Publications by authors named "Saliou Mbengue"

5 Publications

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Characterization and source apportionment of single particles from metalworking activities.

Environ Pollut 2021 Feb 17;270:116078. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Department of Chemistry and Environmental Research Institute, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland.

Industrial metalworking facilities emit a variety of air toxics including volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals. In order to investigate these emissions, a 1-month multi-instrument field campaign was undertaken at an industrial site in Grande-Synthe, Dunkirk (France), in May and June 2012. One of the main objectives of the study was to provide new information on the chemical composition of particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters smaller than 2.5 μm (PM) in the vicinity of metalworking facilities. An aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed to provide size-resolved chemical mixing state measurements of ambient single particles at high temporal resolution. This mixing state information was then used to apportion PM to local metalworking facilities influencing the receptor site. Periods when the site was influenced by metalworking sources were characterised by a pronounced increase in particles containing toxic metals (manganese, iron, lead) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with a variety of chemical mixing states. The association of specific particle classes with a nearby ferromanganese alloy manufacturing plant was confirmed through comparison with previous analysis of raw materials (ores) and chimney filter particle samples collected at the facility. Particles associated with emissions from a nearby steelworks were also identified. The contribution of local metalworking activities to PM at the receptor site for the period when the ATOFMS was deployed ranged from 1 to 65% with an average contribution of 17%, while the remaining mass was attributed to other local and regional sources. These findings demonstrate the impact of metalworking facilities on air quality downwind and provide useful single particle signatures for future source apportionment studies in communities impacted by metalworking emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2020.116078DOI Listing
February 2021

Characterization of Equivalent Black Carbon at a regional background site in Central Europe: Variability and source apportionment.

Environ Pollut 2020 May 20;260:113771. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

CzechGlobe - Global Change Research Institute CAS, Brno, 60300, Czech Republic; Research Centre for Toxic Compounds in the Environment, Masaryk University, Brno, 62500, Czech Republic.

Characterizing Black Carbon (BC) at regional background areas is important for better understanding its impact on climate forcing and health effects. The variability and sources of Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) in PM (atmospheric particles with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) have been investigated during a 5-year measurement period at the National Atmospheric Observatory Košetice (NAOK), Czech Republic. Ground based measurements were performed from September 2012 to December 2017 with a 7-wavelength aethalometer (AE31, Magee Scientific). The contributions of fossil fuel (EBC) and biomass burning (EBC) were estimated using the aethalometer model. Seasonal, diurnal and weekly variations of EBC were observed that can be related to the sources fluctuations and transport characteristic of pollutants predominantly associated with regional air masses recirculating over the Czech Republic and neighboring countries. The absorption Ångström exponent (α-value) estimated in summer (1.1 ± 0.2) was consistent with reported value for traffic, while the mean highest value (1.5 ± 0.2) was observed in winter due to increased EBC accounting for about 50% of the total EBC. This result is in agreement with the strong correlation between EBC and biomass burning tracers (levoglucosan and mannosan) in winter. During this season, the concentrations of EBC and Delta-C (proxy for biomass burning) reached a maximum in the evening when increasing emissions of wood burning in domestic heating devices (woodstoves/heating system) is expected, especially during the weekend. The diurnal profile of EBC displays a typical morning peak during the morning traffic rush hour and shows a decreasing concentration during weekends due to lower the traffic emission.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113771DOI Listing
May 2020

Investigation on the near-field evolution of industrial plumes from metalworking activities.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Jun 1;668:443-456. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Département Sciences de l'Atmosphère et Génie de l'Environnement - SAGE, IMT Lille Douai, Université de Lille, 59000 Lille, France.

