Prof Salih Muhammad Awadh, Ph D - University of Baghdad - Professor

Prof Salih Muhammad Awadh

Ph D

University of Baghdad

Professor

Baghdad, Iraq | Iraq

Main Specialties: Chemistry

Additional Specialties: Geochemistry

Prof Salih Muhammad Awadh, Ph D - University of Baghdad - Professor

Prof Salih Muhammad Awadh

Ph D

Introduction

Dr. Salih M. Awadh: A professor of geochemistry, graduated from the University of Baghdad in 1986 with B.Sc. Degree in Geology; M.Sc. (1992) in Geochemistry; Ph.D. (2006) in Geochemistry and Economic Geology; and Post Doctorate degree (2014) from Warsaw University – Poland. He has an experience of over 25 years in Geochemistry, Petroleum Geochemistry, Ore Geology and Environmental Studies, and over 16 years as an academician staff of the Department of Geology, University of Baghdad. He is an Editor-in-Chief of the Iraqi Geological Journal, and a member of the Editorial Board of both of the Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining, and International Journal of Earth Sciences and Engineering. ISSN 0974-5904, (Elsevier indexing). Many theses of M. Sc. and Ph. D had done under his supervision and his publications reach about 60.

Primary Affiliation: University of Baghdad - Baghdad, Iraq , Iraq

Specialties:

Additional Specialties:

Research Interests:

Publications

50Publications

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Assessment of Carbonate Rocks, Western Desert of Iraq as Dimension Stones for Building

2(7): 232-248

The Arab Journal of Sciences & Research Publishing

The current study aimed to assess the Carbonate rocks as dimension stones for building. Carbonate rocks collected from the Mauddud Formation (Albian- Cenomanian), within the Western Desert of Iraq are studied petrographically, mineralogically and geochemically. Physical and mechanical properties of selected samples are found to assess their suitability as building stones. Field work is carried out and evaluated sampling of three sites of carbonate rocks. Petrography and mineralogy of these rocks are studied using polarized microscope and XRD technique.Three microfacies (peloidal wackstone-packstone, peloidal packstone and crystalline carbonate) are distinguished. Dolomitization, cementation and recrystallization are themain diagenetic processaffecting the physical and chemical properties of them. Dolomite is the predominant mineral in the 1M and 2M sites, whereas calcite is the most predominant mineral in the 3M site, so it is classified as limestone. Chemically samples are analyzedfor SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, MgO, Fe2O3, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, MnO and LOI. CaO and MgO are the most predominant oxides confirming the abundance of calcite and dolomiteso it is classified as a calcitic dolomite for 1M and 2M sites while classified as limestone for 3M site. The results of analysis physical and mechanical properties (bulk density, water absorption, compressive strength, modulus of rupture and abrasion resistance) are indicate that selected rocks are suitable as dimension stones for building according to American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM) specification.

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December 2016
29 Reads

Iron mineralization in the Garagu Formation of Gara Mountain, Duhok Governorate, Kurdistan, NE Iraq: geochemistry, mineralogy and origin

9:473

Arab J Geosci

The iron mineralization is hosted in carbonate beds of the Garagu Formation (Early Cretaceous) at Gara Mountain, Duhok Governorate, Kurdistan Region, NE Iraq. The Garagu Formation is composed of a series of limestone and siltstone beds with iron-rich beds in the middle part. The iron-rich limestones are iron-rich oolitic grainstone and bioclastic wackestone with hematite and goethite minerals. Geochemical results drawn from this study indicate that the percentage of iron in these beds reaches 19.73 %. Moreover, petrographical investigation of thin and polished sections reveals the presence of different types of fossils, indicating an open marine interior platform depositional environment. Different iron minerals, including hematite, goethite, siderite, pyrite and magnetite, were identified in the sections, and their geneses were related to syngenetic and diagenetic processes. The geochemical distribution of major and trace elements, as well as the V/Ni, V/(V+Ni), V/Cr and Sr/Ba ratios, indicates a reducing environment during the precipitation of carbonate sediments and a subsequent oxidizing condition during the concentration of iron minerals via diagenesis.

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February 2016
10 Reads

Fluid Inclusions Usage for Assessing Oil Migration in Duhok, North Iraq

17 th International Petroleum and Natural Gas Congress and Exhibition of Turkey

Studies of primary and secondary fluid inclusions were done on epigenetic barite samples collected from carbonates of Lower part of Sarmord Formation (Lower Cretaceous and Aqra-Bekhme Formations (Upper Cretaceous) in Duhok localities of North Iraq. Lead isotopes composition in galena which associated barite that contained fluid inclusions helped the identification two events of fluid inclusions. These fluid inclusions contain brine water and hydrocarbons. Primary and secondary fluid inclusions in barite as well as lead isotopes composition in galena helped the interpretation of oil migration history and the pathway of oil migration. Ages of galena are syngronous with the events of oil and water trapping as inclusions within barite, and hence the interpreted galena generation could be assigned to the fluid inclusions age. Accordingly, the events are two phases of early and late generations that correspond to 120 M.a. and 30 M.a. respectively. Correlation with 10 PetroMod basin modeling of the generated oil from the Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous Formations fitted with the event of early galena generation, and hence with the oil entrapment during its migration. Palynomorphs study confirms that the oil in source rocks is similar with the migrated oil.

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May 2009
17 Reads

Inorganic Geochemistry and Origin of Bitumen Intruded in Euphrates and Fatha Formations in Hit Area, Western Iraq

57 (4A): 2478-2489

Iraqi Journal of Science

The content of redox sensitive trace element (V, Co, Ni, and Mo) in the bituminous limestone of the Euphrates Formation (E. Miocene) and bituminous gypsum of the Fatha Formation (M. Miocene) in the Hit Abu-Jir village area, Anbar governorate were determined using Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS), in order to infer the origin of the hydrocarbon and the depositional conditions of the organic matter. Hydrocarbons species by using FTIR technique was identified as aliphatic, aromatic compound, hydroxyl acids, hydroxyl group, sulfoxide and sulfur. Bitumen occurrences in these formations is a result of the hydrocarbon seepages that moved up under high pressure along the Abu-Jir fault Zone, and then were intruded in the limestone and gypsum beds of Euphrates and Fatha Formations. A distinctive fractional differentiation in trace elements in the hydrocarbon-bearing fluids was detected, and resulted in enrichment of these trace elements in the carbonates of the Euphrates, rather than in gypsum belonging to the Fatha. The source of the organic matters located in the Euphrates carbonates is mainly marine planktonic deposited in an anoxic environment, whilst, for that located in the gypsum of Fatha Formation is marine anoxic carbonate-shale, marine terrestrial oxic-dysoxic, and terrestrial oxic. The original kerogen is estimated as of type- I/ II. Bitumen precipitated in shallow depth does not exceed 2 km. The temperature of the ascending hydrocarbons-bearing fluids is computed as 35°C, whereas the burial depth is of 61°C, where the biodegradation was the most probable process responsible for producing bitumen in such depth and temperature.

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8 Reads

OUTSTANDING UNIVERSAL VALUES OF THE SAWA LAKE AS A WORLD NATURAL HERITAGE

14 (1): 1-11

Bull. Iraq nat. Hist. Mus.

This work has been accomplished through a dense field work on the Sawa Lake. The aim of this work is to highlight on characteristics that are consistent with outstanding universal values to be a new Iraqi site belongs to the World Natural Heritage. This study sorted many unique characteristics might ensure that Sawa Lake as a world natural heritage sites. This study shows that the lake had met four natural criteria of the outstanding universal values: (1) the seventh criterion which states to contain superlative natural phenomena or areas of exceptional natural beauty and aesthetic importance. (2) The eighth criterion which stated to be outstanding example representing major stages of earth's history, including the record of life, significant on-going geological processes in the development of landforms, or significant geomorphic or physiographic features. (3) The ninth criterion which stated to be outstanding examples representing significant on-going ecological and biological processes in the evolution and development of terrestrial, fresh water, coastal and marine ecosystems and communities of plants and animals. (4) The tenth criterion which state to contain most important and significant natural habitats for in-situ conservation of biological diversity, including those containing threatened species of outstanding universal value from the point of view of science or conservation.

