Publications by authors named "Salima Aroua"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Fish life-history traits are affected after chronic dietary exposure to an environmentally realistic marine mixture of PCBs and PBDEs.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Jan 19;610-611:531-545. Epub 2017 Aug 19.

Ifremer, Laboratoire Ressources Halieutiques, Centre Manche Mer du Nord, 150 quai Gambetta, F-62200 Boulogne-sur-mer, France.

Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are persistent organic pollutants that have been shown to affect fish life-history traits such as reproductive success, growth and survival. At the individual level, their toxicity and underlying mechanisms of action have been studied through experimental exposure. However, the number of experimental studies approaching marine environmental situations is scarce, i.e., in most cases, individuals are exposed to either single congeners, or single types of molecules, or high concentrations, so that results can hardly be transposed to natural populations. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of chronic dietary exposure to an environmentally realistic marine mixture of PCB and PBDE congeners on zebrafish life-history traits from larval to adult stage. Exposure was conducted through diet from the first meal and throughout the life cycle of the fish. The mixture was composed so as to approach environmentally relevant marine conditions in terms of both congener composition and concentrations. Life-history traits of exposed fish were compared to those of control individuals using several replicate populations in each treatment. We found evidence of slower body growth, but to a larger asymptotic length, and delayed spawning probability in exposed fish. In addition, offspring issued from early spawning events of exposed fish exhibited a lower larval survival under starvation condition. Given their strong dependency on life-history traits, marine fish population dynamics and associated fisheries productivity for commercial species could be affected by such individual-level effects of PCBs and PBDEs on somatic growth, spawning probability and larval survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.08.083DOI Listing
January 2018

Pituitary gonadotropins FSH and LH are oppositely regulated by the activin/follistatin system in a basal teleost, the eel.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2012 Jan 12;175(1):82-91. Epub 2011 Oct 12.

Laboratory of Biology of Aquatic Organisms and Ecosystems, UMR CNRS 7208-IRD 207-UPMC, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 7 rue Cuvier, CP 32, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.

European eels are blocked at a prepubertal silver stage due to a deficient production of pituitary gonadotropins. We investigated the potential role of activin/follistatin system in the control of eel gonadotropins. Through the development of qPCR assays for European eel activin β(B) and follistatin, we first analyzed the tissue distribution of the expression of these two genes. Both activin β(B) and follistatin are expressed in the brain, pituitary and gonads. In addition, a striking expression of both transcripts was also found in the retina and in adipose tissue. The effects of recombinant human activins and follistatin on eel gonadotropin gene expression were studied using primary cultures of eel pituitary cells. Activins A and B strongly stimulated FSHβ subunit expression in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In contrast, activin reduced LHβ expression, an inhibitory effect which was highlighted in the presence of testosterone, a known activator of eel LHβ expression. No effect of activin was observed on other pituitary hormones. Follistatin antagonized both the stimulatory and inhibitory effects of activin on FSHβ and LHβ expression, respectively. Activin is the first major stimulator of FSH expression evidenced in the eel. These results in a basal teleost further support the ancient origin and strong conservation of the activin/follistatin system in the control of FSH in vertebrates. In contrast, the opposite regulation of FSH and LH may have emerged in the teleost lineage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2011.10.002DOI Listing
January 2012

FaRP cell distribution in the developing CNS suggests the involvement of FaRPs in all parts of the chromatophore control pathway in Sepia officinalis (Cephalopoda).

Zoology (Jena) 2011 Apr;114(2):113-22

Laboratory Biologie des Organismes et Ecosystèmes Aquatiques, UMR MNHN/CNRS 7208/IRD 207/UPMC, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, DMPA, 55 rue Buffon, CP51, F-75005 Paris, France.

