Publications by authors named "Salehin Rais"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Insulins, leptin and feeding in a population of Peromyscus leucopus (white-footed mouse) with variable fertility.

Horm Behav 2014 Jun 26;66(1):169-79. Epub 2014 Feb 26.

Department of Biology, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA, USA. Electronic address:

This article is part of a Special Issue "Energy Balance". Natural populations display a variety of reproductive responses to environmental cues, but the underlying physiology that causes these responses is largely unknown. This study tested the hypothesis that heritable variation in reproductive traits can be described by heritable variation in concentrations of hormones critical to both energy balance and reproduction. To test this hypothesis, we used mouse lines derived from a wild population and selectively bred for response to short day photoperiod. Reproductive and metabolic traits of Peromyscus leucopus display heritable variation when held in short photoperiods typical of winter. Our two lines of mice have phenotypes spanning the full range of variation observed in nature in winter. We tested male and female mice for heritable variation in fasted serum concentrations of three hormones involved in energetic regulation: leptin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and insulin, as well as the effects of exogenous leptin and a high energy diet on reproductive maturation. Exogenous leptin decreased food intake, but protected males from the reduction in testis mass caused by equivalent food restriction in pair-fed, saline-infused controls. A high energy diet resulted in calorie adjustment by the mice, and failed to alter reproductive phenotype. Concentrations of the three hormones did not differ significantly between selection lines but had correlations with measures of food intake, fertility, blood glucose, and/or body mass. There was evidence of interactions between reproductive traits and hormones related to energy balance and reproduction, but this study did not find evidence that variation in these hormones caused variation in reproductive phenotype.
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June 2014

Development and evaluation of an instrument for assessing brief behavioral change interventions.

Patient Educ Couns 2011 Apr 23;83(1):99-105. Epub 2010 May 23.

University of Virginia, Department of Family Medicine, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

Objective: To develop an observational coding instrument for evaluating the fidelity and quality of brief behavioral change interventions based on the behavioral theories of the 5 A's, Stages of Change and Motivational Interviewing.

Methods: Content and face validity were assessed prior to an intervention where psychometric properties were evaluated with a prospective cohort of 116 medical students. Properties assessed included the inter-rater reliability of the instrument, internal consistency of the full scale and sub-scales and descriptive statistics of the instrument. Construct validity was assessed based on student's scores.

Results: Inter-rater reliability for the instrument was 0.82 (intraclass correlation). Internal consistency for the full scale was 0.70 (KR20). Internal consistencies for the sub-scales were as follows: MI intervention component (KR20=.7); stage-appropriate MI-based intervention (KR20=.55); MI spirit (KR20=.5); appropriate assessment (KR20=.45) and appropriate assisting (KR20=.56).

Conclusions: The instrument demonstrated good inter-rater reliability and moderate overall internal consistency when used to assess performing brief behavioral change interventions by medical students.

Practice Implications: This practical instrument can be used with minimal training and demonstrates promising psychometric properties when evaluated with medical students counseling standardized patients. Further testing is required to evaluate its usefulness in clinical settings.
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April 2011

A PDA-based counseling tool for improving medical student smoking cessation counseling.

Fam Med 2010 May;42(5):350-7

Departments of Family Medicine and Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

Background And Objectives: There is little research on training medical students in smoking cessation counseling (SCC). This study aimed to determine if a personal digital assistant (PDA)-based SCC tool can improve medical student SCC.

Methods: We conducted a randomized, controlled trial with third-year medical students. SCC behaviors, comfort, and knowledge were assessed using a validated survey before students attended a workshop on SCC. Student groups were then randomized to receive a paper-based reminder tool or the reminder plus a PDA-based SCC tool. The validated survey was repeated upon clerkship completion, and a videotaped standardized patient interview was assessed by trained reviewers using a 24-item SCC checklist. Focus groups assessed satisfaction with the PDA tool, usability, and barriers to use.

Results: SCC behaviors, knowledge, and comfort increased among all participants, with no statistical differences between groups. The PDA tool group performed 62% of key SCC activities during the videotaped interview, while the control group performed 69%. Students reported discomfort using the PDA with patients, lack of time, and lack of training as barriers to use of the tool.

Conclusions: We demonstrated improvement of SCC skills by third-year medical students using a workshop combined with a supplemental reference tool. However, a PDA-based tool did not increase key SCC behaviors compared with a paper-based reminder. For a PDA intervention to be effective in this setting, the tool must be simplified and additional training provided.
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May 2010

Androgen- and estrogen-independent regulation of copulatory behavior following castration in male B6D2F1 mice.

Horm Behav 2009 Aug 18;56(2):254-63. Epub 2009 May 18.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics and Program in Neuroscience, University of Virginia Medical School, Charlottesville, VA 22908, USA.

Male reproductive behavior is highly dependent upon gonadal steroids. However, between individuals and across species, the role of gonadal steroids in male reproductive behavior is highly variable. In male B6D2F1 hybrid mice, a large proportion (about 30%) of animals demonstrate the persistence of the ejaculatory reflex long after castration. This provides a model to investigate the basis of gonadal steroid-independent male sexual behavior. Here we assessed whether non-gonadal steroids promote mating behavior in castrated mice. Castrated B6D2F1 hybrids that persisted in copulating (persistent copulators) were treated with the androgen receptor blocker, flutamide, and the aromatase enzyme inhibitor, letrozole, for 8 weeks. Other animals were treated with the estrogen receptor blocker, ICI 182,780, via continual intraventricular infusion for 2 weeks. None of these treatments eliminated persistent copulation. A motivational aspect of male sexual behavior, the preference for a receptive female over another male, was also assessed. This preference persisted after long-term castration in persistent copulators, and administration of ICI 182,780 did not influence partner preference. To assess the possibility of elevated sensitivity to sex steroids in brains of persistent copulators, we measured mRNA levels for genes that code for the estrogen receptor-alpha, androgen receptor, and aromatase enzyme in the medial preoptic area and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. No differences in mRNA of these genes were noted in brains of persistent versus non-persistent copulators. Taken together our results suggest that non-gonadal androgens and estrogens do not maintain copulatory behavior in B6D2F1 mice which display copulatory behavior after castration.
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August 2009