Publications by authors named "Saleh K Ihmaid"

6 Publications

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Design of molecular hybrids of phthalimide-triazole agents with potent selective MCF-7/HepG2 cytotoxicity: Synthesis, EGFR inhibitory effect, and metabolic stability.

Bioorg Chem 2021 Jun 22;111:104835. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, College of Pharmacy, Taibah University, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah, Saudi Arabia; Pharmaceutical Organic Chemistry Department, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, 11884 Nasr City, Cairo, Egypt.

This study reports an efficient and convenient click chemistry synthesis of a novel series of phthalimide scaffold linked to 1,2,3 triazole ring and terminal lipophilic fragments. Structures of newly synthesized compounds were well characterized by different spectroscopic tools. In vitro MTT cytotoxicity assay was performed comparing the cytotoxic effects of newly synthesized compounds to staurosporine using three different types: human liver cancer cell line (HepG2), Michigan cancer foundation-7 (MCF-7) and human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT116). The initial screening showed excellent to moderate anticancer activity for these newly synthesized compounds with high degree of cell line selectivity with micromolar (µM) half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) values against tumor cells. The SAR analysis of these derivatives confirmed the role of molecular fragments including phthalimide, linker, triazole, and terminal tails in correlation to activity. In addition, enzymatic inhibitory assay against wild type EGFR was performed for the most active compounds to get more details about their mechanism of action. In order to further explore their binding affinities, molecular docking simulation was studied against EGFR site. The results obtained from molecular docking study and those obtained from cytotoxic screening were correlated. One of the most prominent analogs is (6f) with terminal disubstituted ring and amide linker showed selective MCF-7 cytotoxicity profile with IC 0.22 µM and 79 nM to EGFR target. Extensive structure activity relationship (SAR) analyses were also carried out. The pharmacokinetic profile of (6f) was studied showing good metabolic stability and long duration behavior. This design offered a potent selective anticancer phthalimide-triazole leads for further optimization in cancer drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.104835DOI Listing
June 2021

Design, synthesis, molecular docking of new lipophilic acetamide derivatives affording potential anticancer and antimicrobial agents.

Bioorg Chem 2018 02 2;76:332-342. Epub 2017 Dec 2.

The Regional Center for Mycology and Biotechnology, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt.

Fifteen new substituted N-2-(2-oxo-3-phenylquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl) acetamides 5a-f, 6a-f, and 8a-c were synthesized by reacting ethyl 2-(2-oxo-3-phenylquinoxalin-1(2H)-yl)acetate with various primary amines including benzylamines, sulfonamides, and amino acids. The in vitro antimicrobial screening of the target compounds was screened to assess their antibacterial and antifungal activity. As a result, seven compounds namely; 5a, 5c, 5d, 6a, 6c, 8b and 8c showed a promising broad spectrum antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative strains. Among these, the analogs 5c and 6d were nearly as equiactive as ciprofloxacin drug. Meanwhile, four compounds namely; 5c, 6a, 6f and 8c exhibited appreciable antifungal activity with MIC values range 33-40 mg/mL comparable with clotrimazole (MIC 25 mg/mL). In addition, the anticancer effects of the synthesized compounds were evaluated against three cancer lines. The data obtained revealed the benzylamines and sulpha derivatives were the most active compounds especially 5f and 6f ones. Further EGFR enzymatic investigation was carried out for these most active compounds 5f and 6f resulting in inhibitory activity by 1.89 and 2.05 µM respectively. Docking simulation was performed as a trial to study the mechanisms and binding modes of these compounds toward the enzyme target, EGFR protein kinase enzyme. The results revealed good compounds placement in the active sites and stable interactions similar to the co-crystallized reference ligand. Collectively, the analogs 5f and 6f could be further utilized and optimized as good cytotoxic agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2017.11.019DOI Listing
February 2018

Synthesis, Modelling, and Anticonvulsant Studies of New Quinazolines Showing Three Highly Active Compounds with Low Toxicity and High Affinity to the GABA-A Receptor.

Molecules 2017 Jan 24;22(2). Epub 2017 Jan 24.

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11884, Egypt.

Some novel fluorinated quinazolines (-) were designed and synthesized to be evaluated for their anticonvulsant activity and their neurotoxicity. Structures of all newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their infrared (IR), mass spectrometry (MS) spectra, ¹H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), C-NMR, and elemental analysis (CHN). The anticonvulsant activity was evaluated by a subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) test and maximal electroshock (MES)-induced seizure test, while neurotoxicity was evaluated by a rotorod test. The molecular docking was performed for all newly-synthesized compounds to assess their binding affinities to the GABA-A receptor in order to rationalize their anticonvulsant activities in a qualitative way. The data obtained from the molecular modeling was correlated with that obtained from the biological screening. These data showed considerable anticonvulsant activity for all newly-synthesized compounds. Compounds , , and showed the highest binding affinities toward the GABA-A receptor, along with the highest anticonvulsant activities in experimental mice. These compounds also showed low neurotoxicity and low toxicity in the median lethal dose test compared to the reference drugs. A GABA enzymatic assay was performed for these highly active compounds to confirm the obtained results and explain the possible mechanism for anticonvulsant action. The most active compounds might be used as leads for future modification and optimization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules22020188DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6155771PMC
January 2017

Self Organizing Map-Based Classification of Cathepsin k and S Inhibitors with Different Selectivity Profiles Using Different Structural Molecular Fingerprints: Design and Application for Discovery of Novel Hits.

