Publications by authors named "Salman Khazaei"

148 Publications

Concentration of Potentially Toxic Elements in Vegetable Oils and Health Risk Assessment: a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2021 Feb 27. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Nutrition Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

The present study evaluates the concentration of potentially toxic elements (PTEs), including Pb, Cd, As, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ni, in vegetable oils through a meta-analytic approach. The published studies in relation to the concentrations of PTEs in vegetable oils were retrieved from major international databases such as PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Embase followed by meta-analysis. Moreover, the health risk assessment was evaluated using total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) by a Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) model. According to the results of 51 articles included among 958 retrieved studies, the concentrations of the PTEs were as follows: Cd ≈As (0.110 mg/kg) > Pb (0.086 mg/kg) in cottonseed, canola, and olive oil and Fe (12.964 mg/kg) > Zn (1.044 mg/kg) > Ni (0.893 mg/kg) > Cu (0.264 mg/kg) in cottonseed, olive, and soybean for trace elementals, respectively. Based on the continent type, the higher concentration of Cd, As, and Pb was related to PAHO (American region) and AFRO (African region), and the higher concentrations of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ni were observed in WPRO (Western Pacific Region), EMRO (Eastern Mediterranean Region), and AFRO. On the other hand, non-carcinogenic health risk assessment of the PTEs indicated that there was a different risk pattern in various countries, and the TTHQ level in adult groups was lower than 1. It can be concluded that the consumption of vegetable oils is safe and does not pose risk to the health of consumers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-021-02645-xDOI Listing
February 2021

Predisposing risk factors for COVID-19 infection: A case-control study.

Caspian J Intern Med 2020 ;11(Suppl 1):495-500

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: The Covid-19 epidemic in 2019 has created many public health problems. Literature that focuses on the risk factors of this issue is limited especially in developing countries. This study proposed to examine the risk factors of COVID-19 infection in the west area of Iran.

Methods: This case-control study was conducted from February to April 2020 in Nahavand county, western Iran. Cases were all patients who were coronavirus positive and, the controls included people who had clinical signs consistent with COVID-19, but their test results were negative. Two controls were selected for every case. Multivariate logistic regression was applied to evaluate the effects of epidemiological aspects on the incidence of COVID-19.

Results: Significant risk factors for COVID-19 infection based on the multivariable logistic regression model were male gender (OR=1.82, P=0.0.15), age group over 60 years (OR=2.04, P=0.017), living in urban areas (OR=1.79, P=0.018), being married (OR=2.08, P=0.022), having history of contact with the corona patients (OR=5.61, P=0.009), and comorbidities (OR=1.78, P=0.031).

Conclusion: This study highlighted the factors associated with the occurrence of COVID-19 infection. These findings may help guide recommendations for the protection of high-risk groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22088/cjim.11.0.495DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7780876PMC
January 2020

Survival Percentile and Predictors of Difference in Survival among Hemodialysis Patients and Their Additive Interaction Using Laplace Regression.

J Res Health Sci 2020 Nov 14;20(4):e00498. Epub 2020 Nov 14.

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Identifying survival modifiable factors and additive interaction between them could help in prioritizing the clinical care of Hemodialysis (HD) patients. We aimed to examine the survival rate and its predictors in HD patients; and explore the additive interaction between survival modifiable factors.

Study Design: A retrospective cohort study.

Methods: The present study was performed on 1142 HD patients in Hamadan Province, western Iran from 2007 to 2017. Data were collected through a researcher-made checklist on hospital records. Laplace regression was used to evaluate differences in 40th survival percentiles in different levels of predictors as well as exploring the pairwise additive interactions between variables.

Results: We observed significantly higher survival in nonsmoker patients (40th percentile difference = 5.34 months, 95% CI: 2.06, 8.61). Survival was shorter by more than 3 years in CRP positive patients (40th percentile difference=36.9 months, 95% CI: 32.37, 41.42). Patients with normal albumin (40th percentile difference =24.92, 95% CI: 18.04, 31.80) and hemoglobin (40th percentile difference = 18.65, 95% CI: 12.43, 24.86) had significantly higher survival (P<0.001). There was superadditive interaction between being CRP negative and nonsmoker (β3 = 9.42 months, 95% CI: 3.35, 15.49 (P=0.002)).

Conclusion: High CRP and low serum albumin and hemoglobin were associated with the increased risk of death in HD patients. The results of this study support the presence of super-additive interaction between CRP status with serum hemoglobin and also CRP status with smoking, resulting in excess survival in HD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jrhs.2020.32DOI Listing
November 2020

Surgical Smoke and Transmission of Coronavirus to Surgical Team Members; a Letter to Editor.

Surg Innov 2020 Dec 18:1553350620977999. Epub 2020 Dec 18.

Department of Health Information Technology, School of Paramedical Sciences, 48430Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1553350620977999DOI Listing
December 2020

Pregnancy outcomes among symptomatic and asymptomatic women infected with COVID-19 in the west of Iran: a case-control study.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2020 Dec 15:1-3. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate pregnancy outcomes among symptomatic and asymptomatic women infected with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the west of Iran.

Materials And Methods: In this case-control study, 45 pregnant women infected with symptomatic COVID-19 were compared with 45 pregnant women infected with asymptomatic COVID-19. The cases included women were referred for delivery to hospitals of Hamadan Province and infected with COVID-19-related symptoms. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was based on the results of real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase-chain-reaction (rRT-PCR) detection. The control group included asymptomatic women who were referred for delivery to hospitals in Hamadan Province infected with COVID-19. Data were collected by a checklist. For the data analysis, the Stata version 12 was used (StataCorp, College Station, TX).