The FMRFamide-related peptide (FaRP) family includes a wide range of neuropeptides that have a role in many biological functions. In cephalopods, these peptides intervene in the peculiar body patterning system used for communication and camouflage. This system is particularly well developed in the cuttlefish and is functional immediately after hatching (stage 30). In this study, we investigate when and how the neural structures involved in the control of body patterning emerge and combine during Sepia embryogenesis, by studying the expression or the production of FaRPs. We detected FaRP expression and production in the nervous system of embryos from the beginning of organogenesis (stage 16). The wider FaRP expression was observed concomitantly with brain differentiation (around stage 22). Until hatching, FaRP-positive cells were located in specific areas of the central and peripheral nervous system (CNS and PNS). Most of these areas were implicated in the control of body patterns, suggesting that FaRPs are involved in all parts of the neural body pattern control system, from the 'receptive areas' via the CNS to the chromatophore effectors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.zool.2010.11.002DOI Listing
April 2011

Development of real-time RT-PCR assays for eel gonadotropins and their application to the comparison of in vivo and in vitro effects of sex steroids.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2007 Aug-Sep;153(1-3):333-43. Epub 2007 Mar 2.

USM 0401, UMR 5178 CNRS/MNHN/Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Biologie des Organismes Marins et Ecosystèmes, Département des Milieux et Peuplements Aquatiques, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.

Gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), are key factors in the brain-pituitary-gonad axis and understanding their regulation remains essential for future management of eel reproduction. In this regard, we developed quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qrtRT-PCR) assays for the expression of European eel LHbeta, FSHbeta and GPalpha subunits, using the Light Cycler system. The qrtRT-PCR was adapted to permit detection of the three gonadotropin subunit mRNAs in individual pituitaries and in dispersed pituitary cells. The validated assays were applied to investigate the effects of sex steroids (estrogens and androgens) on gonadotropin subunit expression, in vivo in steroid-injected eels, and in vitro by steroid treatments of primary cultures of eel pituitary cells. In vivo, a stimulation of LHbeta mRNA was observed after estradiol (E2) treatments, while testosterone (T) or the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) had no effect. Concerning FSHbeta expression, slight but non-significant decreases were observed after both E2 and androgen treatments. Different results were obtained in vitro: E2 induced an increase in FSHbeta mRNA levels but had no effect on LHbeta expression. In contrast, androgens (T and DHT) stimulated LHbeta expression while no significant variation was observed on FSHbeta mRNA levels following androgen treatment. Concerning the GPalpha mRNA, no significant effect of sexual steroids was observed in vivo or in vitro. This demonstrated specific direct actions of steroids on gonadotropin subunit expression. The differences observed between in vivo and in vitro experiments may be explained by the involvement of cerebral control, including GnRH and dopamine neurons, and their specific regulation by sex steroids. The data indicate that sex steroid feedbacks on gonadotropins are exerted via multiple pathways, indirectly at the brain level and directly on pituitary gonadotrope cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2007.02.027DOI Listing
October 2007

Thyroid hormone-induced demineralisation of the vertebral skeleton of the eel, Anguilla anguilla.

Gen Comp Endocrinol 2007 Mar 29;151(1):98-107. Epub 2006 Dec 29.

Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Département des Milieux et Peuplements Aquatiques, USM 0401, UMR 5178 CNRS, 7 rue Cuvier, CP 32, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France.

The role of thyroid hormones (TH) in bone remodelling is controversial. Indeed, in humans, while they are necessary for normal growth and development, their overproduction can induce important mineral bone loss and osteoporosis. Intense bone resorption is a natural phenomenon also observed in some teleosts, during reproductive migration and fasting. Our work aimed at investigating the effects of chronic treatments with TH (thyroxin, T4 or triiodothyronine, T3) on bone resorption in a migratory fish, the European eel (Anguilla anguilla), a representative species of an ancient group of teleosts (Elopomorphs). The incineration method showed that TH induced a significant mineral loss in eel vertebral skeleton. Histology and histophysical (qualitative and quantitative microradiographs) methods were then applied to vertebral sections to determine which types of resorption were induced by TH. Quantitative image analysis of microradiographs showed that TH significantly increased the porosity of the vertebrae, demonstrating the induction of a severe bone loss. Histology revealed the appearance of large osteoclastic lacunae, indicating a stimulation of osteoclastic resorption. Quantitative image analysis of ultrathin microradiographs showed a significant increase of the size of osteocytic lacunae, indicating a stimulation of periosteocytic osteolysis. Finally, quantitative microradiographs indicated a significant fall of mineralisation degree. TH treatments did not stimulate the production of the calcium-bonded lipo-phospho-protein vitellogenin, indicating that TH-induced bone demineralisation was not mediated by any indirect effect on vitellogenesis. Our study demonstrates that TH may participate in the mobilisation of bone mineral stores in the eel, by inducing different types of vertebral bone resorption, such as osteoclastic resorption and periosteocytic osteolysis. These data suggest that the stimulatory action of TH on bone resorption may be an ancient regulatory mechanism in vertebrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygcen.2006.12.009DOI Listing
March 2007

