Publications by authors named "Saleem Javed"

38 Publications

Crystal structure, Hirshfeld and electronic transition analysis of 2-[(1-benzimidazol-1-yl)meth-yl]benzoic acid.

Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun 2021 Jul 30;77(Pt 7):755-758. Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Department of Pharmacy, University of Science and Technology, Ibb branch, Yemen.

In the title compound, CHNO, the benzimidazole ring system is inclined to the benzene ring by 78.04 (10)°. The crystal structure features O-H⋯N and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonding and C-H⋯π and π-π inter-actions, which were investigated using Hirshfeld surface analysis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2056989021006435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8382057PMC
July 2021

Aflatoxin B Induced Structural and Conformational Changes in Bovine Serum Albumin: A Multispectroscopic and Circular Dichroism-Based Study.

ACS Omega 2021 Jul 8;6(28):18054-18064. Epub 2021 Jul 8.

Department of Biochemistry Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India.

Aflatoxin B (AFB) is a mutagen that has been categorized as a group 1 human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. It is produced as a secondary metabolite by soil fungi and Here, in this study, the effect of AFB on the structure and conformation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) using multispectroscopic tools like fluorescence spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectropolarimetry has been ascertained. Ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy revealed hyperchromicity in the absorption spectra of BSA in the presence of AFB. The binding constant was calculated in the range of 10 M, by fluorescence spectroscopy suggesting moderate binding of the toxin to BSA. The study also confirms the static nature of fluorescence quenching. The stoichiometry of binding sites was found to be unity. The competing capability of warfarin for AFB was higher than ibuprofen as calculated from site marker displacement assay. Förster resonance energy transfer confirmed the high efficiency of energy transfer from BSA to AFB. Circular dichroism spectropolarimetry showed a decrease in the α-helix in BSA in the presence of AFB. The melting temperature of BSA underwent an increment in the presence of a mycotoxin from 62.5 to 70.3 °C. Molecular docking confirmed the binding of AFB to subdomain IIA in BSA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.1c01799DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8296610PMC
July 2021

Silver nanoparticles synthesized using leaf extract of exhibit enhanced antimicrobial efficacy than the chemically synthesized nanoparticles: A comparative study.

Sci Prog 2021 Apr-Jun;104(2):368504211012159

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India.

A wide variety of methods have synthesized silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) in the recent past; however, biological methods have attracted much attention over the traditional chemical synthesis method due to being non-hazardous and eco-friendly. Here, a detailed and systemic study was performed to compare two different synthesis routes for Ag-NPs, that is, the chemical and the biological; their possible outcomes have also been described. Ag-NPs were synthesized chemically (cAg-NPs) using a chemical reductant and biologically (bAg-NPs) by using aqueous leaf extract of (neem). The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized using UV-visible spectrophotometry, FT-IR, EDX, and TEM. The average particle sizes (APS) of cAg-NPs were found to be 8 and 13 nm and of bAg-NPs to be 19 and 43 nm under different AgNO concentrations. The antimicrobial tests of differently sized NPs were performed against (Gram -ve) and S (Gram +ve). The results revealed that bAg-NPs of APS 43 nm were highly antimicrobial against both the tested bacterial stains followed by cAg-NPs of 8 nm. We found the effect of cAg-NPs to be size-dependent, whereas bAg-NPs showed a more significant antimicrobial effect than cAg-NPs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/00368504211012159DOI Listing
April 2021

Ampicillin-augmented silver nanoparticles for synergistic antimicrobial response: A promising therapeutic approach.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2021 Jan 18. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002. India.

Aims: Globally Scientists are working to find more efficient antimicrobial drugs to treat microbial infections and kill drug-resistant bacteria.

Background: Despite the availability of numerous antimicrobial drugs bacterial infections still poses a serious threat to global health. Due to a constant decline in the effectiveness of antibiotics owing to their repeated exposure as well as shortlasting antimicrobial activity, led to the demand for developing novel therapeutic agents capable of controlling microbial infections.

Objective: In this study, we report antimicrobial activity of chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (cAgNPs) augmented with ampicillin (amp) in order to increase antimicrobial response against Escherichia coli (gram -ve), Staphylococcus aureus (gram +ve) and Streptococcus mutans (gram +ve).

Methods: Nanostructure, colloidal stability, morphology and size of cAgNPs before and after functionalization were explored by UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR, zeta potential and TEM. The formation and functionalization of cAgNPs was confirmed from UV-vis spectroscopy and FT-IR patterns. From TEM the average sizes of cAgNPs and cAgNP-amp were found to be 13 and 7.8 nm respectively, and change in colloidal stability after augmentation was confirmed from zeta potential values. The antimicrobial efficacies of cAgNP-amp and cAgNPs against E. coli S. aureus and S. mutans were studied by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), zone of inhibition, assessment of viable and non-viable bacterial cells and quantitative assessment of biofilm.

Results & Discussion: Our results revealed cAgNP-amp to be highly bactericidal compared to cAgNPs or amp alone. The nano-toxicity studies indicated cAgNP-amp to be less toxic compared to cAgNPs alone.