Results: The odds of cesarean delivery in symptomatic women was more the fourfold higher (OR = 4.12, 95% CI (1.7, 10.05),  = .002). Moreover, the odds of LBW was significantly higher in symptomatic women (OR = 2.1, 95% CI (1.2, 6.29),  = .035).

Conclusions: Our findings showed that cesarean delivery and LBW were significantly higher in symptomatic women compared with asymptomatic women. In areas with high COVID-19 pandemics, the performance of the PCR test is recommended for all pregnant women upon admission for delivery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2020.1861599DOI Listing
December 2020

Cryptosporidium animal species in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Trop Med Health 2020 Dec 5;48(1):97. Epub 2020 Dec 5.

Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran.

Background: Cryptosporidiosis is an acute and short-term infection which can lead to severe diarrhea (intestinal cryptosporidiosis) associated with a persistent cough in the host with immune system defect. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the prevalence of animal Cryptosporidium species and the corresponding epidemiological aspects in Iran.

Methods: In this study, all original research articles relating to the animal cryptosporidiosis in Iran were collected from reliable databases using keywords. A meta-analysis was conducted separately for each subgroup, and heterogeneity among the studies was performed using the Q and I tests. Furthermore, it should be noticed that the significance level in the statistical analysis with the Comprehensive Meta-analysis software was considered to be less than 0.05. Finally, meta-analysis results were shown in forest plot with a 95% CI.

Results: In total, 4795 studies were included in the initial screening. Duplicated or non-original studies and the ones which did not meet our considered criteria were excluded from the list. Out of the 100 articles included in our first list for the meta-analysis, 40, 16, 13, 10, 9, 7, and 5 were done on cattle and calves, birds, dogs, sheep, rodents, camels, and horses, respectively. The prevalence rate of cryptosporidiosis among the birds, horses, rodents, camels, dogs, cattle, and sheep in Iran was estimated to be 7.5%, 19.5%, 20.8%, 8.4%, 4.9%, 14.4%, and 9.1%, respectively.

Conclusion: The different Cryptosporidium species have been found in different regions of Iran. Geographical region, climate, and domestic animals are considered as factors responsible for animal cryptosporidiosis prevalence in the area. Moreover, this parasite is zoonotic which causes disease in animals as well as humans which can result in economic loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s41182-020-00278-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7718689PMC
December 2020

Worldwide prevalence of emerging parasite Blastocystis in immunocompromised patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Microb Pathog 2021 Mar 24;152:104615. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Department of Parasitology, School of Allied Medical Science, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, Iran; Zoonotic Diseases ResearchCenter, Ilam University of Medical sciences, Ilam, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Blastocystis is one of the most common pathogens of the human intestine, caused by an emerging parasite, which can lead to severe symptoms and even death in immunocompromised patients. We aimed to determine the global prevalence of Blastocystosis infection in people with immunodeficiency. A systematic literature search was conducted on Web of Science, Scopus, Google scholar, Science Direct and MEDLINE databases to select all observational studies reporting the prevalence of Blastocystosis infection in Worldwide, based on different diagnostic methods in immunocompromised patients of any age and published from inception to February 2019. Pooled estimates and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using random effects models and in addition, the I statistic was calculated. The geographic distribution of studies was evaluated and the diagnosis of Blastocystis was compared by various techniques. Electronic databases were reviewed for Blastocystosis infection in HIV/AIDS, cancer and other immunocompromised patients, and meta-analyses were conducted to calculate the overall estimated prevalence. Total68 eligible studies were included. The estimated pooled prevalence rate of Blastocystosis infection in immunocompromised patients was overall 10% (95% CI, 7-13%; I 96.04%) (P < 0.001), of whom 21% [18-25] were in Australia, 12% [4-24] in America, 11% [6-17] in Europe and 10% [5-15], 7% [3-13] in Asia and Africa, respectively. It was calculated that the estimated pooled prevalence rate of Blastocystosis infection in immunocompromised patients was overall 10% and the prevalence estimates ranged from 0.44 to 72.39. Also, overall the prevalence of parasites co-infection in immunocompromised patients was detected as 0.024%. Our finding showed that immunocompromised people show a high prevalence of Blastocystosis infection compared to the control population. Adequate information on the prevalence rate is still missing from many countries. However, current information underscore that Blastocystis should not be neglected.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104615DOI Listing
March 2021

Factors affecting the survival of patients with colorectal cancer using random survival forest.

J Gastrointest Cancer 2020 Nov 10. Epub 2020 Nov 10.

Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Purpose: Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers and the leading cause of cancer death in Iran. This study aimed to develop and validate a random survival forest (RSF) to identify important risk factors on mortality in colorectal patients based on their demographic and clinical-related variables.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, the information of 317 patients with colorectal cancer who were referred to Imam Khomeini Clinic of Hamadan during the years of 2002 to 2017 were examined. Patient survival was calculated from the time of diagnosis to death. In the present study, the RSF model was used to identify factors affecting patient survival. Also, the results of the RSF model were compared with the Cox model. The data were analyzed using R software (version 3.6.1) and survival packages.

Results: One-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates of included patients were 81.4%, 63%, 57%, 52%, 45%, and 34%, respectively, and the median survival was obtained to be 53 months. The number of 150 patients was died at this time period. The four most important predictors of survival included metastasis to other organs, WBC count, disease stage, and number of lymphomas involved. RSF method predicted survival better than the conventional Cox proportional hazard model.