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7 Reads

Polymetallic sulfide ores hosted in Late Permian carbonate at the Alanish locality, northern Iraq: petrography and mineral chemistry

9(9):1-15

Arab J Geosci

Polymetallic sulfide ores (Zn, Pb, Fe, Cu, Ag, and Cd) found in the Alanish locality of northern Iraq are hosted by dolostone in the Late Permian Chia Zairi Formation. The Alanish locality is one of several Zn–Pb deposits that are widespread in northern Iraq, situated along the northern passive margin of the Arabian plate. This paper describes the ore deposit classification, mineral chemistry, and paragenetic sequence of the area and proposes an ore formation model. We report the presence of acanthite and greenockite for the first time in Iraq. A brine solution derived from the sedimentary basin formed the primary sulfide ore minerals (sphalerite, galena, acanthite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, greenockite, and marcasite). The pretectonic mineralization is characterized by replacement textures including (1) high-Fe, low-Zn, dark-colored, coarse-grained sphalerite; (2) deformed anisotropic coarse-grained galena; and, (3) idiomorphic cubes of crushed pyrite. Conversely, the post-tectonic mineralization is characterized by open-space filling textures, including (1) low-Fe, high-Zn, light-colored, fine aggregated sphalerite; (2) fine-grained galena; and, (3) the existence of acanthite and marcasite. Although galena is an Ag carrier, both mineralization phases contained non-argentiferous galena. Non-sulfides (smithsonite, cerussite, and goethite) have replaced older sulfides in many areas due to supergene process. Gangue minerals present are dolomite, calcite, barite, and siderite. Open spaces and cavity filling of small paleo-karsts, replacement, veins, and veinlets are common features of the ore body. Metals were sourced from brines generated in the sedimentary basin, whereas sulfur was derived from nearby evaporates. Sediment compaction and tectonic activity, probably during Late Cretaceous, were the driving forces that squeezed and moved ore-bearing fluids derived from the sedimentary basin. Multiple stages of ore-bearing fluids were epigenetically intruded into the Late Paleozoic dolostone, forming an epigenetic strata-bound Mississippi Valley-type deposit precipitated under a temperature of 120 °C, as indicated by the cadmium fractionation in sphalerite and galena. Dolomitization and tectonic activity provided the necessary permeability for accumulating ores. The main ore body is directly connected to a fault plane and to adjacent dolostone that is frequently fractured and brecciated.

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29 Reads

Assessment of Sandstone, Western Desert of Iraq as Anti-Acidic and Alkalis Bench

5(24): 1378-1394

ournal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences

The objectives of this study are to evaluate the sandstone (quartz arenite) as anti-acidic and alkalis tiles bench. Sandstones of Rutbah Formation are studied petrographically, mineralogically and geochemically. They are subjected to the many tests to assess their suitability as dimension stone and resistance. The physical and mechanical properties which include bulk density, water absorption, compressive strength, modulus of rupture and abrasion resistance are computed in addition to acidic and alkalis resistance testes. The results are successful and encouraging showing the possibility of manufacturing resistance bench. The Iraqi and American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM) specifications are adopted for comparing the results.

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7 Reads

ASSESSMENT OF GROUNDWATER QUALITY USING WATER QUALITY INDEXIN, AL-HAWIJA AREA, NORTHERN IRAQ

39 – 49(1): 67-76

Iraqi Geological Journal

The quality of groundwater in the Al-Hawija area was assessed using a water quality index. Data of nine physico-chemical parameters of 28 groundwater wells were used to calculate the water quality index (WQI). A heterogeneous water quality was reported, where in close proximity to the Lesser Zab River (LZR), it has low WQI values and permissible for human consumptions due to the dilution processes by fresh water; whereas, it becomes deteriorated in areas located far away the river. The values of WQI ranges from 22 to 336, indicating a good to very poor groundwater quality.

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7 Reads

HYDROGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES AND WATER-ROCK INTERACTION OF GROUNDWATER IN AL-DAMMAM AQUIFER AT BAHR AL-NAJAF, CENTRAL IRAQ

12(1): 1-15

Iraqi Bulletin of Geology and Mining

The hydrogeochemistry of groundwater in the Dammam aquifer was studied via 22 wells in Bahr Al-Najaf basin in order to identify the main hydrogeochemical processes and rockwater interaction. Groundwater in the Dammam aquifer is characterized by neutral to slightly alkaline hard water, excessively mineralized, and slightly brackish water type, in which Na+ and SO4 2– are the dominant ions. The average contribution of cations in the aquifer is Na+ (24%), Ca2+ (14%), Mg2+ (11%) and K+ (1%); whereas the contribution of anions is SO4 2– (23%), Cl– (20%) and HCO3 – (7%). Rock-water interaction processes are identified to include dissolution (carbonates, sulfates, halite, and some silicates such as clay minerals), leaching, and cation exchanges, while evaporation has only a very little impact.

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8 Reads

Natural Attenuation Modelling of Heavy-Metal in Groundwater of Kirkuk City, Iraq

57(3B):2043-2061

Iraqi Journal of Science

This study deals with the shallow alluvial aquifer situated beneath the urban area of kirkuk city. The ancient part of the city (Shorja) is affected by seepage from local agricultural areas causing relatively high heavy metals concentration in groundwater. The selection of polluted site depended on the highest TDS value (3856 mg/L) associated with the highest heavy metal concentrations (Pb, Ni, Co and Zn) in groundwater. This study focuses on the evaluation of natural attenuation effectivity for long-term protection of groundwater quality using realistic three-dimensional reactive-transport groundwater model. The requirements of 3-dimensional reactive transport model were obtained from field observation and laboratory works, in addition to aquifer stratigraphy, minerology and hydrochemistry. The simulations were achieved by using PHAST program that is depended on the HST3D flow and transport code and the hydrochemical PHREEQC code. The modeling results explained the ability of natural attenuation in consuming the concentration of heavy metals, where Long-term (20 year) simulation results show that heavy metal adsorption on hydrous ferric oxide, effectively capture the movement of heavy metals in groundwater down gradient of source areas, resulting in an basically immobile groundwater plume.

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9 Reads

GEOCHEMICAL PARTITIONING OF HEAVY METALS IN THE URBAN SOIL, KIRKUK, IRAQ

39 – 49 (1):1-24

Iraqi Geological Journal

This work focused on anthropogenic influences of the trace metals distribution in the soils of Kirkuk city. Sequential extraction technique was used to determine the distribution of the chemical fractions of Ag, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, Cr and V in soil of Kirkuk city. This area is affected mainly by burning oil trash. Results show that these heavy metals were primarily restricted to surface horizons and mostly associated with the residual fraction (28.8 – 50%). The remnant fractions (13.8 – 33.1%) linked to the organic matter, 7.9 – 27.2% was bound to Fe-Mn oxide, 0.7 – 27.9 was bound to carbonate. Only a small amount of the total metals in the soil is exchangeable (0.5 – 4.2%) and water soluble (0 – 4.1%) fractions. Ag, Cd, Cu, As, Cr and V mainly associated to organic matter fraction; Co, Ni and Zn mostly bound to Fe-Mn oxide fraction; Pb primarily bound to the carbonate fraction. Metals that are bound to the organic matter fraction could be released under oxic conditions, while those associated with Fe-Mn oxide and carbonate fraction could be leached out by changes in the ionic composition and pH. The mobility factors for the metals in the surface soil ranged from 0 to 36 for Ag, 22.2 to 43.6 for Cd, 5.3 to 20.8 for Ni, 16.1 to 41.2 for Pb, 7.3 to 37.9 for Zn, 10.4 to 22.9 for As, 3.2 to 12.3 for Cr and 2.4 to 9.4 for V. The high level of metals remnant as residual fraction coupled with low values of mobility factors, indicate that these metals do not cause any environmental risk or hazard.

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8 Reads

Geochemistry and petrology of Late Miocene-Pleistocene Dibdibba sandstone formation in south and central Iraq: implications for provenance and depositional setting

9:526

Arab J Geosci

Major, trace, and some rare earth element compositions in clastic sediments of the Dibdibba Formation (Late Miocene-Pleistocene) in central and southern Iraq have been investigated to describe the sedimentary environment and provenance. These sediments are classified as subarkosic to arkosic with few sublithic arenite, lithic arenite, and gray wacke; they are mainly composed of quartz (Q) followed by feldspar (F) and rock fragments (L) with a petrologic composition of Q73-F21-L6. The Arabian Shield is a probable source of the studied sediments which are derived from multi-sources including igneous rocks (felsic to mafic) and metamorphic rocks and were transported by river currents towards the northeast. Eventually, the clastic sediments were deposited in a fluviatile environment covering a wide area in Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, and Iraq during the Late Miocene-Pleistocene. They were developed on a passive continental margin under a semi-humid climate alternating with drought periods. The grain size analysis indicates that Basra in the south of Iraq is close to the source, but Karbala and Najaf in central Iraq are farthest from the source.