Results: This study manifested that cAgNPs show synergistic antimicrobial effect when they get functionalized with amp suggesting their application in curing long-term bacterial infections.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201022666210119101522DOI Listing
January 2021

Biomolecular interactions and binding dynamics of tyrosine kinase inhibitor erdafitinib, with human serum albumin.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2021 Jul 5;39(11):3934-3947. Epub 2020 Jun 5.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Erdafitinib is an approved tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits fibroblast growth factor receptor. It has been described as one of the potent anti-tumor drugs especially for the treatment of urothelial carcinoma. In this study, we have investigated the binding dynamics of erdafitinib with human serum albumin (HSA) using multiple spectroscopic techniques. The outcome of the results suggests the occurrence of static quenching during the interaction of HSA with erdafitinib which leads to the formation of non-fluorescent HSA-erdafitinib ground state complex. Formation of HSA-erdafitinib complex was also confirmed from the findings of absorption spectral analysis. The changes in microenvironment around hydrophobic domains (especially tryptophan and tyrosine) were deciphered from fluorescence spectroscopy which was further confirmed by synchronous spectral analysis. In order to gain insight into the binding site of erdafitinib in HSA, molecular docking combined with competitive displacement assay was performed. The modified form of Stern Volmer equation was used to estimate various binding parameters including number of binding sites. The findings are indicative of a single binding site ( = 1) with binding constant in the order of 10. The negative values of thermodynamic parameters like ΔG, ΔH and ΔS were suggestive of the binding reaction being spontaneous and exothermic, while the hydrogen bonds and Van der Waals interactions being the major forces present between HSA and erdafitinib. Circular dichroism spectral analysis revealed the alterations in the conformation of HSA structure and reduction in its α-helical content.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma[Formula: see text].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2020.1772880DOI Listing
July 2021

Structural dynamics studies on the binding of aflatoxin B to chicken egg albumin using spectroscopic techniques and molecular docking.

J Biomol Struct Dyn 2020 Jul 13;38(11):3144-3155. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Aflatoxin B, a mycotoxin produced by large number of species including and , has been described as the most potent carcinogenic mycotoxin. In this study, we have used a multiple spectroscopic and molecular docking approach to investigate the interaction of aflatoxin B (AFB) with chicken egg albumin (CEA). Fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy, and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopic techniques were employed to gain insight into the conformational changes in CEA in the presence of AFB. Fluorescence spectroscopy revealed ligand-induced quenching in the fluorescence emission spectra of CEA upon binding with AFB. Hyperchromic effect was observed in case of the ground state complex formation between CEA and AFB by UV-Vis spectroscopy. To gain further comprehension into the site of binding of AFB to CEA, competitive site marker displacement assay was performed using warfarin site marker. The magnitude of Δ value calculated from fluorescence-based method was negative which confirmed spontaneous process. The results obtained suggest that the binding is enthalpy driven and van der Waals force and hydrogen bonds are stabilizing the AFB-CEA complex. Three-dimensional fluorescence studies also confirmed the quenching in the fluorescence intensity around tryptophan residues in CEA. Circular dichroism assessment revealed reduction in the alpha helical content of CEA in the presence of AFB. Molecular docking studies showed hydrophobic interaction, van der Waals forces, and hydrogen bonds as major forces present in interaction between CEA and AFB. The overall study confirms conformational and structural alteration in the protein due to binding of AFB.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07391102.2019.1652690DOI Listing
July 2020

Functionalization of Inorganic Nanoparticles to Augment Antimicrobial Efficiency: A Critical Analysis.

Curr Pharm Biotechnol 2018 ;19(7):523-536

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Life Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India.

Background: Nanoparticles (NPs) or nanomaterials being used widely in various fields have occupied prime importance in biomedical sciences, owing to their unique size dependent properties which make them superior to bulk materials. One of the major applications of NPs in biomedical field is their therapeutic application including antimicrobial activity.

Objective: It is already well known that certain NPs such as silver, zinc oxide, copper, iron etc. bears significant antimicrobial activity as they release metal ions which subsequently generate reactive oxygen species (ROS), consequently demonstrating potential to be a better alternative to antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. Although some of these NPs have also been found to be effective against multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria and correspondingly preventing the biofilm formation. Still resistance can be developed towards these NPs owing to their repeated exposure. Therefore, it becomes pertinent to probe NPs for their better antimicrobial efficacies by using surface functionalization strategies to enable them to interact with some specific cells in order to augment the antimicrobial response.

Results: Thus present review focuses on the mode of action of NPs, their toxicity and colloidal stability, shortcomings of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents towards MDR bacteria, and possible outcomes of NPs functionalized with different agents.

Conclusion: In this review we describe functionalized NPs as an alternative for targeting MDR bacteria, their mode of action and future directions that are necessary to move forward with this approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1389201019666180731121401DOI Listing
December 2018

Gonadotropin and tumorigenesis: Direct and indirect effects on inflammatory and immunosuppressive mediators and invasion.

Mol Carcinog 2017 02 17;56(2):359-370. Epub 2016 May 17.

Immunoendocrinology Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), a hormone essential for pregnancy, is also ectopically expressed by a variety of cancers and is associated with poor prognosis; molecular mechanisms which may contribute to tumor progression remain ill-defined. Exogenous hCG enhanced the viability of human colorectal and lung cancer cells and promoted the growth of syngeneic tumors in mice. It induced the synthesis of VEGF, IL-8, matrix metalloprotease (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, and increased invasiveness in an MMP-dependent manner. While inducing the secretion of the tumor-associated extra-cellular matrix proteoglycan versican from tumor cells, hCG consequently caused the TLR-2-mediated generation of the inflammatory, tumor-associated cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 from peripheral blood adherent cells. The molecule up-modulated the Treg-associated transcription factor FOXP3 in tumor cells and increased the secretion of TGFβ and IL-10, thereby inhibiting T cell proliferation and inducing the differentiation FOXP3 CD4 CD25 cells into functional FOXP3 CD4 CD25 suppressor cells. Co-culture of hCG-treated tumor cells with mature bone-marrow derived dendritic cells induced the generation of active indoleamine deoxygenase. While anti-hCG antibodies restricted the growth of implanted tumor cells in nude mice, immunization of immune competent mice with a βhCG-TT conjugate supplemented with Mycobacterium indicus pranii provided synergistic survival benefit in animals implanted with syngeneic, hCG-responsive tumor cells. These studies elucidate the pathways by which hCG can promote tumorigenesis, providing further rationale for anti-hCG vaccination in the treatment of gonadotropin-sensitive tumors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.22499DOI Listing
February 2017

Crystal structure of N (1),N (1)-diethyl-N (4)-[(quinolin-2-yl)methyl-idene]benzene-1,4-di-amine.