Conclusion: We found that metastasis to other organs, WBC count, disease stage, and number of lymphomas involved were the most four most important predictors of low survival for colorectal cancer patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12029-020-00544-3DOI Listing
November 2020

Predictors of mortality among hemodialysis patients in Hamadan province using random survival forests.

J Prev Med Hyg 2020 Sep 6;61(3):E482-E488. Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Hemodialysis patients are at a high risk for morbidity and mortality. This study aimed to find the predictors of mortality and survival in hemodialysis patients in Hamadan province of Iran.

Methods: A number of 785 patients during the entire 10 years were enrolled into this historical cohort study. Data were gathered by a checklist of hospital records. The survival time was the time between the start of hemodialysis treatment to patient's death as the end point. Random survival forests (RSF) method was used to identify the main predictors of survival among the patients.

Results: The median survival time was 613 days. The number of 376 deaths was occurred. The three most important predictors of survival were hemoglobin, CRP and albumin. RSF method predicted survival better than the conventional Cox-proportional hazards model (out-of-bag C-index of 0.808 for RSF vs. 0.727 for Cox model).

Conclusions: We found that positivity of CRP, low serum albumin and low serum hemoglobin were the top three most important predictors of low survival for HD patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15167/2421-4248/jpmh2020.61.3.1421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7595073PMC
September 2020

Efficacy of chitosan-based chewing gum on reducing salivary counts and salivary pH: a randomised clinical trial.

Acta Odontol Scand 2020 Nov 3:1-7. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Brucellosis Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Objective: To determine chitosan-based chewing gum role on reducing salivary counts and salivary pH.

Materials And Methods: The present double-blind randomised clinical trial with the trial registration number of IRCT20190724044319N1 was conducted on 36 dental students. The volunteers were, randomly, divided into two groups ( = 18) including: G1: intervention group (chitosan chewing gum) and G2: control group (placebo chewing gum). Each participant was given eight pieces of the chewing gum, and was asked to chew each gum piece for 5 min and this was repeated for eight times. Their Saliva was collected before and after chewing gums and the number of colonies and salivary pH were determined. Data were analysed using SPSS (ver.21) and independent student test. Value less than .05 was set as significant.

Results: There was significant difference between two groups for the number of salivary colonies ( in the intervention group compared to in the Control group) ( < .001). The salivary pH evaluation showed that salivary pH mean value in intervention group was not significant in compared with control group ( = .17). However, the chitosan chewing gum led to an increase in salivary pH by 0.17, which was statistically significant ( = .01).

Conclusion: Results of this study showed that chitosan chewing gum has a positive effect on the reduction of numbers of salivary colonies but had no considerable effect on the increase of salivary pH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016357.2020.1836392DOI Listing
November 2020

Is meconium exposure associated with autism spectrum disorders in children?

Clin Exp Pediatr 2020 Oct 4. Epub 2020 Oct 4.

Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

The results differ among published studies regarding exposure to meconium and the risk of developing autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The present study pooled all of the epidemiologic studies retrieved from broader databases on the association between meconium exposure and risk of developing ASD in children. The Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases were searched without language restrictions for articles published between their inception to February 20, 2020, using relevant keywords. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs (were calculated as random-effect estimates of the associations among studies. A subgroup analysis was conducted to explore any potential sources of heterogeneity among studies. The pooled estimate of OR reported a weakly significant association between meconium exposure and ASD development in children (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.03-1.24). There was low heterogeneity among the articles reporting risk for ASD among children (I2 = 19.3%; P = 0.259). The results of subgroup analysis based on meconium exposure showed a significant association between a meconium-stained neonate and ASD development (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.24). Meconium exposure was weakly associated with an increased risk of ASD. However, more evidence based on large prospective cohort studies is required to provide conclusive evidence about whether meconium exposure is associated with an increased risk of ASD development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/cep.2020.01053DOI Listing
October 2020

Reducing False Negative PCR Test for COVID-19.

Int J MCH AIDS 2020 8;9(3):408-410. Epub 2020 Oct 8.

Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

As the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic spreads rapidly, there is need for a diagnostic test with high accuracy to detect infected individuals especially those without symptoms. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is a common molecular test for diagnosing SARS-CoV-2. If some factors are not taken into consideration when performing this test, it can have a relatively large number of false negative results. In this article, we discuss important considerations that could lead to false negative test reduction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21106/ijma.421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7552113PMC
October 2020

Chronic Kidney Disease in Iran: First Report of the National Registry in Children and Adolescences.

Urol J 2020 Sep 13. Epub 2020 Sep 13.

Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease Research Center, Department of Pediatric Nephrology, Children's Medical Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Purpose: Knowing the epidemiological aspects of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children is crucial for early recognition, identification of reversible causes, and prognosis. Here, we report the epidemiological characteristics of childhood CKD in Iran.   Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during 1991 - 2009.  The data were collected using the information in the Iranian Pediatric Registry of Chronic Kidney Disease (IPRCKD) core dataset.

