducing the risk of ischemic events in patients with stable angina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40256-021-00485-7DOI Listing
November 2021
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