Acta Crystallogr E Crystallogr Commun 2015 Jan 1;71(Pt 1):o49-50. Epub 2015 Jan 1.

Department of Chemistry, I.H.S. Khandari, Dr B. R. Ambedkar University, Agra 282 002, India.

The title compound, C20H21N3, is non-planar with a dihedral angle between the planes of the quinoline and phenyl-enedi-amine rings of 9.40 (4)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are connected by C-H⋯π inter-actions, generating a chain extending along the a-axis direction. Weak C-H⋯π inter-actions also occur.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2056989014027108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4331901PMC
January 2015

Preferential desulfurization of dibenzyl sulfide by an isolated Gordonia sp. IITR100.

3 Biotech 2015 Jun 14;5(3):237-243. Epub 2014 May 14.

Environmental Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, M.G. Marg, Lucknow, 226001, India.

Several organosulfur compounds are present in the crude oil, and are required to be removed before its processing into transport fuel. For this reason, biodesulfurization of thiophenic compounds has been studied extensively. However, studies on the sulfide compounds are scarce. In this paper, we describe desulfurization of a model sulfidic compound, dibenzyl sulfide (DBS) by an isolated Gordonia sp. IITR100. The reaction was accompanied with the formation of metabolites dibenzyl sulfoxide, dibenzyl sulfone and benzoic acid. Studies with recombinant E. coli revealed that enzyme DszC of this isolate metabolizes DBS into dibenzyl sulfoxide and dibenzyl sulfone, but the reaction downstream to it is mediated by some enzyme other than its DszA. In reactions where DBS and dibenzothiophene (DBT) were present together, both IITR100 and recombinant E. coli exhibited preference for the desulfurization of DBS over DBT. The newly identified capability of IITR100 for desulfurization of both thiophenic and sulfidic compounds suggests its potential use in improved desulfurization of petroleum fractions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-014-0221-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4434413PMC
June 2015

Desulfurization of thianthrene by a Gordonia sp. IITR100.

Biotechnol Lett 2014 Nov 12;36(11):2209-14. Epub 2014 Aug 12.

Environmental Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, M.G. Marg, Lucknow, 226001, India,

Thianthrene (TA) was desulfurized by an isolated strain, Gordonia sp. IITR100. The reaction is accompanied with the formation of TA-sulfoxide, TA-sulfone and 2-phenylsulfanylphenol. The formed 2-phenylsulfanylphenol undergoes further oxidation to o-hydroxyphenyl phenylsulfone that accumulates as an end product. Metabolism of TA to TA-sulfone can also occur by E. coli-DszC i.e. E. coli cells that were harboring the gene coding for the enzyme dibenzothiophene desulfurase C. When presented to E. coli-DszC in a binary combination with dibenzothiophene, TA metabolism was completely inhibited. Metabolism of TA-TA-sulfone by E. coli-DszC, as well as the nature of metabolites formed by IITR100, suggests that the desulfurization pathway for TA is similar to that of the thiophenic compounds. This is first report on the desulfurization of thianthrene, and has implications on biodesulfurization when multiple sulfur compounds are present together.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10529-014-1606-2DOI Listing
November 2014

Semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD) isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1 protects against gamma radiation-induced oxidative stress.

Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 2014 Mar 25;37(2):553-62. Epub 2014 Jan 25.

Radiation Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Radiation Biosciences, Institute of Nuclear and Allied Sciences, Delhi 110054, India; Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, Delhi 110062, India. Electronic address:

In the present study, radioprotective potential of Semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD) isolated from radioresistant bacterium Bacillus sp. INM-1 was evaluated. γ-Radiation induced protein carbonylation, plasmid DNA damage, enzyme functional impairment, lipid peroxidation, HO radicals generation and their protection by SQGD was assessed. As a result of SQGD treatment, significant inhibition (p<0.05) in protein carbonylation was observed with BSA. SQGD treatment was found to restore supercoiled (~70±3.21%) form of irradiated plasmid DNA against γ-irradiation. SQGD protects enzymes (EcoR1 and BamH1) against radiation-induced dysfunctioning. SQGD significantly inhibited (p<0.05) lipid peroxidation in liposomes, brain and liver homogenate. Higher HO(•) radicals-averting activity of SQGD was observed in the serum and liver homogenate of C57BL/6 mice against H2O2-induced oxidative stress. In conclusion, SQGD demonstrates excellent radical-scavenging activity towards bio-macromolecules in irradiated environment and can be developed as an ideal radioprotector against radiation-induced oxidative stress in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.etap.2014.01.003DOI Listing
March 2014

A semiquinone glucoside derivative isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1 provides protection against 5-fluorouracil-induced immunotoxicity.

J Immunotoxicol 2015 Jan-Mar;12(1):56-63. Epub 2014 Feb 10.

Radiation Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Radiation Biosciences, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences , Delhi , India and.