Results: A total of 1247 children were registered. The mean age of the children at registration was 0.69±4.72 years (range, 0.25 -18 years), 7.79±3.18 years for hemodialysis (HD), 4.24±1.86 years for continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), and 3.4±1.95 years for the children who underwent the renal transplantation (RT) (P<.001). The mean year of follow-up was 7.19±4.65 years. The mean annual incidence of CKD 2-5 stages was 3.34 per million age-related population (pmarp). The mean prevalence of CKD 2-5 stages was 21.95 (pmarp). The cumulative 1-, 5-, and 10-year patients' survival rates were 98.3%, 90.7%, and 84.8%, respectively. The etiology of the CKD included the congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) (40.01%), glomerulopathy (19.00%), unknown cause (18.28%), and cystic/hereditary/congenital disease (11.14%).  Conclusions: The incidence and prevalence rate of pediatric CKD in Iran is relatively lower than those reported in Europe and other similar studies. CAKUT was the main cause of the CKD. Appropriate management of CAKUT including early urological intervention is required to preserve the renal function. Herein, the long-term survival rate was higher among the children with CKD than the literature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22037/uj.v16i7.5759DOI Listing
September 2020

An investigation of the effects of environmental and ecologic factors on cutaneous leishmaniasis in the old world: a systematic review study.

Rev Environ Health 2021 Mar 7;36(1):117-128. Epub 2020 Sep 7.

Health Promotion Research Center, Faculty of Health, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Objectives: Leishmaniasis is a neglected and widespread parasitic disease that can lead to serious health problems. The current review study aimed to synthesize the relationship between ecologic and environmental factors (e.g., weather conditions, climatology, temperature and topology) and the incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in the Old World.

Content: A systematic review was conducted based on English, and Persian articles published from 2015 to 2020 in PubMed/Medline, Science Direct, Web of Science and Google Scholar. Keywords used to search articles were leishmaniasis, environmental factors, weather condition, soil, temperature, land cover, ecologic* and topogr*. All articles were selected and assessed for eligibility according to the titles or abstracts. The quality screening process of articles was carried out by two independent authors. The selected articles were checked according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria.

Summary And Outlook: A total of 827 relevant records in 2015-2020 were searched and after evaluating the articles, 23 articles met the eligibility criteria; finally, 14 full-text articles were included in the systematic review. Two different categories of ecologic/environmental factors (weather conditions, temperature, rainfall/precipitation and humidity) and land characteristics (land cover, slope, elevation and altitude, earthquake and cattle sheds) were the most important factors associated with CL incidence.

Conclusions: Temperature and rainfall play an important role in the seasonal cycle of CL as many CL cases occurred in arid and semiarid areas in the Old World. Moreover, given the findings of this study regarding the effect of weather conditions on CL, it can be concluded that designing an early warning system is necessary to predict the incidence of CL based on different weather conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2020-0066DOI Listing
March 2021

Estimating global injuries morbidity and mortality: methods and data used in the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study.

