Publications by authors named "Salar Valinia"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Climate mitigation and intensified forest management in Norway: To what extent are surface waters safeguarded?

Ambio 2020 Nov 12;49(11):1736-1746. Epub 2020 Sep 12.

Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), Gaustadallèen 21, 0349, Oslo, Norway.

While the role of forestry in mitigating climate change is increasingly subject to political commitment, other areas, such as water protection, may be at risk. In this study, we ask whether surface waters are sufficiently safeguarded in relation to the 2015 launch of a series of measures to intensify forest management for mitigation of climate change in Norway. First, we assess how impacts on water are accounted for in existing regulations for sustainable forestry. Secondly, we provide an overview of the impacts of forestry on water quality relevant to three support schemes: afforestation on new areas, increased stocking density in existing forests, and forest fertilisation. Lastly, we assess the uncertainties that exist with regard to surface waters in the implementation of these measures. We find that the safeguards in place are adequate to protect water resources at the point of initiation, but there is a large degree of uncertainty as to the long-term effect of these mitigation measures.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-020-01357-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7502633PMC
November 2020

Assessing critical load exceedances and ecosystem impacts of anthropogenic nitrogen and sulphur deposition at unmanaged forested catchments in Europe.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jan 21;753:141791. Epub 2020 Aug 21.

Czech Hydrometeorological Institute, Observatory Košetice, CZ-394 22 Košetice, Czech Republic.

Anthropogenic emissions of nitrogen (N) and sulphur (S) compounds and their long-range transport have caused widespread negative impacts on different ecosystems. Critical loads (CLs) are deposition thresholds used to describe the sensitivity of ecosystems to atmospheric deposition. The CL methodology has been a key science-based tool for assessing the environmental consequences of air pollution. We computed CLs for eutrophication and acidification using a European long-term dataset of intensively studied forested ecosystem sites (n = 17) in northern and central Europe. The sites belong to the ICP IM and eLTER networks. The link between the site-specific calculations and time-series of CL exceedances and measured site data was evaluated using long-term measurements (1990-2017) for bulk deposition, throughfall and runoff water chemistry. Novel techniques for presenting exceedances of CLs and their temporal development were also developed. Concentrations and fluxes of sulphate, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and acidity in deposition substantially decreased at the sites. Decreases in S deposition resulted in statistically significant decreased concentrations and fluxes of sulphate in runoff and decreasing trends of TIN in runoff were more common than increasing trends. The temporal developments of the exceedance of the CLs indicated the more effective reductions of S deposition compared to N at the sites. There was a relation between calculated exceedance of the CLs and measured runoff water concentrations and fluxes, and most sites with higher CL exceedances showed larger decreases in both TIN and H concentrations and fluxes. Sites with higher cumulative exceedance of eutrophication CLs (averaged over 3 and 30 years) generally showed higher TIN concentrations in runoff. The results provided evidence on the link between CL exceedances and empirical impacts, increasing confidence in the methodology used for the European-scale CL calculations. The results also confirm that emission abatement actions are having their intended effects on CL exceedances and ecosystem impacts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.141791DOI Listing
January 2021

Browning of freshwaters: Consequences to ecosystem services, underlying drivers, and potential mitigation measures.

Ambio 2020 Feb 31;49(2):375-390. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Skogsmarksgränd, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden.

Browning of surface waters, as a result of increasing dissolved organic carbon and iron concentrations, is a widespread phenomenon with implications to the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems. In this article, we provide an overview of the consequences of browning in relation to ecosystem services, outline what the underlying drivers and mechanisms of browning are, and specifically focus on exploring potential mitigation measures to locally counteract browning. These topical concepts are discussed with a focus on Scandinavia, but are of relevance also to other regions. Browning is of environmental concern as it leads to, e.g., increasing costs and risks for drinking water production, and reduced fish production in lakes by limiting light penetration. While climate change, recovery from acidification, and land-use change are all likely factors contributing to the observed browning, managing the land use in the hydrologically connected parts of the landscape may be the most feasible way to counteract browning of natural waters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01227-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6965042PMC
February 2020

Modelling study of soil C, N and pH response to air pollution and climate change using European LTER site observations.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Nov 31;640-641:387-399. Epub 2018 May 31.

Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE), Mechelininkatu 34a, FI-00251 Helsinki, Finland.

Current climate warming is expected to continue in coming decades, whereas high N deposition may stabilize, in contrast to the clear decrease in S deposition. These pressures have distinctive regional patterns and their resulting impact on soil conditions is modified by local site characteristics. We have applied the VSD+ soil dynamic model to study impacts of deposition and climate change on soil properties, using MetHyd and GrowUp as pre-processors to provide input to VSD+. The single-layer soil model VSD+ accounts for processes of organic C and N turnover, as well as charge and mass balances of elements, cation exchange and base cation weathering. We calibrated VSD+ at 26 ecosystem study sites throughout Europe using observed conditions, and simulated key soil properties: soil solution pH (pH), soil base saturation (BS) and soil organic carbon and nitrogen ratio (C:N) under projected deposition of N and S, and climate warming until 2100. The sites are forested, located in the Mediterranean, forested alpine, Atlantic, continental and boreal regions. They represent the long-term ecological research (LTER) Europe network, including sites of the ICP Forests and ICP Integrated Monitoring (IM) programmes under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution (LRTAP), providing high quality long-term data on ecosystem response. Simulated future soil conditions improved under projected decrease in deposition and current climate conditions: higher pH, BS and C:N at 21, 16 and 12 of the sites, respectively. When climate change was included in the scenario analysis, the variability of the results increased. Climate warming resulted in higher simulated pH in most cases, and higher BS and C:N in roughly half of the cases. Especially the increase in C:N was more marked with climate warming. The study illustrates the value of LTER sites for applying models to predict soil responses to multiple environmental changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.05.299DOI Listing
November 2018

Conceptualizing and communicating management effects on forest water quality.

Ambio 2016 Feb;45 Suppl 2:188-202

Department of Forest Ecology and Management, SLU, Skogsmarksgränd, 901 83, Umeå, Sweden.

We present a framework for evaluating and communicating effects of human activity on water quality in managed forests. The framework is based on the following processes: atmospheric deposition, weathering, accumulation, recirculation and flux. Impairments to water quality are characterized in terms of their extent, longevity and frequency. Impacts are communicated using a "traffic lights" metaphor for characterizing severity of water quality impairments arising from forestry and other anthropogenic pressures. The most serious impairments to water quality in managed boreal forests include (i) forestry activities causing excessive sediment mobilization and extirpation of aquatic species and (ii) other anthropogenic pressures caused by long-range transport of mercury and acidifying pollutants. The framework and tool presented here can help evaluate, summarize and communicate the most important issues in circumstances where land management and other anthropogenic pressures combine to impair water quality and may also assist in implementing the "polluter pays" principle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-015-0753-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4705064PMC
February 2016

Simple models to estimate historical and recent changes of total organic carbon concentrations in lakes.

Environ Sci Technol 2015 Jan 19;49(1):386-94. Epub 2014 Dec 19.

Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences , Lennart Hjelms väg 9, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.

Quantifying human impacts on the natural environment requires credible reconstructions of reference conditions. Anthropogenic acidification of surface waters is strongly influenced by total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations. Because both the degree of acidification and recovery are dependent on historical TOC concentrations, simple models to estimate changes in surface water TOC between reference conditions (1860) and the present day (2012) are needed. We used visible near infrared spectroscopy (VNIRS) of lake sediments to reconstruct reference condition TOC and long-term monitoring data to predict recent changes. Two empirical models were developed to predict: (i) historical TOC trends between reference conditions (1860) and peak acidification (1980) and (ii) trends in TOC between 1988 and 2012. The models were statistically robust with adj. R(2) of (i) 0.85 and (ii) 0.71, respectively. Models were driven by lake and catchment area, wetlands, historical sulfur deposition and water chemistry. Present day TOC concentrations are similar to VNIRS-reconstructed and modeled reference condition TOC in Swedish lakes. The results are valuable for understanding drivers of TOC changes in lakes and for more credible assessments of reference conditions needed for water management in Europe and elsewhere.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es503170rDOI Listing
January 2015

Long-term trends in water chemistry of acid-sensitive Swedish lakes show slow recovery from historic acidification.