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a widely used anti-cancer agent; however, it induces immunosuppression in patients undergoing a chemotherapy regime. The mode of action by which 5-FU induces immunosuppression is primarily via inhibition of hematopoietic growth factors. In the present study, immunoprotective effects of a semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD), a bacterial metabolite isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1, were evaluated in a model of 5-FU-induced immunotoxicity in C57Bl/6 male mice. The evaluation was done by analyzing G-CSF, GM-CSF, and M-CSF expression in the serum, spleen, and bone marrow cells of the mice at different timepoints after 5-FU treatment. Mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of either 5-FU (75 mg/kg) alone, SQGD (50 mg/kg) alone, or SQGD 2 h prior to the 5-FU treatment. Control mice received saline vehicle only. The results demonstrated that 5-FU treatment significantly inhibited G-CSF, GM-CSF, and M-CSF expression in all three sites at all timepoints from 6-72 h post 5-FU. In SQGD treated mice, up-regulation of factor expression was observed in each compartment, and significantly so most often after 12 h. SQGD treatment prior to 5-FU administration to the mice significantly increased in all sites evaluated - relative to values in both control mice and 5-FU only-treated mice - G-CSF, M-CSF, and GM-CSF expression at almost every timepoint. The present findings suggest that SQGD provides protection against 5-FU-induced immunotoxicity in mice and could protect bone marrow progenitor cells against the effects of cytotoxic drugs used for treatment of cancer. The findings also suggested to us that SQGD is a potential immunomodulator and could protect hematopoiesis against toxic assault caused by anti-cancer drugs in the clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/1547691X.2014.882448DOI Listing
September 2015

DYZ1 arrays show sequence variation between the monozygotic males.

BMC Genet 2014 Feb 4;15:19. Epub 2014 Feb 4.

Molecular Genetics Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067, India.

Background: Monozygotic twins (MZT) are an important resource for genetical studies in the context of normal and diseased genomes. In the present study we used DYZ1, a satellite fraction present in the form of tandem arrays on the long arm of the human Y chromosome, as a tool to uncover sequence variations between the monozygotic males.

Results: We detected copy number variation, frequent insertions and deletions within the sequences of DYZ1 arrays amongst all the three sets of twins used in the present study. MZT1b showed loss of 35 bp compared to that in 1a, whereas 2a showed loss of 31 bp compared to that in 2b. Similarly, 3b showed 10 bp insertion compared to that in 3a. MZT1a germline DNA showed loss of 5 bp and 1b blood DNA showed loss of 26 bp compared to that of 1a blood and 1b germline DNA, respectively. Of the 69 restriction sites detected in DYZ1 arrays, MboII, BsrI, TspEI and TaqI enzymes showed frequent loss and or gain amongst all the 3 pairs studied. MZT1 pair showed loss/gain of VspI, BsrDI, AgsI, PleI, TspDTI, TspEI, TfiI and TaqI restriction sites in both blood and germline DNA. All the three sets of MZT showed differences in the number of DYZ1 copies. FISH signals reflected somatic mosaicism of the DYZ1 copies across the cells.

Conclusions: DYZ1 showed both sequence and copy number variation between the MZT males. Sequence variation was also noticed between germline and blood DNA samples of the same individual as we observed at least in one set of sample. The result suggests that DYZ1 faithfully records all the genetical changes occurring after the twining which may be ascribed to the environmental factors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2156-15-19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3925983PMC
February 2014

Protective effect of esculin against prooxidant aflatoxin B1-induced nephrotoxicity in mice.

Mycotoxin Res 2014 Feb 11;30(1):25-32. Epub 2013 Dec 11.

Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, 110062, India.

The study was designed to investigate the protective effect of esculin against pro-oxidant aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. In this study toxicity was developed by oral administration of AFB1 at a dose of 66.60 μg/kg bw/day for 90 days in male Swiss albino mice. Esculin (150 mg/kg bw/0.2 ml/day) and standard compound ascorbic acid (300 mg/kg bw/0.2 ml/day) was given after 30 min of AFB1 administration for 90 days. Protective efficacy was assessed by measuring the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and non-enzymatic antioxidants such as reduced glutathione (GSH) and also by measuring activities of enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in kidney. Results were analysed at the 30(th), 60(th) and 90(th) day of the daily treatments, which showed a decrease in the level of LPO and an increase in the levels of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. The protective effect of esculin was further proved by histopathological findings as it exhibited regenerative activities in mice renal tubules against AFB1-induced nephrotoxicity. The results obtained clearly demonstrate that the protective efficacy of esculin against pro-oxidant AFB1-induced nephrotoxicity in mice might be due to its antioxidants and free radical scavenging properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12550-013-0185-8DOI Listing
February 2014

Novel method for screening of radioprotective agents providing protection to DNA ligase against gamma radiation induced damage.

Int J Radiat Biol 2014 Feb 9;90(2):187-92. Epub 2014 Jan 9.

Radiation Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Radiation Biosciences.

Purpose: A simple, sensitive and novel method was developed to screen out potential agents able to protect functional activity of DNA ligase against gamma irradiation-induced damage. Repeatability, authenticity and sensitivity of the method was verified by analyzing DNA ligase protecting activities of well-known radioprotectors such as amifostine, trolox, melatonin, semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD) and an antioxidant gallic acid in extremely low concentration (1 μg/reaction).

Material And Methods: Two different sets (Set A and B) of T4 DNA ligase (1 unit/set) were prepared. Set 'A' (negative control) was exposed to different doses (3-5 kGy) of gamma radiation in the absence of radioprotective compounds. Set B (test) was exposed to similar doses of gamma radiation in the presence of radioprotective compounds. Following irradiation, DNA ligase was mixed with λ DNA (250 ng) pre-digested with Hind III restriction endonuclease. Ligation reaction was performed in both sets simultaneously at 22°C for 20 min and reaction product was analyzed using agarose gel electrophoresis.