Authors:
Spencer L James Chris D Castle Zachary V Dingels Jack T Fox Erin B Hamilton Zichen Liu Nicholas L S Roberts Dillon O Sylte Gregory J Bertolacci Matthew Cunningham Nathaniel J Henry Kate E LeGrand Ahmed Abdelalim Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Aidin Abedi Kedir Hussein Abegaz Akine Eshete Abosetugn Abdelrahman I Abushouk Oladimeji M Adebayo Jose C Adsuar Shailesh M Advani Marcela Agudelo-Botero Tauseef Ahmad Muktar Beshir Ahmed Rushdia Ahmed Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour Fares Alahdab Fahad Mashhour Alanezi Niguse Meles Alema Biresaw Wassihun Alemu Suliman A Alghnam Beriwan Abdulqadir Ali Saqib Ali Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Amir Almasi-Hashiani Nihad A Almasri Khalid Altirkawi Yasser Sami Abdeldayem Amer Catalina Liliana Andrei Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Carl Abelardo T Antonio Davood Anvari Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Jalal Arabloo Morteza Arab-Zozani Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Filippo Ariani Amit Arora Malke Asaad Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Getinet Ayano Martin Amogre Ayanore Ghasem Azarian Alaa Badawi Ashish D Badiye Atif Amin Baig Mohan Bairwa Ahad Bakhtiari Arun Balachandran Maciej Banach Srikanta K Banerjee Palash Chandra Banik Amrit Banstola Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo Till Winfried Bärnighausen Akbar Barzegar Mohsen Bayati Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi Neeraj Bedi Masoud Behzadifar Habte Belete Derrick A Bennett Isabela M Bensenor Kidanemaryam Berhe Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula Pankaj Bhardwaj Anusha Ganapati Bhat Krittika Bhattacharyya Zulfiqar A Bhutta Sadia Bibi Ali Bijani Archith Boloor Guilherme Borges Rohan Borschmann Antonio Maria Borzì Soufiane Boufous Dejana Braithwaite Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Traolach Brugha Shyam S Budhathoki Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Félix Carvalho João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Giulio Castelpietra Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Joht S Chandan Jens Robert Chapman Vijay Kumar Chattu Soosanna Kumary Chattu Irini Chatziralli Neha Chaudhary Daniel Youngwhan Cho Jee-Young J Choi Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury Devasahayam J Christopher Dinh-Toi Chu Flavia M Cicuttini João M Coelho Vera M Costa Saad M A Dahlawi Ahmad Daryani Claudio Alberto Dávila-Cervantes Diego De Leo Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Desalegn Getnet Demsie Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Mostafa Dianati Nasab Diana Dias da Silva Zahra Sadat Dibaji Forooshani Hoa Thi Do Kerrie E Doyle Tim Robert Driscoll Eleonora Dubljanin Bereket Duko Adema Arielle Wilder Eagan Demelash Abewa Elemineh Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Christian Lycke Ellingsen Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Pawan Sirwan Faris Andre Faro Farshad Farzadfar Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Eduarda Fernandes Pietro Ferrara Florian Fischer Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan Artem Alekseevich Fomenkov Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Richard Charles Franklin Takeshi Fukumoto Biniyam Sahiledengle Geberemariyam Hadush Gebremariam Ketema Bizuwork Gebremedhin Leake G Gebremeskel 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John-Akinola Jost B Jonas Kelly M Jones Nitin Joseph Farahnaz Joukar Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Leila R Kalankesh Rohollah Kalhor Teshome Abegaz Kamil Tanuj Kanchan Neeti Kapoor Manoochehr Karami Amir Kasaeian Hagazi Gebremedhin Kassaye Taras Kavetskyy Gbenga A Kayode Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Nauman Khalid Ibrahim A Khalil Rovshan Khalilov Maseer Khan Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Tripti Khanna Salman Khazaei Habibolah Khazaie Roba Khundkar Daniel N Kiirithio Young-Eun Kim Yun Jin Kim Daniel Kim Sezer Kisa Adnan Kisa Hamidreza Komaki Shivakumar K M Kondlahalli Ali Koolivand Vladimir Andreevich Korshunov Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Barthelemy Kuate Defo Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Nithin Kumar Manasi Kumar Vivek Kumar Narinder Kumar Girikumar Kumaresh Faris Hasan Lami Van C Lansingh Savita Lasrado Arman Latifi Paolo Lauriola Carlo La Vecchia Janet L Leasher Shaun Wen Huey Lee Shanshan Li Xuefeng Liu Alan D Lopez Paulo A Lotufo Ronan A Lyons Daiane Borges Machado Mohammed Madadin Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Narayan Bahadur Mahotra Marek Majdan Azeem Majeed Venkatesh Maled Deborah Carvalho Malta Navid Manafi Amir Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Narayana Manjunatha Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei Mohammad Ali Mansournia Joemer C Maravilla Amanda J Mason-Jones Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Man Mohan Mehndiratta Zeleke Aschalew Melketsedik Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Melkamu Merid Mengesha Tuomo J Meretoja Atte Meretoja Hayimro Edemealem Merie Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Ted R Miller G K Mini Andreea Mirica Erkin M Mirrakhimov Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh Prasanna Mithra Babak Moazen Masoud Moghadaszadeh Efat Mohamadi Yousef Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Shafiu Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Mohammad A Mohseni Bandpei Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Masoud Moradi Ghobad Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Rahmatollah Moradzadeh Lidia Morawska Ilais Moreno Velásquez Shane Douglas Morrison Tilahun Belete Mossie Atalay Goshu Muluneh Kamarul Imran Musa Ghulam Mustafa Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gurudatta Naik Mukhammad David Naimzada Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Bruno Ramos Nascimento Morteza Naserbakht Vinod Nayak Javad Nazari Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Ionut Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Trang Huyen Nguyen Cuong Tat Nguyen Diep Ngoc Nguyen Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Rajan Nikbakhsh Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Chukwudi A Nnaji Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Onome Bright Oghenetega In-Hwan Oh Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Ahmed Omar Bali Obinna E Onwujekwe Heather M Orpana Erika Ota Nikita Otstavnov Stanislav S Otstavnov Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Keyvan Pakshir Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Eun-Kee Park Sangram Kishor Patel Ashish Pathak Sanghamitra Pati Kebreab Paulos Amy E Peden Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Jeevan Pereira Michael R Phillips Roman V Polibin Suzanne Polinder Farshad Pourmalek Akram Pourshams Hossein Poustchi Swayam Prakash Dimas Ria Angga Pribadi Parul Puri Zahiruddin Quazi Syed Navid Rabiee Mohammad Rabiee Amir Radfar Anwar Rafay Ata Rafiee Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Siavash Rahimi Muhammad Aziz Rahman Ali Rajabpour-Sanati Fatemeh Rajati Ivo Rakovac Sowmya J Rao Vahid Rashedi Prateek Rastogi Priya Rathi Salman Rawaf Lal Rawal Reza Rawassizadeh Vishnu Renjith Serge Resnikoff Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Jennifer Rickard Carlos Miguel Rios González Leonardo Roever Luca Ronfani Gholamreza Roshandel Basema Saddik Hamid Safarpour Mahdi Safdarian S Mohammad Sajadi Payman Salamati Marwa R Rashad Salem Hosni Salem Inbal Salz Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Lidia Sanchez Riera Milena M Santric Milicevic Abdur Razzaque Sarker Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Monika Sawhney Mehdi Sayyah David C Schwebel Soraya Seedat Subramanian Senthilkumaran Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Feng Sha Faramarz Shaahmadi Saeed Shahabi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Aziz Sheikh Mika Shigematsu Jae Il Shin Rahman Shiri Soraya Siabani Inga Dora Sigfusdottir Jasvinder A Singh Pankaj Kumar Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Amin Soheili Joan B Soriano Muluken Bekele Sorrie Ireneous N Soyiri Mark A Stokes Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Biruk Wogayehu Taddele Yonatal Mesfin Tefera Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Gebretsadkan Hintsa Tekulu Ayenew Kassie Tesema Tesema Berhe Etsay Tesfay Rekha Thapar Mariya Vladimirovna Titova Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Hamid Reza Tohidinik Roman Topor-Madry Khanh Bao Tran Bach Xuan Tran Jaya Prasad Tripathy Alexander C Tsai Aristidis Tsatsakis Lorainne Tudor Car Irfan Ullah Saif Ullah Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan Era Upadhyay Olalekan A Uthman Pascual R Valdez Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Yasir Waheed Yuan-Pang Wang Taweewat Wiangkham Haileab Fekadu Wolde Dawit Habte Woldeyes Temesgen Gebeyehu Wondmeneh Adam Belay Wondmieneh Ai-Min Wu Grant M A Wyper Rajaram Yadav Ali Yadollahpour Yuichiro Yano Sanni Yaya Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Pengpeng Ye Paul Yip Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Yoosik Youm Mustafa Z Younis Zabihollah Yousefi Chuanhua Yu Yong Yu Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Fatemeh Zarei Zhi-Jiang Zhang Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Rakhi Dandona Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Simon I Hay Ali H Mokdad David M Pigott Robert C Reiner Theo Vos

Inj Prev 2020 Oct 24;26(Supp 1):i125-i153. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria.