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8 Reads

Sorption Efficiency of Bentonite in Removal Cd from Aqueous Solutions

56 (2B): 1438-1445

.Iraqi Journal of Science

efficiency of bentonite in removal Cd from aqueous solutions. The bentonite was found to be a good receptive to the adsorption of Cd under specific laboratory conditions. The sorption capacity for Cd onto bentonite was investigated through the variation in pH and initial Cd2+ concentration. The sorption efficiency onto bentonite was examined as a function of pH, initial ion concentration, equilibrium reaction time and solid mass/ liquid volume ratio. The maximum sorption (%) of Cd from solutions were determined when solid to liquid ratio is 2 gm of bentonite versus 50 ml solution, the equilibrium reaction time is 50 minute at pH ranges from 5-7. The sorption was gradually increased with increasing concentrations of Cd in solution, it was found that the highest sorption was 81.7% when the Cd concentration in the solution was 80 ppm, but it suddenly declined to 72% with highest concentrations (100 ppm Cd) because of competing cations on the negative sites on the surface of clay minerals.

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8 Reads

Sorption efficiency of kaolinte in removal Cd from aqueous solutions

56 (2C):1699-1707

Iraqi Journal of Science

Because of the contaminants represented by heavy metals in the aquatic environment have an adverse effects need to be addressed, therefore, a laboratory simulation was conducted on Cd using kaolinite that collected from Ga’ara Formation as considered as a natural sorbent material that can be used to remove heavy metals from aqueous environments. Mineralogical study was conducted on kaolinite using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope (ESM) and Energy- Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) for the purpose of investigating the microtexture. It was found that kaolinite has pure phase of very fine grains with a very little quantity of quartz and has a number of active sites for adsorption. Chemical analyzes were performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), Electron Probe Micro analyzer (EPMA) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) techniques confirmed a purity of kaolinite due to high alumina content, except a rare slica content originated from quartz. Kaolinite sorption efficiency was investigated through a series of laboratory experiments. The optimal reaction conditions were determined to be as: pH 5 to 9, but the best is 9, and the eqilibrium reaction time is 40 minutes, and the solid to liquid ration is 1.25 gm to 50 ml. The effect of the initial Cd concentration on the sorption efficiency of kaolininte was also investigated and shows that the sorption proportionally increases with high concentration. All the laboratory experiments indicate that the reaction is an indothermic.

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9 Reads

Rare Earth Elements Geochemistry of the Upper Oligocene-Middle Miocene Succession in the Western Iraq

56 (4C): 3487-3496

Iraqi Journal of Science

Rare earth element (REE) in the Upper Oligocene-Middle Miocene succession represented by reefal carbonate rocks of Anah Formation, dolomitic limestone of the Euphrates Formation, and gypsiferous marly limeatone of Fatha Formation in the western Iraq were used as geochemical indicators. The objectives of this study are to describe the REE patterns in the different depositional environments, and clarify their response to the diagentic processes, in particular, dolomitization. The general trend of REE pattern shows similarity for Anah and Fatha Formations, with less similarity in the Euphrates Formation. The reefal limestone facies of Anah Formation was characterized by relative depletion in REE, while REEs enrichment were distinctive character of the gypsiferous marly limestone facies in Fatha Formation. The dolomitic limestone facies belonged to the Euphrates Formation was marked with an intermediate amount of REE. The normalized ΣLREEs in the Anah and Fatha Formations have a significant variation. Furthermore, they are less abundance than the normalized ΣHREEs, with the exception of the Euphrates Formation, which suffered a relatively depleted of the ΣHREEs due to dolomitization. The negative anomaly in cerium (Ce), positive anomalies of the europium (Eu) and lanthanum (La) in the PAAS-normalized REE patterns reflect well-oxygenated shallow water of Anah and Fatha Formations; and also indicate incorporation of REE into the limestone of Euphrates Formation occurred in moderately marine deep water. The vast majority of the REEs concentration was adsorped with clay minerals rather than in carbonate rocks and gypsum. Dolomitization clearly affected the real signature of the REE, particularly, in the Euphrates Formation and provided useful information on the composition of diagenetic fluids which later became relatively depleted in HREEs as it is clear in the Euphrates Formation.

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7 Reads

Organic Geochemistry and Stable Carbon Isotopes of Oil Seepages in the Abu-Jir Fault Zone at Al-Anbar Governorate, Iraq

56 (4B) 3162-3175

Iraqi Journal of Science,

Oil seep samples along Abu-Jir Fault Zone were studied to determine their chemical characterization and origin. They are dominated by the normal alkanes, more complex mixture of branched and cyclic hydrocarbons. Organofacies coupled with the stable carbon isotopes have been integrated to infer the oil seep origin. Oil seeps contain H2S gas, which derives as a catabolic by product of sulfate-reducing bacteria from gypsum of the Fatha Formation during the early diagenetic under anoxic conditions which is demonstrated by values of C29/H that are greater than 1. The oil seeps are characterized by δ13C values vary from -29.0 to -27.96‰ and from -28.34 to -27.88‰ in the saturated and aromatic compounds, respectively; consequently, they have low values of the canonical variable ranged from -3.47 to -0.17 reflecting a marine non-waxy oil generated from planktonic kerogen of type-II that has been partially mixed with the terrestrial origin. The values of the tricyclic terpanes (C22/C21 and C31R/H) that are higher than 0.5 and 0.25 respectively support the marine source rocks. The Triassic age was suggested for the oil age in the dependence of the occurrence of the aromatic dinosteranes which marked dinoflagellates were participated in the oil derivation.

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23 Reads

Assessment of Porcelanites, Western Desert of Iraq as Aggregates for Structural Lightweight

4(23):1636-1652

Journal of Babylon University/Pure and Applied Sciences/

The objectives of this study are to evaluate the porcelanite rocks as aggregates instead of gravel for manufacturing structural lightweight concrete blocks. Porcelanite rocks are studied petrographically, mineralogically and geochemically. The prepared concert samples are subjected to many tests to assess their use in the manufacture of structural lightweight concrete. These testes included density, water absorption, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, p-wave velocity and acoustic impedance. In comparison with the normal weight concrete sample depending on the Iraqi and American Standard for Testing Materials (ASTM) specifications, the results are successful and encouraging, showing the possibility of manufacturing of structural lightweight blocks of good compressive strength, low thermal conductivity and acoustic impedance.

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9 Reads

Comparison the Geochemical Background, Threshold and Anomaly with Pollution Indices in the Assessment of Soil Pollution: Al-Hawija, North of Iraq Case Study

4(7): 2357-2363

International Journal of Science and Research

The geochemical background, threshold and anomaly values are compared with pollution indices (Enrichment Factor, Contamination Factor, Geo-accumulation index and Pollution Load Index) in soil collected from Al-Hawija area. The main target is to clarify the differences between the real geochemical background values of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Co, Cr, Ni, V, Cu, Zn, Mo, As, Th and U) and the results of pollution indices. The results showed that the Contamination Factor is often almost consistent with the geochemical background, the Enrichment Factor indicated a low to moderate contamination soil, Geo-accumulation index indicated unpolluted to moderately polluted soil and Pollution Load Index indicated perfection to deterioration soil. The real geochemical background showed a natural distribution of most heavy metals with anomaly of some other. These anomalies didn't attributed to the pollution, but rather reflect the source from which soil has been derived. Pollution indices depend almost entirely on the global reference averages, and don't take the soil origin into account. Consequently, they gave results differ than the geochemical background. The pollution assessment of the heavy metals using EF is more consistent with the geochemical background, but there is high variation when compared the geochemical background to the CF, I-geo and PLI indices.

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12 Reads

Statistical Analysis of the Relations between API, Specific Gravity and Sulfur Content in the Universal Crude Oil

4(5):1279-1284

International Journal of Science and Research

This study was conducted on the universal crude oil samples for the purpose of understanding the relationships between some of the characteristics that control the oil quality. Data were collected from previous works, includingspecific gravity and weight percent of 13 crude oil samples as well as the API and S% of138 crude oil samples belong to oil reservoirs located in the different parts of the world.The APIagainstboth of specific gravity and weight percent (kg/m3)is governed byaninverse perfect linear regression (r= - 0.98) with a better prediction (96%) for the outcomes data. The API relies not only sulfur content, but there are other parameters control the oil density, where the API° is exponentially correlated with S%.