Ambio 2014 ;43 Suppl 1:77-90

Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7050, 750 07, Uppsala, Sweden,

Long-term (1987-2012) water quality monitoring in 36 acid-sensitive Swedish lakes shows slow recovery from historic acidification. Overall, strong acid anion concentrations declined, primarily as a result of declines in sulfate. Chloride is now the dominant anion in many acid-sensitive lakes. Base cation concentrations have declined less rapidly than strong acid anion concentrations, leading to an increase in charge balance acid neutralizing capacity. In many lakes, modeled organic acidity is now approximately equal to inorganic acidity. The observed trends in water chemistry suggest lakes may not return to reference conditions. Despite declines in acid deposition, many of these lakes are still acidified. Base cation concentrations continue to decline and alkalinity shows only small increases. A changing climate may further delay recovery by increasing dissolved organic carbon concentrations and sea-salt episodes. More intensive forest harvesting may also hamper recovery by reducing the supply of soil base cations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13280-014-0563-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4235927PMC
January 2015

Assessing anthropogenic impact on boreal lakes with historical fish species distribution data and hydrogeochemical modeling.

Glob Chang Biol 2014 Sep 21;20(9):2752-64. Epub 2014 Mar 21.

Department of Aquatic Sciences and Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7050, Uppsala, SE-750 07, Sweden.

Quantifying the effects of human activity on the natural environment is dependent on credible estimates of reference conditions to define the state of the environment before the onset of adverse human impacts. In Europe, emission controls that aimed at restoring ecological status were based on hindcasts from process-based models or paleolimnological reconstructions. For instance, 1860 is used in Europe as the target for restoration from acidification concerning biological and chemical parameters. A more practical problem is that the historical states of ecosystems and their function cannot be observed directly. Therefore, we (i) compare estimates of acidification based on long-term observations of roach (Rutilus rutilus) populations with hindcast pH from the hydrogeochemical model MAGIC; (ii) discuss policy implications and possible scope for use of long-term archival data for assessing human impacts on the natural environment and (iii) present a novel conceptual model for interpreting the importance of physico-chemical and ecological deviations from reference conditions. Of the 85 lakes studied, 78 were coherently classified by both methods. In 1980, 28 lakes were classified as acidified with the MAGIC model, however, roach was present in 14 of these. In 2010, MAGIC predicted chemical recovery in 50% of the lakes, however roach only recolonized in five lakes after 1990, showing a lag between chemical and biological recovery. Our study is the first study of its kind to use long-term archival biological data in concert with hydrogeochemical modeling for regional assessments of anthropogenic acidification. Based on our results, we show how the conceptual model can be used to understand and prioritize management of physico-chemical and ecological effects of anthropogenic stressors on surface water quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12527DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4257505PMC
September 2014

Organic matter chlorination rates in different boreal soils: the role of soil organic matter content.

Environ Sci Technol 2012 Feb 17;46(3):1504-10. Epub 2012 Jan 17.

Department of Thematic Studies, Water and Environmental Studies, Linköping University, 58183 Linköping, Sweden.

Transformation of chloride (Cl(-)) to organic chlorine (Cl(org)) occurs naturally in soil but it is poorly understood how and why transformation rates vary among environments. There are still few measurements of chlorination rates in soils, even though formation of Cl(org) has been known for two decades. In the present study, we compare organic matter (OM) chlorination rates, measured by (36)Cl tracer experiments, in soils from eleven different locations (coniferous forest soils, pasture soils and agricultural soils) and discuss how various environmental factors effect chlorination. Chlorination rates were highest in the forest soils and strong correlations were seen with environmental variables such as soil OM content and Cl(-) concentration. Data presented support the hypothesis that OM levels give the framework for the soil chlorine cycling and that chlorination in more organic soils over time leads to a larger Cl(org) pool and in turn to a high internal supply of Cl(-) upon dechlorination. This provides unexpected indications that pore water Cl(-) levels may be controlled by supply from dechlorination processes and can explain why soil Cl(-) locally can be more closely related to soil OM content and the amount organically bound chlorine than to Cl(-) deposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/es203191rDOI Listing
February 2012