Methods: In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced.

Results: GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms of incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, cause-specific mortality, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life-years for a 28-year period for 22 age groups, 195 countries and both sexes.

Conclusions: GBD 2017 demonstrated a complex and sophisticated series of analytical steps using the largest known database of morbidity and mortality data on injuries. GBD 2017 results should be used to help inform injury prevention policy making and resource allocation. We also identify important avenues for improving injury burden estimation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571362PMC
October 2020

Measles Outbreak in a Rural Population in Bahar District, Hamadan Province, West of Iran in 2018.

J Res Health Sci 2020 Feb 27;20(1):e00470. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Measles is in elimination phase in Iran. Following occurrence of two cases of measles in two children under six years old with the history of measles immunization in one of the villages affiliated to Bahar District, west of Hamadan Province, northwest of Iran, this study was conducted to determine the immunity status of people living in the village affected by the measles outbreak in spring of 2018.

Study Design: A cross-sectional (descriptive-analytical) study.

Methods: Overall, 272 populations of 0-40 yr old in the village affected by outbreak were enrolled. Multistage sampling was used for choosing participants. The data collection tool was a researcher-made checklist used to collect epidemiological data including demographic characteristics and vaccination status. Blood samples were taken from them and sent to the measles reference laboratory for IgG testing. The amount of optical density (OD) greater than 0.2 was considered as positive and less than 0.1 negative, respectively.

Results: The mean age of the study population was 17.4 ±11.8 yr and the sex ratio was almost the same. Levels of antibodies against measles were positive in 63.24%, intermediate in 12.5% ​​and negative in 24.26%. There was no significant difference between the immunity status of the subjects with gender (P=0.236) and age group (P=0.113). Pearson correlation results showed that in males there was a significant positive correlation between the age of the participants and the serum IgG level (r = 0.26, P=0.003).

Conclusion: Measles immunity in communities is not sufficient to prevent outbreaks and small epidemics, and it is recommended that periodically, serological assessments carried out at community level and especially at high-risk groups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.34172/jrhs.2020.05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7585754PMC
February 2020

Fear control and danger control amid COVID-19 dental crisis: Application of the Extended Parallel Process Model.

PLoS One 2020 13;15(8):e0237490. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Oral Health, Vice Chancellor for Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Objectives: There is high risk of contamination with COVID-19 virus during routine dental procedures and infection control is crucial. The aim of this study was to determine the factors associated with Covid-19 preventive behaviors among oral health care providers using an extended parallel process model (EPPM).

Methods: In a cross-sectional study, short text message invite surveys were sent to 870 oral health care providers in west part of Iran. Data were collected through validated self-report EPPM questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square and Fishers exact tests were used for data analysis.

Results: In total, 300 completed questionnaires were received and the mean age of respondents was 29.89 ± 11.17 years (range: 20-75 years). Among the study population, 284 (94.67%) perceived the threat of infection highly. Washing hands frequently with water and soap and use of hand sanitizer was reported by 93.33%, of participants. Age (P = 0.010), sex (P = 0.002) and occupation field (P = 0.010) were significantly associated with danger control responses. Data identified that those oral health care providers that were on the danger control response adopted preventive behaviors more strictly than those on fear control response.

Conclusion: The results of this study showed how degrees of perceived threat and perceived efficacy influenced oral health providers' willingness to perform recommended health behaviors. These findings can assist public health agencies in developing educational programs specifically designed for promoting preventive behaviors among oral health providers in pandemic situations.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0237490PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7425864PMC
August 2020

Trends in Obesity among Iranian Children and Adolescents: 2000-2016.

J Tehran Heart Cent 2020 Jan;15(1):41-42

Assistant Professor of Epidemiology, Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Fahmideh Street, Hamadan, Iran. 65178-38678. Tel: +98 8138380717. Email:

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360866PMC
January 2020

Estimation of the Hidden Population with COVID-19 Disease.

Int J MCH AIDS 2020 25;9(2):217-219. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Modeling of Noncommunicable Diseases Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

The population with emerging diseases such as COVID-19, which is used to calculate the basic reproduction number of epidemic outbreak ( ) cannot be simply observed. In this article, we have proposed a method for estimating the hidden population of people with COVID-19 disease. Knowing the number of people with COVID-19 disease is very important for health policy. The provision of medical equipment (e.g., masks, alcohol, ventilators, medication, etc.), the reopening of schools and universities, the start of tourism and public gatherings, the provision of medical staff and preventive planning depend on the number of patients with the disease. Therefore, it is very important to estimate the number of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21106/ijma.396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7370272PMC
June 2020

Environmental and ecological factors of stomach cancer incidence and mortality: a systematic review study on ecological studies.

Rev Environ Health 2020 Nov 19;35(4):443-452. Epub 2020 Jul 19.

Health Promotion Research Center, Faculty of Health, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Objectives: Stomach cancer (SC) is one of the most common and deadly types of cancer. It is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The effect of environmental and ecological factors in SC have been assessed in some studies. Thus, we aimed to synthesize the environmental and ecological factors of SC incidence and mortality.

