Publications by authors named "Salamat Ali"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Dye degradation, antibacterial and in-silico analysis of Mg/cellulose-doped ZnO nanoparticles.

Int J Biol Macromol 2021 Jun 19;185:153-164. Epub 2021 Jun 19.

Department of Physics, Riphah Institute of Computing and Applied Sciences (RICAS), Riphah International University, 14 Ali Road, Lahore, Pakistan.

Various concentrations of Mg into fixed amount of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC)-doped ZnO were synthesized using facile chemical precipitation. The aim of present study is to remove dye degradation of methylene blue (MB) and bactericidal behavior with synthesized product. Phase constitution, functional group analysis, optical behavior, elemental composition, morphology and microstructure were examined using XRD, FTIR, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, EDS and HR-TEM. Highly efficient photocatalytic performance was observed in basic medium (98%) relative to neutral (65%), and acidic (83%) was observed upon Mg and CNC co-doping. Significant bactericidal activity of doped ZnO nanoparticles depicted inhibition zones for G -ve and +ve bacteria ranging (2.20 - 4.25 mm) and (5.80-7.25 mm) for E. coli and (1.05 - 2.75 mm) and (2.80 - 4.75 mm) for S. aureus at low and high doses, respectively. Overall, doped nanostructures showed significant (P < 0.05) bactericidal efficacy against G +ve relative to G -ve. Furthermore, the molecular docking studies were employed to rationalize possible mechanism behind these in vitro bactericidal activities. In silico findings suggested CNC doped ZnO nanocomposites as possible inhibitors of β-lactamase (Binding score: -7.936 kcal/mol), DHFR (Binding score: -5.691 kcal/mol) and FabI (Binding score: -8.673 kcal/mol).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.06.101DOI Listing
June 2021

Impact of Bi Doping into Boron Nitride Nanosheets on Electronic and Optical Properties Using Theoretical Calculations and Experiments.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2021 May 12;16(1):82. Epub 2021 May 12.

Department of Physics, College of Science, King Faisal University, P.O. Box 400, Al-Ahsa, 31982, Saudi Arabia.

In the present work, boron nitride (BN) nanosheets were prepared through bulk BN liquid phase exfoliation while various wt. ratios (2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10) of bismuth (Bi) were incorporated as dopant using hydrothermal technique. Our findings exhibit that the optical investigation showed absorption spectra in near UV region. Density functional theory calculations indicate that Bi doping has led to various modifications in the electronic structures of BN nanosheet by inducing new localized gap states around the Fermi level. It was found that bandgap energy decrease with the increase of Bi dopant concentrations. Therefore, in analysis of the calculated absorption spectra, a redshift has been observed in the absorption edges, which is consistent with the experimental observation. Additionally, host and Bi-doped BN nanosheets were assessed for their catalytic and antibacterial potential. Catalytic activity of doped free and doped BN nanosheets was evaluated by assessing their performance in dye reduction/degradation process. Bactericidal activity of Bi-doped BN nanosheets resulted in enhanced efficiency measured at 0-33.8% and 43.4-60% against S. aureus and 0-38.8% and 50.5-85.8% against E. coli, respectively. Furthermore, In silico molecular docking predictions were in good agreement with in-vitro bactericidal activity. Bi-doped BN nanosheets showed good binding score against DHFR of E. coli (- 11.971 kcal/mol) and S. aureus (- 8.526 kcal/mol) while binding score for DNA gyrase from E. coli (- 6.782 kcal/mol) and S. aureus (- 7.819 kcal/mol) suggested these selected enzymes as possible target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-021-03542-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8116421PMC
May 2021

Liquid-phase exfoliated MoS nanosheets doped with -type transition metals: a comparative analysis of photocatalytic and antimicrobial potential combined with density functional theory.

Dalton Trans 2021 May;50(19):6598-6619

Department of Physics, College of Science, King Faisal University, P.O. Box 400, Al-Ahsa, 31982, Saudi Arabia.