Results: Complete DNA ligation was observed in samples where DNA ligase was irradiated in the presence of radioprotectective compounds, i.e., amifostine, trolox, melatonin and a natural radioprotector semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD) individually, while, functional impairment in ligation activity of DNA ligase was evident in samples in which DNA ligase was irradiated in the absence of a radioprotective compound.

Conclusion: The current method was able to provide significant input to screen out radioprotective compounds able to protect DNA ligase functional activity against gamma radiation-induced functional impairment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/09553002.2014.868613DOI Listing
February 2014

Semiquinone fraction isolated from Bacillus sp. INM-1 protects hepatic tissues against γ-radiation induced toxicity.

Environ Toxicol 2014 Dec 13;29(12):1471-8. Epub 2013 Jun 13.

Radiation Biotechnology Laboratory, Department of Radiation Biosciences, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences, Delhi, 110054, India.

Present study was focused on evaluation of a semiquinone glucoside derivative (SQGD) isolated from radioresistant bacterium Bacillus sp. INM-1 for its ability against γ radiation induced oxidative stress in irradiated mice. Animals were divided into four group, i.e., (i) untreated control mice; (ii) SQGD treated (50 mg/kg b. wt. i.p.) mice; (iii) irradiated (10 Gy) mice; and (iv) irradiated mice which were pre-treated (-2 h) with SQGD (50 mg/kg b. wt. i.p.). Following treatment, liver homogenates of the treated mice were subjected to endogenous antioxidant enzymes estimation. Result indicated that SQGD pre-treatment, significantly (P < 0.05) induced superoxide dismutase (SOD) (19.84 ± 2.18% at 72 h), catalase (CAT) (26.47 ± 3.11% at 12 h), glutathione (33.81 ± 1.99% at 24 h), and glutathione-S-transferase (24.40 ± 2.65% at 6 h) activities in the liver of mice as compared with untreated control. Significant (P < 0.05) induction in SOD (50.04 ± 5.59% at 12 h), CAT (62.22 ± 7.50 at 72 h), glutathione (42.92 ± 2.28% at 24 h), and glutathione-S-transferase (46.65 ± 3.25 at 12 h) was observed in irradiated mice which were pre-treated with SQGD compared with only irradiated mice. Further, significant induction in ABTS(+) radicals (directly proportional to decrease mM Trolox equivalent) was observed in liver homogenate of H2 O2 treated mice which were found to be significantly inhibited in H2 O2 treated mice pre-treated with SQGD. Thus, it can be concluded that SQGD treatment neutralizes oxidative stress caused by irradiation not only by enhancing endogenous antioxidant enzymes but also by improving total antioxidant status of cellular system and thus cumulative effect of the phenomenon may contributes to radioprotection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/tox.21877DOI Listing
December 2014

Chitinases: An update.

J Pharm Bioallied Sci 2013 Jan;5(1):21-9

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India.

Chitin, the second most abundant polysaccharide in nature after cellulose, is found in the exoskeleton of insects, fungi, yeast, and algae, and in the internal structures of other vertebrates. Chitinases are enzymes that degrade chitin. Chitinases contribute to the generation of carbon and nitrogen in the ecosystem. Chitin and chitinolytic enzymes are gaining importance for their biotechnological applications, especially the chitinases exploited in agriculture fields to control pathogens. Chitinases have a use in human health care, especially in human diseases like asthma. Chitinases have wide-ranging applications including the preparation of pharmaceutically important chitooligosaccharides and N-acetyl D glucosamine, preparation of single-cell protein, isolation of protoplasts from fungi and yeast, control of pathogenic fungi, treatment of chitinous waste, mosquito control and morphogenesis, etc. In this review, the various types of chitinases and the chitinases found in different organisms such as bacteria, plants, fungi, and mammals are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.106559DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3612335PMC
January 2013

Use of response surface methodology to study the effect of media composition on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus.

Mycotoxin Res 2013 Feb 8;29(1):39-45. Epub 2012 Nov 8.

Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Lab, Department of Biochemistry, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India.

Aflatoxins are one of the most important secondary metabolites. These extrolites are produced by a number of Aspergillus fungi. In this study, we demonstrate the effect of media components and enhanced aflatoxin yield shown by A. flavus using response surface methodology in response to different nutrients. Different components of a chemically defined media that influence the aflatoxin production were monitored using Plackett-Burman experimental design and further optimized by Box-Behnken factorial design of response surface methodology in liquid culture. Interactions were studied with five variables, namely sorbitol, fructose, ammonium sulfate, KH(2)PO(4), and MgSO(4).7H(2)O. Maximum aflatoxin production was envisaged in medium containing 4.94 g/l sorbitol, 5.56 g/l fructose, 0.62 g/l ammonium sulfate, 1.33 g/l KH(2)PO(4), and 0.65 g/l MgSO(4)·7H(2)O using response surface plots and the point prediction tool of the DESIGN EXPERT 8.1.0 (Stat-Ease, USA) software. However, a production of 5.25 μg/ml aflatoxin production was obtained, which was in agreement with the prediction observed in verification experiment. The other component (MgSO(4).7H(2)O) was found to be an insignificant variable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12550-012-0151-xDOI Listing
February 2013

Role of a repeated hexapeptide motif GIHFAP near C-terminus in assembly, stability, and activity of "HCH dehydrochlorinase LinA".

Appl Biochem Biotechnol 2013 Feb 12;169(4):1397-404. Epub 2013 Jan 12.

Environmental Biotechnology Section, Indian Institute of Toxicology Research (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, 226001, India.