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16 Reads

Mineralogy texture and chemistry of the Ellicott meteorite using scanning electron microscope and energy disperse spectroscopy (SEM/EDS)

8:4819–4831

Arabian Journal of Geosciences

Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS) and Raman spectroscopy have been used to determine the chemistry and mineral components of Ellicott meteorite. Mineral phases and interstitial matrix in the meteorite slabwere detected using backscattered electron mode (BSE) and scanning electron microprobe (SEM) and were assessed from atomic proportions of constituent elements, obtained by the EDS analysis. SEM/EDS and Raman shift analyses of mineral phases showed that Ellicott meteorite is characterized by the predominance of Fe-rich (Fe, Ni) alloy kamacite and Ni-Co-rich magnetite. The Iron-nickel phosphide minerals that are called schreibersite and rhabdites along with rare gold have been detected within the kamacite groundmass of meteorite. The presence of Neumann lines, which appear as fine parallel lines running in (up to) four directions, indicates impact with another body. These lines are caused by twinning due to the postconsolidation compression. The chemistry, particularly the lesser content of Ni and texture of unusual abundance ribbons of the iron-phosphide rhabdites and schreibersite where the Widmanstatten texture disappears after the etching by nitric acid, suggests that the Ellicott meteorite is an iron meteorite, hexahedrite type, IIG group.

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8 Reads

Assessment natural radioactivity of marl as raw material at Kufa Cement Quarry in Najaf Governorate

55(2A):454-462

Iraqi Journal of Science

This Research involves radiological study to assess the marl layer in the Euphrates Formation (Early Miocene) as a raw material for Portland cement industry. Nine wells are drilled penetrating the marl layer to the limestone beneath it. Nine samples were collected from core wells. Each sample represents one well. The concentration of the natural radionuclides 226Ra, 232Th and 40K are 14.91, 5.16 and 223.98 Bq/kg-1, respectively. They are determined by using the technique of gamma-ray spectroscopy with HPGe detector. The radiation doesn't exceed the globally permissible limits. Then the results were compared with the reported data of other countries and with the world average activity of cement raw materials. The radium equivalent (Raeq) activities values of marl samples are lower than the limit of 370 Bq kg-1. Gamma index (Iɣ) below 1 mSv y-1. The values of the external hazard index (Hex) and the internal radiation hazard index (Hin) are less than unity. For estimating the radiological hazards on human health, these parameters are used. The results are indicated that there is no negative effect of radioactive radionuclides on workers' health.

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8 Reads

The Formation Models of Gypsum Barrier, Chemical Temporal Changes and Assessments the Water Quality of Sawa Lake, Southern Iraq

55(1):161-173

Iraqi Journal of Science

This study deals with formation models of gypsum barrier, chemical temporal changes, and assessments of the Sawa Lake within the Al- Muthanna province, Southern Iraq, it is a very important issue to find the water quality and water assessments of this lake. Eleven water samples are collected from Sawa Lake. Many scientific concepts are used such as major cations (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and K+), major anions (SO4=,Cl-,HCO3- and CO3=) with minor anions ( PO43-, NO3-) and H2S . Trace elements (Pb, Cd, Zn, As, Ni, Co, Cu, Mn, Fe, As, Sr And B) and bacterial test were analyzed in each sample. Total dissolved solids (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), pH and temperature (T) were directly measured in the field. The equilibrium state between the concentration and evaporation contributed actively to build the salt wall surrounded the lake. The building wall of the Lake is a barrier of gypsum, which is in a dynamic state between construction and dissolution.The length of gypsum barrier surrounding the lake is 12.5 km with 3-6 m high. Gypsum wall collapse occurs in abundance in the sites that face the wind which activates the erosion processes. The chemistry of Sawa Lake during 1977, 1983 and 2003 was Na- SO4=; then it was changed to be as Mg-Cl from during 2007and 2011 (present study). This study revealed that theSawa Lake water is as unsuitable for drinking, livestock and irrigationpurposes.

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9 Reads

Assessment of Groundwater in Al-Hawija (Kirkuk Governorate) for Irrigation Purposes

55(2B):760-767

Iraqi Journal of Science

The study area is located in Kirkuk governorate - northern Iraq, It covers an area of 630 km2.Twenty eight groundwater samples were collected from the study area during October 2012. pH, electrical conductivity(EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS) and chemical analysis of major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, Cl, SO42 and HCO3) were determined. Sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), residual sodium carbonate (RSC), sodium percent (Na%) and electrical conductivity were used to evaluate the suitability of groundwater for irrigation purpose. The groundwater samples mostly have no harmful effects and no hazard in terms of SAR and RSC respectively, and permissible in terms ofNa%, but they are poor, very poor and marginal as irrigation water.

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9 Reads

The Influence of Kaolinite and pH on Permeability in the Zubair Reservoir in the North Rumaila Oilfield, Southern Iraq

552(2):780-789

Iraqi Journal of Science

This research involves the study of permeability declination as a result of kaolinite due to the changing in pH in the Zubair reservoir (Lower Cretaceous) during the secondary production by water injection method. Four wells and six core samples within the North Rumaila field are studied, Minerals have been diagnosed by XRD and this specific site of clay minerals was diagnosed within the core samples by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The core samples are also studied petrogrphically using the polarizing microscope and found that they mainly consist of quartz, while the predominant clay is kaolinite. The effect of pH on the values of permeability was examined through a series of laboratory experiments, as it has been tested in the cases of gradual sudden increase form acidic to alkaline. Petrophysical properties (porosity and initial permeability) were measured a prior to testing. After performing these tests, the final permeability was also measured as well as the rate of formation damage. The final permeability decreased gradually at a rate of 20-30% M Darcy during the injection out with solution of pH 3 to 11 with getting formation damage up to 25%. While in the case injection with sudden increase pH from acid to alkaline directly, there has been a rapid and substantial reduction in the final permeability as average of 28% -72%, with a formation damaged rate of 44%. The results confirmed that the reason of the decrease in the permeability is due to the kaolinite mineral which is subject to the dispersion phenomenon during the change in pH, and the acidic environment is suitable for the reservoir, and does not lead to a reduction in permeability.

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10 Reads

Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes and elemental composition and origin of organic matter from the Neogene Euphrates, Injana and Dibdibba formations in Iraq: discrimination between marine and terrestrial environments

58 (4): 729–736

Geo log i cal Quar terly

Three Neo gene sed i men tary for ma tions re flect ing dif fer ent depositional en vi ron ments have been in ves ti gated for the pur - pose of di ag nos ing the iso to pic source of the sed i men tary or ganic mat ter and their palaeoenvironmental sig nif i cance in dis - crim i nat ing be tween ma rine and ter res trial en vi ron ments. One of these for ma tions is com posed of car bon ate and marl of a shal low-ma rine en vi ron ment (Eu phra tes For ma tion), and the other for ma tions are com posed of a clastic ter res trial (fluviatile) de pos its with some dif fer ences in the depositional con di tions (Injana and Dibdibba for ma tions). The iso to pic d13C%, d15N% val ues, or ganic car bon (OC) and to tal ni tro gen con tents, and atomic C/N ra tios are used as ev i dence of depositional en vi ron - ment. Av er age d13C val ues (in ‰) for the Dibdiba, Injana and Eu phra tes for ma tions are –25.4, –25.7 and –24.5, re spec tively; av er age d15N val ues (in ‰) are 4.44, 5.24 and 7.24 and av er age OC (in wt.%) is 0.13, 0.3 and 1.1, re spec tively. A sig nif i cant vari a tion in the sta ble car bon and ni tro gen iso tope com po si tions be tween flu vial and ma rine de pos its was re corded. The d13C, d15N and C/N val ues in di cate that the or ganic mat ter in the Eu phra tes For ma tion is of ma rine or i gin, whereas it is of ter - res trial or i gin (fluviatile) in the Injana and Dibdibba for ma tions. The C/Natomic val ues are mostly high in the Injana (37) and Dibddiba for ma tions (51), sug gest ing greater in put and/or pres er va tion of ter res trial or ganic mat ter de rived from land plants; the shal low-ma rine en vi ron ment (Eu phra tes For ma tion) was char ac ter ized by a low C/N ra tio (9) due to the al gal-de rived or - ganic mat ter with lim ited in put of ter res trial or ganic mat ter.