Content: In this systematic review study, the scientific databases, including Web of Science, Scopus and PubMed, were searched from inception to November 2019 for all primary articles written in English by using relevant Medical Subject Heading (Mesh) terms. Two independent authors conducted the screening process to decide on the eligibility and inclusion of the articles in the study. The third author acted as an arbiter to resolve any disagreements.

Summary And Outlook: A total of 157 potentially relevant articles were identified from the initial search 38 of which met the eligibility criteria; finally, 34 articles were included in the systematic review. The results revealed that soil arsenic exposure, coal and other opencast mining installations, living near incinerators and installations for the recovery or disposal of hazardous waste, installations for the production of cement, lime, plaster, and magnesium oxide, proximity to a metal industry sources, dietary iron, ingested asbestos, farming, arsenic in soil, altitude, organochlorines and environmental exposure to cadmium and lead have positive associations with SC incidence or death. Most of the ecological and environmental factors such as living near the mineral industries, the disposal of hazardous waste, metal industry sources and environmental exposure to cadmium and lead are positively related to SC mortality and incidence. However, solar UV-B, heat index and dietary zinc can be taken into account as protective factors against SC mortality and incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/reveh-2020-0022DOI Listing
November 2020

The association Between Occupational Exposure to silica and Risk of Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Meta-Analysis.

Saf Health Work 2020 Jun 5;11(2):136-142. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Epidemiology, Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease with systemic inflammatory arthritis. This meta-analysis was conducted to examine the association between occupational exposure to silica and the risk of developing RA among different workers.

Methods: In this meta-analysis, we searched relevant published studies using major electronic databases including Scopus, PubMed, ISI Web of Science, and Google Scholar search engine up to October 2019, and the references of retrieved articles were also checked for further possible sources. A random-effects model was used to account for heterogeneity among the results of the studies using the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The Q-statistic and I tests were calculated to assess heterogeneity between the studies.

Results: The pooled calculation of OR indicated a significant association between occupational exposure to silica and risk of developing RA among different workers (OR = 2.59, 95% CI = 1.73 to 3.45). In addition, the pooled estimates of OR in smokers were statistically significant (OR = 2.49, 95% CI = 1.13 to 3.86).

Conclusions: The findings of the present study reveal that occupational exposure to silica may be associated with increased risk of developing RA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.shaw.2020.02.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7303526PMC
June 2020

Endometriosis and migraine headache risk: a meta-analysis.

Women Health 2020 09 18;60(8):939-945. Epub 2020 Jun 18.

Autism Spectrum disorders Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences , Hamadan, Iran.

There is high prevalence of both migraine and endometriosis; however, the association between both is controversial. This systematic review evaluated the association between endometriosis and the risk of migraine headache. A search was done of the following international electronic bibliographic databases including: PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus to May 2020. Heterogeneity among studies was determined by Q-test and I statistic. Publication bias was assessed by Begg's and Egger's tests. The results were reported using the odds ratio (OR) estimate with its 95% confidence interval (CI) using a random-effects model. The search identified 802 articles with 287,174 participants. There was a significant association between endometriosis and the risk of migraine headache (OR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.90). Based on the Newcastle Ottawa Statement Manual (NOS) scale, all studies had high quality. The findings showed that endometriosis was significantly associated with an increased risk of migraine headache. Future research should be focused on measures that could help to reduce the risk of migraine headache among women with endometriosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03630242.2020.1779905DOI Listing
September 2020

Increases of Obesity among Iranian Adults: An Alarm for Policymakers.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Apr;49(4):802-804

Autism Spectrum Disorders Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283168PMC
April 2020

Factors associated with in-hospital death in patients with nosocomial infections: a registry-based study using community data in western Iran.

Epidemiol Health 2020 1;42:e2020037. Epub 2020 Jun 1.

Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Objectives: Determining the predictors of in-hospital death related to nosocomial infections is an essential part of efforts made in the overall health system to improve the delivery of health care to patients. Therefore, this study investigated the predictors of in-hospital death related to nosocomial infections.

Methods: This registry-based, longitudinal study analyzed data on 8,895 hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) in Hamadan Province, Iran from March 2017 to December 2019. The medical records of all patients who had been admitted to the hospitals were extracted from the Iranian Nosocomial Infections Surveillance Software. The effects of the type and site of infection, as well as age group, on in-hospital death were estimated using univariate and multivariable Cox regression models.

Results: In total, 4,232 (47.8%) patients with HAIs were males, and their mean age was 48.25±26.22 years. In both sexes, most nosocomial infections involved Gram-negative bacteria and the most common site of infection was the urinary tract. Older patients had a higher risk of in-hospital death (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 2.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.38 to 3.69 for males; aHR, 2.44; 95% CI, 1.29 to 4.62 for females). In both sexes, compared with urinary tract infections, an increased risk of in-hospital death was found for ventilator-associated events (VAEs) (by 95% for males and 93% for females) and bloodstream infections (BSIs) (by 67% for males and 82% for females).

Conclusion: We found that VAEs, BSIs, and fungal infections were independently and strongly associated with increased mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4178/epih.e2020037DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7644946PMC
June 2020

Child Mortality Rate in Iran Compared with Other Eastern Mediterranean Countries Based on WHO Report in 2017.

Iran J Public Health 2020 Jan;49(1):206-208

Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7152644PMC
January 2020

Correlation between Health Literacy and Quality of Life in Iranian Menopausal Women.

J Menopausal Med 2020 Apr;26(1):34-38

Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Objectives: Understanding the factors that promote quality of life (QOL) in menopausal women is essential for establishing educational strategies and health policies. Studies on the relationship between health literacy and QOL in menopausal women in Iran are rare. Therefore, we aimed to determine health literacy in menopausal women and its relationship with QOL.