MoS2 nanosheets were developed by undertaking the liquid-phase exfoliation of bulk counterparts. In order to enhance its photocatalytic properties, the host material was doped with p-type transition metals (i.e., Ag, Co, Bi, and Zr). The hydrothermal technique was used to produce samples doped with 7.5 wt% transition metals (TM). X-ray diffraction detected the existence of 2H-phase by mirroring its reflection at 2θ ∼ 14°, while the peak distribution revealed the degree of exfoliation in samples. Low PL intensities indicated a lower recombination of electron-hole pairs, as corroborated by a high degree of photocatalytic action. Raman analysis was undertaken to identify molecular vibrations. The A1g mode in Raman spectra consistently showed a blueshift in all samples and the E12g mode was only slightly affected, which is evidence of the p-type doping in the MoS2 nanosheets. In the XPS spectrum, two characteristic peaks of Mo 3d appeared at 229.87 and 233.03 eV assigned to Mo-3d5/2 and Mo-3d3/2, respectively. Furthermore, a microstructural examination with HR-TEM and FESEM divulged a thin-layered structure of MoS2 consisting of flat, gently curved or twisted nanosheets. Diverse morphologies were observed with a non-uniform distribution of the dopant. Photocatalytic action of the TM-doped products effectively degraded methylene blue (MB) concentrations of up to 94 percent (for Ag-MoS2). The synergistic effect of doped MoS2 nanosheets against S. aureus in comparison to E. coli bacteria was also evaluated. The efficacy % age improved from (0-31.7%) and (23.5-55.2%) against E. coli, and (0-34.2%) and (8.3-69.23%) against S. aureus. Moreover, results from first principles calculations indicate that substitutional doping of TM atoms is indeed advantageous. Theoretical calculations confirmed that doping with Ag, Co, Bi, and Zr leads to a decrease in the band gap to a certain degree, in which the conduction band edge shifts toward lower energy, while the valence band shifts closer to the high energy end. It can be concluded that Ag, Co, and Bi impurities can lead to beneficial p-type doping in MoS2 monolayered structures. With regards to doping with Zr, the acceptor levels are formed above the edge of the valence band, revealing an introduction of the p-type character.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d1dt00236hDOI Listing
May 2021

Prevalence and determinants of restless leg syndrome in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Pakistan.

Diabetes Metab Syndr 2021 Mar-Apr;15(2):525-528. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Saulat Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences & Drug Research, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background And Aims: Restless legs syndromes (RLS) are intrinsic sleeping disorder and its prevalence rate is 10-15% in general population but it is observed that prevalence rate is different in diabetes patients. Current study aims to find prevalence and determinants of RLS in people living with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Pakistan.

Method: A multicenter cross-sectional observational study was conducted in 388 diabetes patients attending daily diabetes clinics and teaching hospitals in Pakistan's twin city between August 2019 and February 2020. The chi-square test and linear regression were used to detect RLS-related factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Results: The prevalence of RLS found was; 3.1% patients with diabetes were suffering from very severe RLS, 23.5% from severe RLS, 34% from moderate RLS, 21.1% from mild RLS and 18.3% from non-RLS. Gender, age, education, blood glucose fasting (BSF), blood glucose random (BSR) and HBA1c were found to be significant predictors of RLS in patients with diabetes.

Conclusion: Policy makers can develop local interventions to curb the growing RLS prevalence by keeping in control the risk factors of RLS in people living with type 2 diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2021.02.013DOI Listing
February 2021

Complementary and Alternative Medicines for the Treatment of Hepatitis C: Perspectives of Users and CAM Practitioners.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2020 15;2020:3932690. Epub 2020 Dec 15.

Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Background: Despite substantial progress in the treatment of hepatitis C through the use of direct-acting antivirals which have been shown to cure the disease, complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) are popular among patients as a substitute or complement of allopathic medicines. This study aimed to explore the perspectives of patients and CAM practitioners on the use of CAM for the treatment of hepatitis C in Pakistan.

Methods: A cross-sectional design was adopted. Participants (CAM practitioners and patients) were recruited from the capital and two provinces: Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Punjab of Pakistan. A survey using paper-based questionnaires, each specific for patients and CAM practitioners, was conducted to gather information pertaining to demography, disease status, treatment history, and participants' perspectives (about the disease, reasons to switch to CAM, and referring source).