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27 Reads

Facies analysis and geochemistry of the Euphrates Formation in Central Iraq

7:1799–1810

Arab J Geosci

The Euphrates Formation (Lower Miocene) in the Central Iraq consists mainly of shallow marine carbonates. Two hundred ten samples were collected from 21 wells (1E to 21ED) at Bahar Najaf area, and 18 samples were collected at Wadi Asadi in Baghdadi area, from Euphrates Formation. Four microfacies are identified, namely mudstone, wackestone, packstone, and rare grainstone with ten submicrofacies. The allochems in the Euphrates Formation are dominated by bioclasts. Peloids, ooids, and intraclasts are less abundant. The common fossils in the Euphrates Formation are miliolids, algae, ostracods, Miogypsina, and abundant shells of pelecypods and gastropods. Calcite and dolomite are the predominant mineral components of the Euphrates Formation. The carbonates of the Euphrates Formation have been affected by a variety of diagenetic processes such as micritization, dissolution, neomorphism, cementation, stylolitization, dolomitization, dedolomitization, and silicification. The Euphrates Formation was deposited in open to restricted platforms which indicated lagoonal environment with warm and restricted open circulation. In fact, prevalence and abundance of micrite provide an evidence of a shallow marine of low-energy environment and, in some places, may be approaching to be stagnant environment. The average of CaO in Najaf area (51.5 %) is slightly lower than that in Baghdadi area (53.3 %), which was reflected in calcite content found being 91 % in Najaf and 94 % in Baghdadi. Dolomite and gypsum appeared as minor minerals beside calcite, so low concentration of MgO (0.83 % in Najaf; 0.63 in Baghdadi) and SO3 (0.55 % in Najaf; 0.53 % in Baghdadi) was reflected information of small amounts of dolomite (2 % in Najaf; 1.6 % in Baghdadi) and gypsum (0.7 % in Najaf and 0.6 in Baghdadi) in the Euphrates Formation. The insoluble residue in Najaf area (4.37 %) is relatively higher than that in Baghdadi area (1.9 %), indicating that the Euphrates Formation in Najaf Area has deposited in an environment closer to the shoreline. Concentrations of the trace elements Sr, Mn, and Fe which support the conclusion that reminds the Euphrates Formation had been deposited in a shallow marine environment of quiet energy, with the likelihood that the shoreline was the nearest to Najaf rather than to Baghdadi.

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318 Reads

Hydrochemistry and pollution probability of selected sites along the Euphrates River, Western Iraq

6:2501–2518

Arab J Geosci

The hydrochemistry of Euphrates River in the study area which extended from Hit to Al-Saqlawia was studied in order to determine the physical, chemical, and biological properties in addition to the radiation level. Thirty-one stations along the Euphrates River were chosen, 17 of them represented the Euphrates River itself, whereas the other stations are considered as point pollution sources which all empty their load directly in the Euphrates River with an average total discharge of 32 m3/s. Twenty-eight samples of the Euphrates water of both high- and low-flow periods were analyzed for cations (Ca2+,Mg2+, Na+, andK+), anions (SO4 0, Cl−, CO30, HCO3−, NO3−, PO4 −3), H2S boron, dissolved oxygen, biological oxygen demand, bacteriological tests, radiation levels in addition to physical parameters such as hydrogen number (pH), total dissolved solid, electrical conductivity, total suspended solid, and temperature. This study showed that the cations and anions during periods of high and low flows are within acceptable limit with exceptional Cl−. Hydrochemical formula during the high flow was Na-Ca-Mg-Cl-SO4, then it changed into Na-Ca-Mg-HCO3- SO4-Cl during the low-flow period. The average output cations and anions at downstream (Saqlawiya area) was relatively higher than those of input at upstream (Hit area); this attributed to the natural and anthropogenic activities originated mainly from agricultural activity and population communities around the river. Radiation level for 212Pb, 214Pb, 40k, 220Ac, and 214Bi showed that the higher level of radiation is concentrated within sediment rather than in water, but the radiation in both is within acceptable limit.

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12 Reads

Petroleum geochemistry of oil samples from shallow boreholes at Sakran site, western Iraq

7:545–558

Arab J Geosci

Findings of the oil source affinity for oil sample collected from shallow borehole already drilled for ground water purposes at the Sakran area, NE Haditha city, western Iraq, is performed in this study by biomarker studies with addition to the analysis of gravity map. Petroleum geochemistry study is carried out on oil sample. The terpane and sterane biomarker distributions, as well as the stable isotope values, are used for determining the validity of oil to correlate its source. The results showed that the oil belongs to the Jurassic age, with high sulfur content (2.75 %) and value of C28/C29 up to 0.75. The tricyclic terpanes values as well as hopanes indicated a source rock affinity of carbonates, whereas the pristine/phytane ratio indicated marine algal source of kerogen type II. All these information could confirm that the source rock affinity was the Sargelu Formation (Jurassic), in which their age’s equivalent to the source in East Baghdad Oil Field and Tikrit Oil Field, with a difference from the oil family near the Akkas field, located to the west of the area. Chemical analyses of water sample collected from the borehole showed the following results: TDS=12,700 mg/l, EC=215,900 μs/cm, pH=6.8, DO= 28 mg/l, and temperature=24 °C. Hydrochemical functions such as rNa/rCl (<1), (rNa–rCl)/rSO4 (<0) and rSO4/rCl (<1) indicate that the water is of marine origin, partially mixed with meteoric water. Analysis of the gravity map revealed two anomalous areas; the western one represents large anomaly with EW trend similar to the Anah graben to the north. The second one consists of many anomalies trending N–NW direction. The main local anomaly is identical with the seeps from the drilled borehole covering large area. The boundaries and trends of the main geological structures have been defined by gradient analysis procedure to the gravity data. The closed gravity anomalies with their large extensions reflect the importance of the results for further studies and promising area for oil reservoirs

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9 Reads

Cd, Ni, and Pb distribution and pollution assessment in roadside dust from Baghdad City and Western Iraqi Desert

8:315–323

Arab J Geosci

Roadside dust samples were collected from selected areas near the fuel stations in Karkh District of Baghdad City, the capital of Iraq, as well as both sides of the highway between Ramadi and Rutba. In order to assess the probable pollution level of heavy metals (Cd, Ni, and Pb) in the study areas, they were determined in the roadside dust using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The extent of traffic contribution to roadside dust was assessed by comparing the metal concentrations in roadside dust to those of Upper Continental Crust background considering a Cd background of 0.098 mg/km, Ni background of 44 mg/km, and Pb background of 16 mg/km using geo-accumulation index (I geo), contamination factor (CF), and pollution load index (PLI). The roadside dust contains relatively elevated levels of heavy metals. The average concentration of Cd, Ni, and Pb in Baghdad is 0.17, 25.5, and 14.8 mg/kg; in the north of the highway is 0.14, 23.4, and 14.7 mg/kg; and in the south of the highway is 0.2, 27.4, and 15.6 mg/km. The higher averages of these metals were recorded in the south of the highway. The study areas are impacted with considerable quantity of metals. The distribution pattern of the concentrations of metals was essentially affected by exhausted gases emitted from transportation automobile where the direction of the prevailing wind played a major role in the transport of the pollutants, causing an increase in metal concentrations towards the south side of the highway.

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21 Reads

Assessment of sulfurous springs in the west of Iraq for balneotherapy, drinking, irrigation and aquaculture purposes

36:359–373

Environmental Geochemistry and Health

This research deals with the sulfurous spring waters flow along the course of the Euphrates River in western Iraq in the area extended between Haqlaniya and Hit within the Al-Anbar governorate. Eleven springs (3 in Haqlanya, 4 in Kubaysa and 4 in Hit) have been addressed for the purpose of water evaluation for balneology, drinking, irrigation and aquaculture (fish farming). In order to meet the objectives of this research, all springs were sampled and analyzed for the total dissolved solid, electrical conductivity, pH, temperature, major cations (Ca2?, Mg2?, Na? and K?), major anions (SO4 2-, Cl-, HCO3 - and CO3 2-), minor anions (PO4 3-and NO3 -) as well as the trace elements that included Pb, Zn, Cd, Ni, Fe, Mn, Cu, Br, F, Ba, B, Sr, Al, As, Cr, Hg and Se. The International Standards of World Health Organization are used for assessing the water quality. The results revealed that the springs belong to the tepid springs of 27–30 C and classified as hypothermal to the thermal springs. Lithochemistry and geochemical processes clearly affected the water chemistry. The hydrogeochemical processes are responsible for the element enrichment in water by the chemical dissolution of carbonate and gypsum and evaporation as well. The results of the study indicate the possibility of using spring water for therapeutic purposes, but not allowed for drinking and aquaculture (fish farming), except those free of H2S gas. On the other hand, it can be used for irrigation with risk. However, soil type as well as proper selection of plants should be taken into consideration.