Molecules 2016 Jan 30;21(2):175. Epub 2016 Jan 30.

Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Chemistry Department, College of Pharmacy, Taibah University, P. O. Box 30039, Al-Madinah Al-Munawarah 41477, Saudi Arabia.

The main step in a successful drug discovery pipeline is the identification of small potent compounds that selectively bind to the target of interest with high affinity. However, there is still a shortage of efficient and accurate computational methods with powerful capability to study and hence predict compound selectivity properties. In this work, we propose an affordable machine learning method to perform compound selectivity classification and prediction. For this purpose, we have collected compounds with reported activity and built a selectivity database formed of 153 cathepsin K and S inhibitors that are considered of medicinal interest. This database has three compound sets, two K/S and S/K selective ones and one non-selective KS one. We have subjected this database to the selectivity classification tool 'Emergent Self-Organizing Maps' for exploring its capability to differentiate selective cathepsin inhibitors for one target over the other. The method exhibited good clustering performance for selective ligands with high accuracy (up to 100 %). Among the possibilites, BAPs and MACCS molecular structural fingerprints were used for such a classification. The results exhibited the ability of the method for structure-selectivity relationship interpretation and selectivity markers were identified for the design of further novel inhibitors with high activity and target selectivity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules21020175DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6272978PMC
January 2016

Radiosensitizing activity of a novel Benzoxazine through the promotion of apoptosis and inhibition of DNA repair.

Invest New Drugs 2014 Jun 14;32(3):424-35. Epub 2014 Mar 14.

School of Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe Institute of Molecular Sciences, La Trobe University, P.O. Box 199, Bendigo, VIC, 3552, Australia.

The DNA dependant protein kinase (DNA-PK) enzyme plays a major part in the repair of double stranded breaks induced by radiation and hence in the radio-resistance of tumour cells. Inhibitors of DNA-PK have been tested successfully in the past for their ability to sensitize cancer cells to the effects of radiation. Here we present a novel benzoxazine, 8-methyl-2-(morpholine-4yl)-7-(pyridine-3-methoxy)-4H-1,3-benzoxacine-4-one (LTU27) and analyse its ability to cause sensitization of lung cancer and colon cancer cells to radiation. There was a significant reduction in survival rate, increase in apoptosis and inhibition in autophosphorylation of DNA-PK and AKT1 after treating them concomitantly with both radiation and LTU27. The mechanism of action appears to be through inhibition of DNA-PK leading to delayed DNA repair and promotion of apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-014-0079-4DOI Listing
June 2014

Synthesis, DNA-PK inhibition, anti-platelet activity studies of 2-(N-substituted-3-aminopyridine)-substituted-1,3-benzoxazines and DNA-PK and PI3K inhibition, homology modelling studies of 2-morpholino-(7,8-di and 8-substituted)-1,3-benzoxazines.

Eur J Med Chem 2012 Nov 5;57:85-101. Epub 2012 Sep 5.

School of Pharmacy and Applied Science, La Trobe University, P.O. Box 199, Bendigo, VIC 3552, Australia.

A number of new 2-(pyridin-3-ylamino)-4H-(substituted) benz[e]-1,3-oxazin-4-ones were synthesized 10a-g. These were then reacted with the hydro-halogen salt of 2, 3 and 4-(halo-methyl) pyridine in the presence of Cs(2)CO(3) to give eighteen new 2-(N-substituted (pyridin-3-ylmethyl) amino)-substituted-1,3-benzoxazines (compounds 11a-i, 13a-c, and 15a-f). X-ray crystallography was used to confirm that the 2-N-substituted structures 11 and 13 were formed rather than the 3-N-substitution analogues 12 and 14. Eleven of the new compounds were tested for their effect on collagen induced platelet aggregation and it was found that the most active inhibitory compound was 8-methyl-2-(pyridin-3-yl(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)amino)-7-(pyridin-3-ylmethoxy)-4H-benz[e]-1,3-oxazin-4-one 15e with an IC(50) of 10 ± 2 μM. DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) inhibition data for 12 previously prepared 2-morpholino substituted-1,3-benzoxazines (compounds 19-31) were measured and showed high to moderate activity where the most active compound was compound 27 with an IC(50) of 0.28 μM. Furthermore DNA-PK inhibition data for six newly prepared 2-(N-substituted (pyridin-3-ylmethyl) amino)-substituted-1,3-benzoxazines (compounds 11b, 13a-b, 15a-b and 15e) and 8-methyl-7-(pyridin-3-ylmethoxy)-3-(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)-2H-benz[e]-1,3-oxazin-2,4(3H)-dione 17d were measured and moderate to low inhibitory activity was observed, with the most active of the compounds in this series being 8-methyl-2-(pyridin-3-yl(pyridin-3-ylmethyl)amino)-7-(pyridin-3-ylmethoxy)-4H-benz[e]-1,3-oxazin-4-one 15e with an IC(50) of 2.5 μM. PI3K inhibition studies revealed that compound 27 is highly potent (IC(50) for PI3Kα = 0.13 μM, PI3Kβ = 0.14 μM, PI3Kγ = 0.72 μM, PI3Kδ = 2.02 μM). Compound 22 with 7-[2-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)ethoxy] group shows greater inhibition of DNA-PK over PI3K. Docking of some 2-morpholino-substituted-1,3-benzoxazine compounds 19-31 within the binding pocket and structure-activity relationships (SAR) analyses were performed with results agreeing well with observed activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmech.2012.08.035DOI Listing
November 2012