Results: A total of 417 respondents ( = 284 patients,  = 133 practitioners) were recruited. Of the total patients, 170 (59.9%) had started CAM during the previous three months. There were 168 (59.2%) of the total patients who had used allopathic treatments for hepatitis C prior to their use of CAM. The confidence in CAM (24.6%), high cost (19%), and unbearable side effects (52.1%) of allopathic medicines were the main reasons to switch to CAM treatment. Majority (49.3%) of the patients were referred to CAM on the recommendations of relatives or care givers (17.3%) whereas only 9.5% were referred by health care professionals. Out of 133 practitioners, 48 (36.1%) were practicing herbal medicines. From practitioners' perspectives, club-moss ( was the best treatment option for hepatitis C. The majority, 73 (54.9%), of the patients had chosen to use CAM because of the side effects of allopathic medicines. Patients who had previous "good experience" with CAM were the most common referral source (56.4%) for CAM use in hepatitis C.

Conclusions: Patients' beliefs in CAM, side effects of allopathic therapy, high cost of allopathic medicines, and referrals from previous CAM users are key factors in the switching of hepatitis C patients to CAM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3932690DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755471PMC
December 2020

Improving access to the treatment of hepatitis C in low- and middle-income countries: evaluation of a patient assistance programme.

Int J Clin Pharm 2020 Nov 28. Epub 2020 Nov 28.

School of Pharmacy, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

Background Modern antiviral treatments have high cure rates against the hepatitis C virus however, the high cost associated with branded medicines and diagnostic tests, have resulted in poor access for many low-income patients residing in low-and-middle-income countries. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the role of a patient assistance programme and generic medicines in improving access to treatment of low-income hepatitis C patients in a low-and-middle-income country. Setting A major teaching public hospital in Islamabad, Pakistan. Methods Hepatitis C patients who presented and enrolled for the patient assistance programme during 12 months (1st July 2015 and 30th June 2016) were included. Demography, prescription characteristics, the total costs of Hepatitis C treatment, medicine cost supported by the programme, out-of-pocket cost borne by the patient and average cost effectiveness ratio per sustained virologic response were calculated and compared for different generic and branded regimens. Main outcome measure cost contribution of patient assistance programme. Results A total of 349 patients initiated the treatment through the programme and of those 334 (95.7%) completed the prescribed treatment. There were 294 (88.02%) patients who achieved sustained virologic response. Patient assistance programme contributed medicines cost averaging 60.28-86.26% of the total cost of treatment ($1634.6) per patient. The mean (SE) cost per patient for generic option (Sofosbuvir/Ribavirin) was the lowest [$658.36 (22.3) per patient, average cost effectiveness ratio = $720.1/SVR] than branded option (Sovaldi/Ribavirin) [$2218.66 (37.6) per patient, average cost effectiveness ratio = $2361.8/SVR] of the three available treatment regimens. From patients' perspectives, the mean (SE) out-of-pocket cost was $296.9 (6.7) which primarily included diagnostic cost (69.9%) of the total cost. Conclusions Patient assistance programme, combined with generic brands of newer hepatitis C treatment offered a significant reduction in cost and widens access to hepatitis C treatment in low-and middle-income countries. However, substantial out-of-pocket costs of the treatment presents an important barrier for service access. There is a scope to widen such financial assistance programme to offer other costs attributed to patients, specifically for diagnosis, to widen service use in low-and-middle-income countries.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-020-01202-1DOI Listing
November 2020

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Silver Decorated Reduced Graphene Oxide (rGO) Nanoflakes with Effective Photocatalytic Activity for Wastewater Treatment.

Nanoscale Res Lett 2020 Apr 28;15(1):95. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Department of Physics, Riphah Institute of Computing and Applied Sciences (RICAS), Riphah International University, 14 Ali Road, Lahore, Pakistan.