Enzyme "hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) dehydrochlorinase LinA" mediates first step of aerobic microbial degradation of a chlorinated insecticide γ-HCH. The archetypal LinA-type1 consists of 156 amino acids that include a directly repeated hexapeptide motif GIHFAP at positions 141-146 and 148-153. Analysis of a series of LinA mutants, containing none, one, two, or three units of this repeated motif revealed that two units, as present in wild-type LinA, are required for its optimal activity and stability. Moreover, the presence of a bend in its secondary structure due to a proline residue that precedes the distal repeated unit contributes to enhanced LinA activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12010-012-0035-8DOI Listing
February 2013

Donor hematopoietic stem cells confer long-term marrow reconstitution by self-renewal divisions exceeding to that of host cells.

PLoS One 2012 5;7(12):e50693. Epub 2012 Dec 5.

Stem Cell Biology, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi, India.

Dormant hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are activated by microenvironmental cues of the niche in response to the injury of bone marrow (BM). It is not clearly understood how engrafted cells respond to these cues and are involved in marrow regeneration. The purpose of this study was to decipher this cellular response in competitive environment. BM cells of CD45.2 mice were transplanted in sub-lethally irradiated CD45.1 mice. The status of the donor and recipient stem cells (LSK: Lin(-)Sca-1(+)c-Kit(+)) were determined by flowcytometry using CD45 alleles specific antibodies. The presence of long-term engraftable stem cells was confirmed by marrow repopulation assay in secondary hosts, and cell cycle status was determined by staining with Ho33342 and pyronin Y, and BrdU retention assay. The expressions of different hematopoietic growth factor genes in stromal compartment (CD45(-) cells) were assessed by real-time reverse transcriptase- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The presence of donor cells initially stimulated the proliferation of host LSK cells compared with control mice without transplantation. This was expected due to pro-mitotic and anti-apoptotic factors secreted by the donor hematopoietic cells. Upon transplantation, a majority of the donor LSK cells entered into cell cycle, and later they maintained cell cycle status similar to that in the normal mouse. Donor-derived LSK cells showed 1000-fold expansion within 15 days of transplantation. Donor-derived cells not only regenerated BM in the primary irradiated host for long-term, they were also found to be significantly involved in marrow regeneration after the second cycle of irradiation. The proliferation of LSK cells was associated with the onset of colossal expression of different hematopoietic growth factor genes in non-hematopoietic cellular compartment. Activation of donor LSK cells was found to be dynamically controlled by BM cellularity. Long-term study showed that a high level of hematopoietic reconstitution could be possible by donor cells in a sub-lethally irradiated host.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0050693PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3515605PMC
May 2013

Crystal structure of the hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinase (LinA-type2): mutational analysis, thermostability and enantioselectivity.

PLoS One 2012 27;7(11):e50373. Epub 2012 Nov 27.

Environmental Biotechnology Division, CSIR-Indian Institute of Toxicology Research, Mahatma Gandhi Marg, Lucknow, India.

Hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinase (LinA) mediates dehydrochlorination of γ-HCH to 1, 3, 4, 6-tetrachloro-1,4-cyclohexadiene that constitutes first step of the aerobic degradation pathway. We report the 3.5 Å crystal structure of a thermostable LinA-type2 protein, obtained from a soil metagenome, in the hexagonal space group P6(3)22 with unit cell parameters a = b = 162.5, c = 186.3 Å, respectively. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using the co-ordinates of LinA-type1 that exhibits mesophile-like properties. Structural comparison of LinA-type2 and -type1 proteins suggests that thermostability of LinA-type2 might partly arise due to presence of higher number of ionic interactions, along with 4% increase in the intersubunit buried surface area. Mutational analysis involving the differing residues between the -type1 and -type2 proteins, circular dichroism experiments and functional assays suggest that Q20 and G23 are determinants of stability for LinA-type2. It was earlier reported that LinA-type1 exhibits enantioselectivity for the (-) enantiomer of α-HCH. Contrastingly, we identified that -type2 protein prefers the (+) enantiomer of α-HCH. Structural analysis and molecular docking experiments suggest that changed residues K20Q, L96C and A131G, vicinal to the active site are probably responsible for the altered enantioselectivity of LinA-type2. Overall the study has identified features responsible for the thermostability and enantioselectivity of LinA-type2 that can be exploited for the design of variants for specific biotechnological applications.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0050373PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3507683PMC
June 2013

Anti-apoptotic potential of gymnemic acid phospholipid complex pretreatment in Wistar rats with experimental cardiomyopathy.

Indian J Exp Biol 2012 Feb;50(2):117-27

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, New Delhi 110 062, India.

Cardiomyocyte apoptosis in heart failure has been the topic of research in many recent studies. In the present investigation, the potential cardioprotective effect of gymnemic acid phospholipid complex (GPC) on myocardial apoptosis and cardiac function was studied in doxorubicin (DOX; 30 mg/kg/ip/single dose)-induced cardiomyopathy model in rats. Doxorubicin induced cardiomyopathy was evidenced by significant hemodynamic changes (increased systolic, diastolic, mean arterial pressure and heart rate), decreased heart weight to body weight ratio, increase in serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Ca2+ levels and decrease in myocardial Na+/K+ ATPase levels along with caspase-3 activation. A marked reduction in glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, superoxide dismutase and catalase levels along with increase in the levels of thiobarbituric acids (TBARS) were also observed in rat myocardium. In addition, DNA laddering observed on agarose gel electrophoresis and cardiac histopathology study further supplemented myocardial apoptosis. Pre-treatment with GPC significantly reduced DOX-induced cardiac toxicity, including improvement of hemodynamic variables and heart weight to body weight ratio, decreased serum Ca2+ level and LDH levels, myocardial caspase-3 levels, increased Na+/K+ ATPase levels and decreased myocardial TBARS levels and elevated antioxidant enzymes as compared to pathogenic control group. Further, the anti-apoptotic effect of GPC was verified by prevention of internucleosomal DNA laddering on agarose gel electrophoresis and attenuation of histopathological perturbations by doxorubicin. These observations demonstrate that GPC might serve as a cardioprotective formulation in DOX-induced cardiomyopathy in rats.
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February 2012

Inhibitory effect of antibodies against human chorionic gonadotropin on the growth of colorectal tumour cells.