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19 Reads

Sorption Mechanism and Capacity Evaluation of Palygorskite from Iraq to Remove Pb from Aqueous Solution

2(3):1-4

Geology & Geosciences

The use of the palygorskite of Iraq as an adsorbent for the removal of Pb from aqueous solution was investigated by the mean of batch technique. Iraqi palygorskite was collected from Digma and Akashat Formations (Masstrachtian and Danianage) from the western Iraqi Desert. Palygorskite exists within the clay-rich sediments; therefore it was concentrated by separation from clay fraction. A series of adsorption tests were conducted to analyze the sorption mechanism and capacity of palygorskite. Standard solutions of Pb were prepared with known concentrations (10, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225, and 250 ppm). Each solution was mixed with 1gm of palygorskite, and treated with total volume up to100 ml for 1hr with stirring at temperature of 25°C. The treated palygorskite was then separated by filter paper. Each filtrate solution was subjected to physical and chemical measurements. Solid to liquid ratio, Adsorption equilibrium reaction time, pH and Pb ion concentration are determined. The results of this study revealed that there is negative relat ionship between pH and each of electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS) and salinity. The pH of the treated solution decreased from 7.2 to 2.37. Electrical conductivity, TDS and salinity in the initial solutions increased and ranged between 960-14000 μs/cm, 482-11900 ppm and 0.2-8.2‰ respectively. The sorption capacity was recorded as 99.5% of 10 ppm solution, whereas it was 22.22% of 250 ppm solution.

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8 Reads

Geochemical exploration using surveys of spring water, hydrocarbon and gas seepage, and geobotany for determining the surface extension of Abu-Jir Fault Zone in Iraq: A new way for determining geometrical shapes of computational simulation models

124: 218-229

Journal of Geochemical Exploration

The Abu-Jir Fault Zone (AJFZ) is a known fault zone and, as one of the typical structures in Iraq, extends NW-SE for a considerable distance on the western side of the Mesopotamian basin. The feature of this fault zone on the ground surface is mysterious and unclear. Surface extension evaluation of the fault zone requires the selection of valid parameters from among numerous geological factors. The present study focuses on the evidence of the existence of traces of the fault zone on the surface, such as springs, sites of hydrocarbon seepage, and geobotany, so as to employ them as tools in geochemical exploration for detecting the surface extension of the fault zone. For this purpose, direct and indirect geochemical methods including spring water survey (SWS), hydrocarbon accumulation and H2S gas survey (HAGS), and geobotanical survey (GS) were performed along the AJFZ. Hydrocarbon accumulations exist in many types of features. First, massive amounts of hydrocarbons ascend upward under high pressure piercing the gypsum of the Fatha Formation and exposed on the surface. Second, the hydrocarbon intrudes into the gypsum bed along the cleavage plane but is not exposed on the surface. Third, the light hydrocarbon ascends from the depth with the spring water and floats on the water surface. Anomaly in the distribution of hydrocarbon, total dissolved solid (TDS), H2S gas emission, abnormality in growth of palm trees (such as stem curvature and overturn, dwarfism), and the development of an isolated local aqueous environment around the springs along the AJFZ as well as computational simulation can be used to draw the geometrical shape of the fault zone on the surface. The surface extension of the AJFZ has been computed to be 467 km long with an average width of 48 km. This study has conclusively demonstrated the validity of the use of geochemical anomalies along with the computational simulation to estimate the dimensions of the fault zone.

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12 Reads

Chemical and physical control processes on the development of caves in the Injana Formation, Central Iraq

6:3765–3772

Arabian Journal of Geosciences

The caves that are present within the Injana Formation (Upper Miocene–Pliocene) which sometimes extend to be hosted within the Dibdibba Formation (Pliocene– Pleistocene) in the Tar Al-Najaf and Tar Al-Sayyed within the Najaf–Karbala district have been studied. The study aims to assess the genesis of caves and diagnose the factors affecting the building and the destruction of these caves through geologic time. For this reasons, intensive fieldwork as well as the mineralogical composition and microscopic interpretation were achieved to facilitate the investigation of cave-forming factors. Calcite, quartz, feldspar, dolomite, as well as clay minerals are the constituents of Injana Formation in the study area. The amount of insoluble residue is usually higher in weathered carbonates and in some other cases in fresh carbonate, which is not very common but it may occur. Caves appear to be hosted within the claystone beds and concentrated within Injana Formation, whereas the Dibdibba Formation seems to form the roof of the caves. The mechanism of building caves starts by microdissolution forming microfractures. Then with time, they have developed to be vertical joints. These joints were gradually enlarged as a result of claystone exfoliation along joint planes. Chemical weathering, physical weathering, and sedimentary structure (mud balls) play a key role in the processes of cave evolution. Some caves appear to be irregular, but others tend to be regular with rectangular shape, enough for hosting human beings. These caves may have been used as homes for the ancient human for his protection and improvement of his life. At the same time as the caves were formed, there were other natural factors working continuously that destroy the cave. These factors are dissolution, soil creep, and mass sliding. This work highly recommends for further contributions in terms of the archaeological investigation on these caves to discover the ancient civilization in this area, if any.

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13 Reads

Toxic Heavy Metals in Soil and Some Plants in Baghdad, Iraq

15(2):1-16

Habib R. Habib; Salih M. Awadh; Muhanad Z. Muslim

In purpose to know the distribution and concentration of heavy metals (Fe, Pb, Cd, Ni and Co) in the soil and both the plant leaves and the fruits of Rutaceae Family (Citrus aurantifolia, Citrus sinensis, Citrus reticulate, Citrus aurantium, Citrus grandis) as well as the leaves and dates of Phoinix dactylifera (palm) in Baghdad city, they are measured in both of soil and plant samples which have been collected from 25 sites in Baghdad city. This study was carried on 25 samples of soil, 47 plant leaf samples, 29 fruit samples as well as 22 palm leaf samples with 5 samples of dates. The concentration of heavy metals in the soil appeared to be higher than of the natural distribution, so in the leaves and fruits of plants are also likely. The heavy metals in the plants mainly tend to be preferentially accumulated within the leaf fraction greater than of the fruits. Heavy metals in the Baghdad soil, especially Pb, Cd and Co had strongly correlated together and distributed in similar patterns which may be originated from source of diesel and gasoline fuel

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7 Reads

Mineralogy and palynology of the Mesopotamian plain sediments, Central Iraq

4:1261–1271

Arab J Geosci

This work was done on the representative section (230 cm) in Dora site which located in Baghdad in the central of the Mesopotamian Plain. Eleven soil samples were examined mineralogically and palynologically. Grain size analyses showed that silt is the higher fraction (61%), clay is the least (9%), whereas sand forms 30%. Translucent and opaque heavy minerals contributed 57% from the sand fraction, whereas the light minerals formed just 43%. The type of heavy minerals and its maturity defined four provenances—they are granitic, basic igneous and metamorphic rocks—that belong to the high lands of south Turkey and north of Iraq. The fourth provenance is the sedimentary rocks which are located north of Mesopotamian Plain around the Tigris River and their tributaries. Dinoflagellate within thin bed of marine origin clearly indicated the transgression of the Arabian Sea northward through Tigris and Euphrates valleys or high marine waves reached to Baghdad before 10,000 years P.B. approximately. This means that the marine sediments were also an additional source of the Mesopotamian Plain. Three specific climatic features are identified via palynological interpretation; a temperate-wet climate extended from 10,000 to 5,000 years P.B. followed by dry period extended from 5,000 to 3,500 years P.B. and the last climatic feature is characterized by oscillation of wet to dry periods which is dominant since 3,500 till now.

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13 Reads

Mineralogical, geochemical, and geotechnical evaluation of Al-Sowera soil for the building brick industry in Iraq

4:413–419

Arab J Geosci

The raw material soil of Al-Sowera factory quarry (quarry soil and mixture) used for building brick industry was tested mineralogically, geochemically and geotechnically. Mineral components of soil are characterized by Clay minerals (Palygoriskite and chlorite) and nonclay minerals like calcite, quratz, feldspar, gypsum and halite. The raw material is deficient in SiO2, Al2O3, K2O, Fe2O3 and MgO, while enriched in CaO. Loss on ignition and Na2O are in suitable level and appear to be concordant with the standard. Grain size analyses show that the decreasing sand and clay, and increasing silt ratio in both quarry soil and mixture caused decreasing in strength of brick during molding and after firing. The quarry soil is characterized by high plasticity clayey soil of 30.49 plastic index (P.I), whereas the mixture considered a clayey soil has a low plasticity of 7.7 plastic index (P.I). To improve the chemical and physical properties of the raw material, alumina-silicate minerals rich in K2O, Fe2O3 and MgO are recommended as additive materials to the main mixture.