In a context where a significant fraction of the population lives near industrial areas, the main objectives of this study are to provide (a) new data on PM chemical compositions, heavy-metal concentrations and trace gases released by metalworking activities and (b) new information on the near-field evolution (up to about a thousand meters) of such industrial plumes in terms of particle chemical composition and size distribution. For that purpose, a one-month field campaign was performed in an industrial area near the city of Dunkirk (Northern France), combining measurements of atmospheric dynamics and physico-chemical characterization of air masses. Comparisons between several elemental ratios (mainly Mn/Fe), particle size distributions and volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations at the stacks and at a near-field site suggest that plumes of a ferromanganese alloy plant were quickly mixed with pollutants emitted by other sources (mainly other industries, possibly traffic and sea spray), in particular a neighboring steelworks, before reaching the sampling site. This led to the emergence of secondary particles related to condensation and/or aggregation phenomena inside the plumes. Metalworking emissions were also identified as a source of new particle formation, formed through the emission of gaseous precursors and their fast transformation and condensation, over a timescale of minutes before reaching the near-field site 800 m downwind. Ultrafine particles emitted at the stacks also quickly agglomerated to form larger particles before reaching the near-field site. These results show that, even over short distances, the chemical composition and size distribution of metalworking plumes may evolve rapidly and the characteristics of particles at the boundary of an industrial area (especially in contiguous urban areas) may differ from those emitted directly at the stacks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.02.399DOI Listing
June 2019

Bioaccessibility of trace elements in fine and ultrafine atmospheric particles in an industrial environment.

Environ Geochem Health 2015 Oct 9;37(5):875-89. Epub 2015 Aug 9.

Université Lille Nord de France, 59000, Lille, France.

The lung bioaccessibility, i.e., the solubility in alveolar lung fluid of metals in particulate matter, has been recognized as an important parameter for health risk assessment, associated with the inhalation of airborne particles. The purpose of this study is to use an in vitro method to estimate the pulmonary bioaccessibility of toxic metals in different particle sizes, from a multi-influenced industrial emission area. The fine and ultrafine particles collected with cascade impactors in the chimneys and at different distances from a Fe-Mn smelter were extracted with a simulated alveolar fluid (Gamble solution). In addition, a four-step sequential extraction procedure was employed to approach the metal speciation. The bioaccessibility of metals ranged from almost insoluble for Fe (<1%) to extremely soluble for Rb (>80%). In terms of particle size, the trace element bioaccessibility is generally higher for the finer size fractions (submicron and ultrafine particles) than for the coarse one (>1 µm). These submicron particles have a very high number concentration and specific surface area, which confer them an important contact surface with the alveolar fluid, i.e., a higher bioaccessibility. Interestingly, the bioaccessibility of most metals clearly increases between the chimney stacks and the close environment of the studied Fe-Mn smelter, over a very short distance (800 m), possibly due to a mix with surrounding steelworks emissions. This increase is not observed over a greater distance from the smelter (2000 m), when industrial particles were mixed with urban aerosols, except for Fe, under more soluble forms in combustion particles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10653-015-9756-2DOI Listing
October 2015

Is vetiver grass of interest for the remediation of Cu and Cd to protect marketing gardens in Burkina Faso?

Chemosphere 2014 Oct 8;113:42-7. Epub 2014 May 8.

Université de Lorraine - CNRS, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire des Environnements Continentaux, BP 70239, 54506 Vandœuvre-lès-Nancy, France.

In Burkina-Faso, urban vegetable agriculture is often characterized by urban solid waste fertilizer inputs containing heavy metals such as Cu and Cd. Thus, the relevance of surrounding urban vegetable plots with vetiver hedges to reduce environmental pollution by Cu and Cd was investigated by adsorption studies and pot experiments. Vetiver biomass, its metal contents and, its total and MgCl2 extractable soil metals were monitored over 6months in the presence of a mixture of metal at two concentrations: 2-10 and 100-500mgkg(-1), for Cd and Cu, respectively. The Freundlich adsorption coefficient (Kf) values increased after vetiver growth and were significantly higher for vertisol than for lixisol. After 6months, the vetiver that was grown on lixisol accumulated more metal, increasing up to 4635mgkg(-1) for Cu and to 21.8mgkg(-1) for Cd, than did the vetiver that was grown on vertisol, increasing up to 1534mgkg(-1) for Cu and to 7.2mgkg(-1) for Cd. The metal bioconcentration factor, which was significantly higher for Cd, increased with the applied concentration and ranged from 1.6 to 14 for Cu and from 2.3 to 22 for Cd. Additionally, the translocation factors were higher for Cd (0.38-7.3) than for Cu (0.07-2.6), and the translocation was easiest from lixisol than from vertisol. Thus our results demonstrate the ability of vetiver for Cu and Cd phytoremediation in Burkina Faso soils. Nevertheless, these results should be confirmed across the field to advocate the establishment of vetiver hedges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.04.010DOI Listing
October 2014