Indian J Biochem Biophys 2012 Apr;49(2):92-6

Immunoendocrinology Laboratory, National Institute of Immunology, New Delhi 110067, India.

Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was initially believed to be secreted exclusively by the embryo with its primary function being "rescue" of the corpus luteum. However, recently it has been found that the hormone (or its individual subunits) is also secreted by many cancers and that in many cases secretion is associated with poor patient prognosis. In this study, we assessed the presence of hCG in colorectal cancer cells (CCL-253) and evaluated the anti-tumour effects of anti-hCG antibodies in vitro and in vivo. Anti-hCG antibodies were reactive with CCL-253, as revealed by confocal immunoflourescence microscopy; both cell surface and intracellular expression were observed. Western blot analysis showed that antibodies appeared to interact with several moieties, indicating a level of cross-reactivity. Anti-hCG antiserum specifically reduced the viability of tumor cells and the addition of complement increased in vitro anti-tumor effects. In nude mice implanted with CCL-253 cells, administration of anti-hCG antiserum caused a significant reduction in tumor volume; all treated animals survived, while mortality was observed in control animals. Results suggest that anti-hCG antibodies can mediate significant anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo and lend support to the rationale of anti-hCG immunization in the therapy of gonadotropin- sensitive cancers.
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April 2012

Isolation of a novel thermostable dehydrochlorinase (LinA) from a soil metagenome.

3 Biotech 2011 Dec 18;1(4):193-198. Epub 2011 Jun 18.

Hexachlorocyclohexane dehydrochlorinase (LinA) mediates first step of aerobic degradation of a chlorinated insecticide γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH). In this study, we describe characterization of a novel variant (LinA-type2) that is distinct from reported LinAs and is substantially more thermostable than archetypal LinA-UT26. LinA-type2 remains active even after 8 h of incubation at 45 °C, when nearly 50% activity of LinA-UT26 is lost after incubation for 60 min at the same temperature. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that secondary structures of LinA-UT26 and LinA-type2 are similar, but their Tm was 45 and 65 °C, respectively. Thermostability of LinA-type2 makes it suitable for bioreactors where allowance for higher temperatures can be of advantage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13205-011-0012-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3339611PMC
December 2011

First structural example of a metal uncoordinated mesoionic imidazo[1,5-a]pyridine and its precursor intermediate copper complex: an insight to the catalytic cycle.

Dalton Trans 2011 Dec 26;40(48):12866-76. Epub 2011 Oct 26.

Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, Mahatma Gandhi Avenue, Durgapur, 713209, West Bengal, India.

Four copper complexes of a tridentate Schiff base ligand, 2-pyridyl-N-(2'-methylthiophenyl) methyleneimine, L(1) have been synthesized. All theses species, namely, [L(1)Cu(2)(SCN)(3)](n) (1), [Cu(SCN)(CH(3)CN)](n) (3), [(L(1))Cu(N(3))(Cl)] (4) and [(L(1))Cu(N(3))(SCN)] (5) have been structurally characterized. Complex 1 in acetonitrile promotes cycloaddition of a Cu(II) bound SCN(-) ion to L(1) that exclusively and stoichiometrically forms a mesoionic imidazo[1,5-a]pyridine, namely, 3-(imino-N'-2-methylthiophenyl)imidazo[1,5-a]pyridinium-1-thiolate (2) and a thiocyanato bridged Cu(i) complex, [Cu(SCN)(CH(3)CN)](n) (3). The X-ray crystal structure of 1 confirms the presence of square-pyramidal Cu(II) and tetrahedral Cu(I) ions in N(3)S(2) and N(2)S(2) coordination environments, respectively, bridged to each other via thiocyanate anion. The Cu(II) ions are bonded to a tridentate ligand L(1) and two SCN(-) ions occupy the remaining equatorial and an axial coordination site to adopt a square-pyramidal coordination geometry. To investigate which SCN(-) ion, axially or equatorially bound to Cu(II) center, underwent cycloaddition to L(1) to form 2, two mononuclear Cu(II) complexes 4 and 5 have been synthesized and their reactivity towards externally added KSCN was studied. The molecular structures of 4 and 5 feature a meridionally bound L(1) and an azide ion (N(3)(-)) in the square plane, while a Cl(-) or SCN(-) ion are occupying the axial site, respectively, to fulfill square-pyramidal coordination geometry. Complex 4 reacts with SCN(-) ion to form 5. That an MeCN solution of 5 itself, or of 5 in the presence of KSCN, does not produce 2, supports that possibly the Cu(II) bound equatorial SCN(-) ion is responsible for cycloaddition to L(1). Dark purple solid 2 has also been prepared (turnover number ~4 or 41% yield) efficiently following an alternative and easier one-pot synthesis procedure, that is from a mixture of KSCN and L(1) in the presence of a catalytic amount of anhydrous CuCl(2) (10 mol%) in MeCN in air. The X-ray crystal structure, (1)H NMR spectrum and solution conductivity measurements strongly support that 2 is mesoionic. An MeCN solution of 2 fluoresces at room temperature upon excitation at 240 nm with an emission maximum λ(em) at 470 nm, associated with a quantum yield of 0.16 with respect to a standard Rhodamine-6G fluorophore.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c1dt11435bDOI Listing
December 2011

Optimization of culture media for enhanced chitinase production from a novel strain of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia using response surface methodology.