Endocrine evidence that silvering, a secondary metamorphosis in the eel, is a pubertal rather than a metamorphic event.

Neuroendocrinology 2005 10;82(3-4):221-32. Epub 2006 Apr 10.

MNHN, Département des Milieux et Peuplements Aquatiques, USM 0401, UMR 5178 CNRS, Paris, France.

Silvering (transition from yellow to silver eel) has been traditionally considered as a metamorphosis in view of the numerous morphological, physiological and behavioral changes preparing the eel for the oceanic migration. However, some changes, such as increases in gonad weight and steroidogenesis, suggest that silvering could also be considered as a pubertal event. In order to assess which endocrine axis may be involved in the induction of silvering, we compared the profiles of pituitary and peripheral hormones during the transition from yellow to silver female eels. A strong activation of the gonadotropic axis was shown during silvering. Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) mRNA levels increased during the early stages of silvering, followed by a later increase in luteinizing hormone (protein and mRNA) levels. In addition, plasma levels of sexual steroids (estradiol, E2; testosterone, T, and 11-ketotestosterone) and of vitellogenin significantly increased. In contrast, thyrotropin mRNA levels did not change and no or weak variations in plasma thyroid hormones were observed, indicating no or moderate change of the thyrotropic axis during silvering. Similarly, the somatotropic axis was not activated, as shown by pituitary growth hormone expression (protein and mRNA) and plasma levels. In addition, we studied the effects of chronic treatments of female yellow eels with thyroid hormone (thyroxine, T4) and sex steroids (T and E2) on biometrical parameters characteristics of silvering. T induced an increase in eye size and a reduction of digestive tract, whereas T4 and E2 had no effect. These hormonal profiles and experimental data lead to the conclusion that eel silvering should be considered as an onset of puberty rather than a 'genuine' metamorphosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000092642DOI Listing
June 2006

Differential regulation of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone expression during ovarian development and under sexual steroid feedback in the European eel.

Neuroendocrinology 2005 16;81(2):107-19. Epub 2005 Jun 16.

Department of Aquaculture, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umea, Sweden.

Pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) are, in teleosts as in mammals, under the control of hypothalamic factors and steroid feedbacks. In teleosts, feedback regulations largely vary depending on species and physiological stage. In the present study the regulation of FSH and LH expression was investigated in the European eel, a fish of biological and phylogenetical interest as a representative of an early group of teleosts. The eel FSHbeta subunit was cloned, sequenced and together with earlier isolated eel LHbeta and glycoprotein hormone alpha (GPalpha) subunits used to study the differential regulation of LH and FSH. In situ hybridization indicated that FSHbeta and LHbeta are expressed by separate cells of the proximal pars distalis of the adenohypophysis, differently from the situation in mammals. The profiles of LHbeta and FSHbeta subunit expression were compared during experimental ovarian maturation, using dot-blot assays. Expression levels for LHbeta and GPalpha increased throughout ovarian development with a positive correlation between these two subunits. Conversely, FSHbeta mRNA levels decreased. To understand the role of sex steroids in these opposite variations, immature eels were treated with estradiol (E2)and testosterone (T), both steroids being produced in eel ovaries during gonadal development. E2 treatment induced increases in both LHbeta and GPalpha mRNA levels, without any significant effect on FSHbeta. In contrast, T treatment induced a decrease in FSHbeta mRNA levels, without any significant effect on the other subunits. These data demonstrate that steroids exert a differential feedback on eel gonadotropin expression, with an E2-specific positive feedback on LH and a T-specific negative feedback on FSH, leading to an opposite regulation of LH and FSH during ovarian development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000086404DOI Listing
August 2005