Methods: The present cross-sectional study was performed on 177 menopausal women referred to comprehensive health services in Hamadan City, Iran. Health Literacy for Iranian Adults and Menopause-Specific QOL questionnaires were used to collect information. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between health literacy and QOL.

Results: The majority of menopausal women included in this study were married housewives, and 44.6% of them were 50-55 years old; furthermore, only 6.2% had adequate or good health literacy. Health literacy was significantly correlated with total QOL score and vasomotor, psychology, and physical domains ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: Health literacy was associated with various domains of QOL. Therefore, health providers should pay more attention on improving health literacy by holding educational promotional programs for menopausal women to enhance their QOL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.6118/jmm.19018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160585PMC
April 2020

Association between assisted reproductive technology and autism spectrum disorders in Iran: a case-control study.

Clin Exp Pediatr 2020 Sep 27;63(9):368-372. Epub 2020 Mar 27.

Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Background: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by impairments in social interaction and verbal and nonverbal communication.

Purpose: Determine the association between use of assisted reproduction technology (ART) and the risk of ASD among children.

Methods: This case-control study included 300 participants (100 cases, 200 controls). The control group included women with a child aged 2-10 years without ASD, while the cases were women with a child aged 2-10 years with ASD. We used a researcher-made questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Stata ver. 14 at the 0.05 significance level.

Results: In the univariate analysis, there was significant association between child sex, delivery mode, history of preterm delivery, history of using ART, and maternal age at child's birth and the risk of ASD. After the adjustment for other variables, this association was significant for male sex (2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.11-4.31; P=0.001) and history of using ART (4.03; 95% CI, 1.76-9.21; P=0.001). Therefore, after the adjustment for confounder variables, there was no significant association between ART and the risk of ASD among children (4.98; 95% CI, 0.91-27.30; P=0.065).

Conclusion: After the adjustment for other variables, risk factors for ASD were male sex and history preterm delivery. Thus, there was no significant association between ART and the risk of ASD among children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/cep.2020.00073DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7462823PMC
September 2020

Association between neonatal jaundice and autism spectrum disorders among children: a meta-analysis.

Clin Exp Pediatr 2020 Jan 7;63(1):8-13. Epub 2019 Nov 7.

Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

Autism spectrum disorder is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown etiology. The correlation between neonatal jaundice and the risk of developing autism spectrum disorder was investigated previously. Some studies showed significant associations, whereas others demonstrated no association. In this meta-analysis, we pooled the results of observational studies to examine the association between neonatal jaundice and the risk of autism spectrum disorder among children. We identified all studies published through April 2018 by conducting a literature search using Web of Science, PubMed, and Scopus databases as well as the reference lists of the retrieved studies. The pooled odds ratios (ORs), rate ratio (RR), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated as random effect estimates of association among studies. We conducted a subgroup analysis to explore any potential sources of intergroup heterogeneity. The pooled estimates of OR and RR showed a considerable correlation between neonatal jaundice and ASD among children (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.02-1.68) and (RR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.05-1.74). A larger effect size was shown in the pooled estimated crude OR than in the adjusted OR (1.75 [0.96-2.54] vs. 1.19 [1.07-1.30]). This study showed that neonatal jaundice may be associated with ASD and may increase the risk of ASD among children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3345/kjp.2019.00815DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7027343PMC
January 2020

Intimate partner violence against Iranian women.

Natl Med J India 2019 Mar-Apr;32(2):67-71

Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Health Promotion Research Center, Faculty of Health, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, Iran.

Background: . WHO has identified intimate partner violence (IPV) as a health priority as it has considerable consequences on the physical and psychological health of women. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of IPV in women of one of the central cities of Iran in addition to examining the effect of a women's job and spousal addiction on IPV.

Methods: We did a cross-sectional study on 240 homemakers and nurse women, selected by a multistage random sampling method. Data were collected by a modified version of domestic violence CTS-2 of Straus questionnaire and were analysed by chi-square test and t test. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the predictors of physical IPV as the most important type of violence.

Results: The mean (SD) age of the women and their husbands was 33.1 (8) and 37.8 (8.7) years, respectively. Verbal (95.4%) and psychological (80.8%) violence were the most common while injury (14.6%) was the least prevalent. The prevalence of physical violence was 28.8%. Based on the regression model, economic problems, history of divorce in the woman's family and spousal addiction were the highest predictors of violence (p<0.05).

Discussion: Spousal addiction was related to higher violence against women in physical, psychological and injury dimensions. Increase of family support, removal of economic disparities and tackling drug addiction could be effective in decreasing violence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0970-258X.275343DOI Listing
July 2020

The association between preeclampsia and the risk of metabolic syndrome after delivery: a meta-analysis.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2019 Oct 29:1-6. Epub 2019 Oct 29.

Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.

We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the epidemiologic evidence of the association between preeclampsia and increased risk of metabolic syndrome after delivery. A comprehensive literature search of numerous electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Sciences was performed until 1 July 2019. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated as random effect estimates of association among studies. Begg's and Egger's linear regression tests were employed to investigate publication bias. The pooled estimates of crude and adjusted ORs showed a significant association between preeclampsia and the risk of metabolic syndrome ((crude OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.92-4.47) and (adjusted OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.25-2.08)), respectively. The results of this meta-analysis provide evidence for relation between preeclampsia and increase in risk of metabolic syndrome. However, more epidemiological and clinical studies are needed to explore the mechanism of preeclampsia on increased risk of metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1678138DOI Listing
October 2019