J Microbiol Biotechnol 2010 Nov;20(11):1597-602

Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Science, Hamdard University, New Delhi-110062, India.

Chitinase is one of the most important mycolytic enzymes with industrial significance. This enzyme is produced by a number of organisms including bacteria. In this study we describe optimization of media components with increased production of chitinase for selected bacteria Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolated from the soil. Different components of the defined media responsible for influencing chitinase secretion by the bacterial isolate were screened using Plackett-Burman experimental design and were further optimized by Box-Behnken factorial design of response surface methodology (RSM) in liquid culture. Maximum chitinase production was predicted in medium containing chitin 4.94 g/l, maltose 5.56 g/l, yeast extract 0.62 g/l, KH2PO4 1.33 g/l and MgSO4.7H2O 0.65 g/l using Response surface plots and point prediction tool of DESIGN EXPERT 7.1.6 (Statease, USA) software.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4014/jmb.0909.09040DOI Listing
November 2010

Antiapoptotic potential of herbal drugs in cardiovascular disorders: an overview.

Pharm Biol 2010 Apr;48(4):358-74

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, New Delhi, India.

Cardiomyocyte apoptosis has been reported in a number of cardiovascular disorders, including myocardial infarction, ischemia-reperfusion, end-stage heart failure, arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, and adriamycin-induced cardiomyopathy. Prevention of myocyte apoptosis has emerged as a potential new target in a multimodel therapeutic approach to cardiac disease. Herbal therapy may be an alternative strategy for the prevention and treatment of heart disease. The present review summarizes the list of plants/herbal formulations studied for their antiapoptotic activity in cardiovascular disorders. However, despite extensive positive research data from experimental studies for herbal drugs in cardiovascular disorders, and the anecdotal clinical experience of many practitioners and patients, its potential in the field of cardiac apoptosis remains largely untapped, and large scale clinical trials are needed to explore the potential of herbal medicines as a new treatment regime for targeting cardiovascular apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13880200903133852DOI Listing
April 2010

Production of Angkak Through Co-Culture of Monascus Purpureus and MONASCUS RUBER.

Braz J Microbiol 2010 Jul 1;41(3):757-64. Epub 2010 Sep 1.

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology Laboratory, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jamia Hamdard (Hamdard University) , Hamdard Nagar, New Delhi , India-110062.

Angkak (red mold rice, red yeast rice, Chinese red rice) is a traditional Chinese medicine produced by solid-state fermentation of cooked non-glutinous rice with Monascus species. The secondary metabolite of Monascus species, monacolin K /lovastatin, has been proven to lower blood lipid levels. In this study, a co-culture of Monascus purpureus MTCC 369 and Monascus ruber MTCC 1880 was used for angkak production. Four medium parameters screened by Plackett-Burman design were optimized by response surface methodology for highest lovastatin production in angkak during solid-state fermentation by the co-culture. Maximum lovastatin production of 2.84 mg g(-1) was predicted in solid medium containing 20 g rice and 40 ml liquid nutrients medium (malt extract 9.68 g l(-1), dextrose 38.90 g l(-1), MnSO4.H2O 1.96 g l(-1), and MgSO4.7H2O 0.730 g l(-1)) by point prediction tool of Design Expert 7.1 software (Statease Inc. USA).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822010000300028DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3768636PMC
July 2010

Anti-apoptotic potential of rosuvastatin pretreatment in murine model of cardiomyopathy.

Int J Cardiol 2011 Jul 7;150(2):193-200. Epub 2010 May 7.

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Hamdard University, New Delhi-110062, India.

Background: Apoptosis is a key pathologic feature in myocardial infarction and heart failure. Recent evidence suggests that statins may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with heart failure. The present study was planned to investigate the anti-apoptotic potential of rosuvastatin pretreatment in doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy.

Methods: Sixty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups: Group-I (vehicle control group), Group-II (pathological Control group), Group-III (rosuvastatin 0.5 mg/kg), Group IV (rosuvastatin 2 mg/kg), Group-V (rosuvastatin 2 mg/kg per se), and Group-VI (carvedilol 1mg/kg). Myocardial apoptosis was detected by caspase-3 assay, DNA gel electrophoresis and Na(+)/K(+) ATPase estimation. The animals were evaluated for various biochemical parameters in serum followed by histopathological studies of heart tissue.

Results: Doxorubicin treated rats exhibited cardiac dysfunctions as indicated by an increase in systolic, diastolic, mean BP, heart rate and tail blood flow and volume and increased serum LDH, TC, TGs, LDL-C, VLDL-C levels and atherogenic indexes. A marked induction in caspase-3 and Na(+)-K(+) ATPase levels and DNA laddering as revealed by agarose gel electrophoresis was observed in rat myocardium of pathological group. Pretreatment with the test drug, rosuvastatin significantly reduced the increase in hemodynamic parameters, serum LDH, lipid profile and myocardial caspase-3, Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity as compared to the pathogenic control group. Further, DNA ladder formation was attenuated by rosuvastatin treatment. Histopathological studies further confirm its myocardial salvaging effects. The results were comparable with carvedilol.

Conclusions: The study demonstrates the cardioprotective potential of rosuvastatin against doxorubicin-induced myocardial apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2010.04.008DOI Listing
July 2011
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