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8 Reads

Ground Radiometric Method as a Tool for Determining the Surface Boundary of Buried Bauxitic Karst

37-47

SQU Journal For Science

Forty two ground radiometric measurements along nine traverses within a rectangular network area were taken across a bauxitic karsts within the Ubaid Formation (Lower Jurassic) in the Western Desert of Iraq. A 4-Channel Gamma Ray Spectrometer (GAD-6) with sodium iodide NaI (Tl) crystal (GSP-4S) was used in the field to measure the total radioactivity of the surface soil. Soil samples collected from the surface at each measurement point and core samples collected from a test well penetrating the karst were analyzed by Gamma ray spectrometer. The main objective of this study is to detect the hidden bauxitic karst and determine its surface boundary. The radioactivity on the surface of the karst was ranging between 60 and 80 count per second (c/s), while the background radioactivity of the Ubaid Formation, which hosts the karst, was ranging between 100 and150 c/s. Chemical weathering, especially dissolution and leaching moved uranium (238U) and thorium (232Th) from overburden downward. Accordingly, these elements have been adsorbed on surface of clay minerals and bauxite buried at depth of about 5m causing enrichment with radioactivity. The leached overburden lack radioelements, so its radioactivity was less than background radioactivity level. The gamma ray spectroanalysis showed that the radioactivity of 238U and 232Th in the overburden was 0.5 and 3 Bq/Kg, whereas, in the bauxite and flint clay bed, was 240 and 160 Bq/Kg respectively. Depending on the radioactivity anomaly contrast on the surface, an isorad map was plotted and the karst diameter which represents low anomaly was determined to be ranging from 150 to 200m. The current study demonstrates that the ground radiometric method is quite useful for detecting the bauxitic karst and inferring its surface boundaries.

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8 Reads

Mineralogy, geochemistry, and reserve estimation of the Euphrates limestone for Portland cement industry at Al-Najaf area, South Iraq

6:491–503

Arabian Journal of Geosciences

This study deals with the mineralogical and geochemistry of the Euphrates Formation (Lower Miocene) in Bahr Al-Najaf area in order to assess the lithofacies of the Euphrates Formation for Portland cement manufacturing. Petrographic and mineralogical studies were carried out on 210 core samples, collected from 21 boreholes, and showed that calcite is the dominant mineral with few amounts of quartz, gypsum, feldspar, and a rare amount of dolomite. Clay mineral suites (palygorskite, kaolinite, montmorillonite, and illite) formed about 5% from the total mineral composition. Palygorskite precipitated directly in alkali shallow water rich with Si and Mg ions. Chemical weathering of feldspar under acidic conditions participated in formation of Kaolinite. Geochemistry showed that there is no high variation in chemical constituents with depth, and the average of CaO (51.5), MgO (0.83), SO3 (0.54), SiO2 (4.3), Fe2O3 (0.45), Al2O3 (0.93), L.O.I (40.7), Na2O3 (0.08), K2O (0.14), and Cl- (0.1) qualified the lithofacies of Euphrates Formation to be raw materials suitable for manufacturing the Portland cement. Triangle Block method is applied to estimate the reserve on square area (2×2 km2) which is computed to be 63 million tons of medium-tough limestone as potential probable reserve.

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16 Reads

Geochemistry and mineralogical composition of the airborne particles of sand dunes and dust storms settled in Iraq and their environmental impacts

66:2247–2256

Environmental Earth Sciences

Five dust storms that occurred in 2008 (15 March, 11 April, 28 April, 25, May and 26 June) in addition to the many sand dunes disseminated in the Western Desert of Iraq are sampled. The worse dust storm that occurred in Iraq in 11 April, 2008 covered 75% of the Iraq area and deposited 6.9 million tons approximately as a total weight of fallout during just 8 h, declining temperature 6C. During the episodes of dust storms, visibility decreased enormously, no more than 30 m. Many people were taken to hospitals after sustaining breathing problems. Some of them died. Clay fraction is the dominant part in the dust storms forming 70% besides a little silt (20.6%) and sand (9.4%), then classified as mature arkose of clay to sandy clay, whereas sand dunes are formed from 72.7% sand, 25.1% silt and 2.19% clay, then classified as mature arkose of silty sand. Sand dunes have much maturity. Mineralogical composition of dust storms and sand dunes are Quartz (49.2%, 67.1%), feldspar (4.9%, 20.9%), calcite (38%, 5%), gypsum (4.8%, 0.4%), dolomite (0.8%, 1%) and heavy minerals (3.2%, 6.6%), respectively. Heavy mineral suites in the dust storms are represented by zircon, pyroxene, hornblende, chlorite and magnetite; whereas the sand dunes are represented by zircon, tourmaline, garnet and pyroxene, concentrated within sand fraction. Heavy minerals according to satellite images revealed the dry land of Sahara Desert in North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula as well as Syria and Jordan were a major source of the dust storms that have occurred in Asia, including Iraq.

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9 Reads

Climatic prediction of the terrestrial and coastal areas of Iraq

5:465–469

Arab J Geosci

Climatic data from four meteorological stations in Iraq (Mosul, Baghdad, Basra, and Rutba) were obtained. The recorded temperature data since 1960 till 2007 and rainfall and evaporation data since 1960 till 2008 and 1970 till 2008, respectively, were used and interpreted. This study showed an increase in temperature of about 5°C/ 47 years and an increase in evaporation rate with a decrease in the rainfall rate. Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere appears to be a factor controlling climate change. Basra climate, due to its location which is nearest to the Arabian Gulf, is expressed as a coastal climate and has a different behavior from Mosul, Baghdad, and Rutba, which are considered as terrestrial climates.

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8 Reads

Geochemistry of Termite Hills as a Tool for Geochemical Exploration of Glass Sand in the Iraqi Western Desert

1, 130-138 doi:10.4236/ijg.2010.13017 Published Online November 2010 (

International Journal of Geosciences

Sand glass deposits was located in the mid of the Western Desert of Iraq. It is situated within Rutba Forma-tion (Ceno-manian). Ancient traditional mining method is still used in exploitation the unconsolidated white glass sand from glass sand quarry. The overburden thickness ranges from 2 to 4 m in average. Termite hills were observed around the glass sand quarry extending far from the quarry area. Termites could burrows down and penetrate the sand glass bringing it up to the surface. The depth of penetration reaches more than 35 m. The field observation of the white color of termite hills which are built up by sand glass gave a good indicator for the hidden subsurface deposit and it appears to be a surface signature for finding glass sand di-rectly under the termite hills. The scattered white hills of glass sand on the surface with high content of SiO2, concordant Zr/Hf and Th/U ratios and heavy mineral distribution in both of quarry and termite hills provide a strong evidence of that those termite hills could be an effective tool for exploring subsurface hidden glass sand up to 35 m depth.

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8 Reads

The Atmospheric Pollution of Baghdad City, Iraq

1727-1740, 2009

The Proceeding of 3rd scientific conference of College of Science, University of Baghdad

The atmospheric pollution in Baghdad was investigated by using rainwater as a media for monitoring of pollution and also compared with the atmosphere pollution at reference stations of Al-Sulaimaniya in north of Iraq and Al-Rutbah in Western Desert of Iraq. Rainwater sampling carried out at period extended from Nov. 2007 to April 2008. Thirty five samples of rainwater were collected at seven monitoring stations at Baghdad which is industrialized (Abu-Graib, Al-Khadraa, Al-Qadissiya, Al-Saydiya, Al-Dora, Al-Talbia and Al-Sha'ab), in addition to four samples were collected from each of Al-Sulaimaniya and Al-Rutbah, a cities which are free from industrial pollution in purpose to use them as a comparative reference samples. All samples of rainwater analyzed for Ca2+. Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO42-, Cl-, NO3-., pH, TDS and EC. The hydrochemical characterization showed high participation of Ca2+ (67%) and Mg2+ (18%) in cations and SO42- (50%) and Cl- (29%) in anions. The total ions mass showed the trend cations and anions as: Ca2+ > SO42+> Mg2+ >NO3- >Cl- > Na+ > K+. The pH values of rainwater in Baghdad range from 6.1 to 7.5 and in average of 6.7. These values obviously refer to high fluctuation of the gases and suspended particulates in Baghdad atmosphere in comparison with Al-Sulaimaniya and Al-Rutba. The pH values of rainwater in Al-Sulaimaniya range from 7 to 7.5 with average of 7.3, and in Al-Rutba range from 7.3 to 7.5 with average of 7.5 indicating low pH fluctuate and homogenize atmosphere. The pH value in the rain water in Baghdad tends to be slight acidic nature at the beginning of the rainfall, but it appears to have less acidity after the washing processes of atmosphere. The SO42+/(NO3-+Cl-) hydrochemical function suggest that the natural processes beside the anthropogenic activity are sources of the acidity.

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12 Reads

Iron content variations in sphalerite and their effects on reflectance and internal reflections under reflected light

2:139–142

Arab J Geosci

Reflectance (R%) and internal reflections (IR) in the iron variant, sphalerite, are investigated by using the scanning electron microprobe and reflected light microscope. Iron contents in sphalerite positively affect reflectance and can be considered as a control factor of internal reflections color. Internal reflections of sphalerite grains that contain less than 10% Fe appear to be whitish yellow color but are with reddish brown color when Fe rises to 10% to 17%. This work is an effort for developing ore microscopy and ore petrography technique by using the optical properties as a geochemical tool for fast preliminary estimating iron content in sphalerite by using reflected light microscope.

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Salinity Evaluation of On-Site Drilling Wastes at Bi-Hassan Oilfield, North Iraq

19(2):

مجلة جامعة بابل / العلوم الصرفة والتطبيقية

Salts like sodium chloride or potassium chloride are often added to drilling mud system to protect sensitive formations; especially when an oil well is drilled through a salt dome. One major concern with the burial of drilling wastes is the waste potential like salts migration of all directions. In this study, forty samples of total waste (before burial) and the same number of soil (after application of burial on-site disposal method) have been collected from four drilling sites at Bi-Hassan oilfield. Total dissolved solid (TDS), electrical conductivity (EC), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), pH, chloride mass were determined in all samples in order to identify weather these sites containing high salts levels. It was found, that most samples have EC and SAR values higher than of standard levels. This salinity will adversely impact vegetation, land and groundwater. Otherwise, no environmental effects will be expected from soil analyzing after adding soil to the wastes since the EC and SAR values are less than 4 mmhos/ cm and 12 respectively

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Upper Cretaceous carbonate hosted zinc–lead–barite deposits in Northern Thrust Zone, northern Iraq: petrography and geochemistry

1:75–85

Arab J Geosci

Zinc–lead–barite deposits located in Lefan and Lower Banik localities of about 25 km northeast of Zakho City, Northern Iraq consist of a group of strata-bound sulfides hosted in Upper Cretaceous (Upper Campanian– Maastrichtian) dolomitic limestone. Carbonate-hosted ores contain 3.77% Zn, 2% Pb, and 5% Fe, while in lower Banik, they contain 1.5% Zn, 0.37% Pb, and 1.4% Fe. Diagenetic processes, such as dolomitization and recrystalization in addition to the type of microfacies, provided appropriate physical and chemical conditions that permitted the passage of ore-bearing fluids and participated in precipitation and ore localization. These deposits are precipitated in a platform and developed within the Foreland Thrust Belt. Ore precipitated as infill of intergranular dolomite porosity with replaced dolomite and rudist shells forming disseminated crystals that occupy intergranular pore spaces around dolomite and calcite and as infill of dissolution spaces and fractures.

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PETROLOGY, GEOCHEMISTRY AND TECTONICAL ENVIRONMENT OF THE SHALAIR METAMORPHIC ROCK GROUP AND KATAR RASH VOLCANIC GROUP, SHALAIR VALLY AREA, NORTHEASTERN IRAQ

49(1): 149-158

Iraqi Journal of Sci Iraqi Journal of Science

The Shalair Metamorphic Rock Group (SMRG) is northern exposure of variety lithological units in Iraq, and forms part of the western margin of the active Iranian plate. The SMRG consists of metasedimentary sequences, whereas the Katar Rash Volcanic Group (KRVG) consists of basic to acidic metaigneous rocks. The petrological and geochemical studies showed that the SMRG is characterized by three lithological units, these are metapelite, metacarbonate, metaarenite, and KRVG is characterized by metaigneous series including metabasalt, metaandesite, and metarhyolitic dacite. All these rocks are regionally metamorphosed into low grade metamorphism of green schist facies – chlorite zone. Thermal conditions of metamorphism are suggested about 340±20° C at pressure conditions ranged between 2.5 – 3 Kb approximately. Data is not completely enough to interpret the tectonical environment, but the field aspects and geochemical evidences indicate that the SMRG were evolved under tectonic environment of island arc situation, so the (KRVG) are characterized by calc – alkaline nature.

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MINERALOGY, GEOCHEMISTRY AND ORIGIN OF ZINC-LEAD-BARITE DEPOSITS IN NORTHERN THRUST ZONE, NORTHERN IRAQ

49(2):119-131

Iraqi Journal of Scie Iraqi Journal of Science

Four areas contain zinc - lead - barite deposits hosted by Cretaceous carbonate rocks are studied mineralogically, geochemically and genetically. These areas are Lefan, Lower Banik, Menin and Upper Banik, which are located northeast of Zakho city within Northern Thrust Zone, Northern Iraq. The deposits occur as small veins, scattered patches to disseminated ore, characterized by simple mineralogy consists of sphalerite, galena, little quantity of pyrite as primary sulfides and barite as primary sulfate. Most of sulfides are altered to their secondary minerals by supergene solutions. Paragenetic sequence of mineralization shows early and late sulfides generation deposited from hypogene solutions, and reveals reduction-oxidation potential fluctuation through nine stages of mineralization. The early generation of sulfides (sphalerite and galena) is characterized by replacement textures and high content of minor elements, while the late generation of sulfides is characterized by open space filling textures, and low content of minor elements. Geochemistry of bulk ore revealed the average ore grade up to 44.4% ZnO, and 4.1% PbO in Lefan, 27.4% ZnO, and 2.7% PbO in Lower Banik, 9.1% ZnO and 1.2 PbO in Menin, 1.9% ZnO and 20 ppm of Pb in Upper Banik. Fluid inclusions observed in barite contain heavy oil associated aqueous chloride-rich fluids (13% - 15.5% wt equv. NaCl). Formation temperature of barite is suggested to be 50-60 °C. The sulfur isotope composition (δ34S) of early generation galena is 0.36 per mil. This value is close to the hydrothermal magmatic sulfur origin, but the sulfur isotope compositions (δ34S) of late generation galena is 6.41 per mil. This value indicates that the hydrothermal magmatic fluids were partially mixed with oilfield brine connate waters. The sulfur isotope composition (δ34S) of barite ranges from 16.64 to 24.23 per mil indicating high isotopic fractionation caused by descending meteoric waters which diluted the ascending ore-bearing fluids. This case led to precipitation of barite in oxidizing conditions. The Lead isotope compositions (204Pb, 206Pb, 207Pb and 208Pb) of galena revealed that lead was derived from the crust reservoir. The elements (Zn, Pb, Fe, and Ba) may have originated from oilfield brine waters which may have partially mixed with hydrothermal fluids of magmatic origin supplying sulfur. These fluids may have been migrated upward as chloride and sulfide complexes along fractures and faults that they formed after crustal extension and rifting which took place by the effect of the Laramide Orogeny in the Upper Maastrichtian . The studied zinc-lead-barite deposits could be classified as epithermal, epigenetic strata-bound of Mississippi valley type (MVT) deposits, lithologically and structurally controlled within Cretaceous carbonate host rocks.

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دراسة جيوكيميائية وباليونتولوجية لتكوين كلنيري (الطباشيري الأعلى ) شمال شرق العراق

1(3): 1-12

Journal of Anbar University of Pure Sciences

تمت دراسة تكوين كلنيري في مقطعه النموذجي في سد دوكان جيوكيميائيًا وباليونتولوجيًا ، حيث ( I.R) والفضالة غير الذائبة (K2O) بالإضافة إلى (Mn,Ni,Cr,Sr,Rb) تم دراسة بعض العناصر الشحيحة أما من الناحية الباليونتولوجية فقد تم تحديد العديد من الأجناس والأنواع (L.O.I ) ومفقودات الحرق للفورامنيفرا الطافية والتي اعتمد على الأنواع الدالة منها حيث تم من خلالها تحديد عمر التكوين بفترة التوروني الأسفل . تبين من خلال دراسة سلوك وتوزيع العناصر الجيوكيميائية والعمليات التحويرية المبكرة التي طرأت على معدن الكلوكونايت والتي نتج عنها تشكل معدن البايرايت ووجود المجاميع الحياتية ضمن السجيل الأسود في أرضية مكرايتية ينعدم فيها السبار الكلسي الدقيق التبلور والتي تميزت بسحنة الحجر الجيري الواكي الحامل للفورامنيفرا بأن تكوين كلنيري ترسب في بيئة بحرية عميقة بعيدة عن الساحل عانت من نقص الأوكسجين (بيئة إختزالية ). كما تم في هذه الدراسة مقارنة تكوين كلنيري بالجزء العلوي للتكوين الذي يسفله (تكوين دوكان) والجزء السفلي للتكوين الذي يعلوه (تكوين كوميتان) ومراقبة التغيرات الجيوكيميائية والسحنية الحاصلة فيها .

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