Graphene oxide (GO) was obtained through modified hummers method, and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was acquired by employing heat treatment. Various concentrations (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 wt. %) of silver (Ag) were incorporated in GO nanosheets by adopting hydrothermal approach. Synthesized Ag decorated rGO photocatalyst Ag/rGO was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) to determine phase purity and crystal structure. XRD patterns showed the formation of GO to Ag/rGO. Molecular vibration and functional groups were determined through Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Optical properties and a decrease in bandgap with insertion of Ag were confirmed with UV-Visible (Uv-Vis) spectrophotometer and photoluminescence (PL). Electronic properties and disorders in carbon structures were investigated through Raman spectroscopy that revealed the existence of characteristic bands (D and G). Surface morphology of prepared samples was examined with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). Homogeneous distribution, size, and spherical shape of Ag NPs over rGO sheets were further confirmed with the help of high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM). Dye degradation of doped and undoped samples was examined through Uv-Vis spectra. Experimental results indicated that photocatalytic activity of [email protected] enhanced with increased doping ratio owing to diminished electron-hole pair recombination. Therefore, it is suggested that [email protected] can be used as a beneficial and superior photocatalyst to clean environment and wastewater.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s11671-020-03323-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188753PMC
April 2020

Preventive measures and management of COVID-19 in pregnancy.

Drugs Ther Perspect 2020 Apr 9:1-4. Epub 2020 Apr 9.

3Centre of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice Research, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield, West Yorkshire UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40267-020-00725-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7143201PMC
April 2020

Impact of HIV and chronic kidney disease comorbidities on hepatitis C treatment choices, drug-drug interactions and hepatitis C cure.

Int J Clin Pharm 2020 Apr 25;42(2):515-526. Epub 2020 Feb 25.

School of Pharmacy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, B15 2TT, UK.

Background Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection and chronic kidney disease add challenges to hepatitis C virus treatment. Objective To conduct a comparative study of treatment choices, drug-drug interactions and clinical outcomes in hepatitis C mono-infected patients, or those with HIV or chronic kidney disease comorbidities. Setting Hepatitis C treatment centers of West Midlands England, United Kingdom. Method An observational study was conducted analyzing datasets of all hepatitis C patients that were referred to a large tertiary liver unit in the West Midlands, UK between July 2015 and January 2018. Patients aged ≥ 18 years with diagnosis of hepatitis C alone or co-infected with HIV or comorbid with chronic kidney disease were eligible. Main outcome measures The treatment choices, relevant potential drug-drug interactions and sustained virologic response 12 weeks post end of treatment were assessed. Results Out of 313 patients, 154 (49.2%) were hepatitis C mono-infected, 124 (39.6%) hepatitis C/HIV co-infected and 35 (11.2%) were hepatitis C/chronic kidney disease comorbid. There were 151 (98.1%) of hepatitis C mono-infected, 110 (88.7%) of hepatitis C/HIV and 20 (57.1%) of hepatitis C/chronic kidney disease patients treated with 1st line regimens. Significantly more patients who had co-morbidity with either HIV or chronic kidney disease were prescribed 2nd line regimens (8.1% and 37.1% respectively), compared to patients with hepatitis C mono-infection (1.9%) (P value < 0.05). Comorbid patients (12.1% of HIV and 25.8% of chronic kidney disease) were more likely to required drug-drug interactions advice (grade 5) than hepatitis C mono-infected (1.8%). Higher cure rates were observed in hepatitis C mono-infected (95.33%), hepatitis C/HIV (96.1%) compared to hepatitis C/chronic kidney disease patients (90.3%). Conclusion This study shows that treatment pathways permitting access to individual treatment adjustments in accordance with comorbidities and with consideration of drug-drug interaction in a multi-disciplinary team, provides successful outcomes in hepatitis C patients co-morbid with HIV or chronic kidney disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11096-020-00994-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7192872PMC
April 2020

Noise Exposure on the London Underground, an Observational Study over a Decade.

Laryngoscope 2020 12 7;130(12):2891-2895. Epub 2020 Feb 7.

Department of Otolaryngology / Head & Neck Surgery, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom.

Objectives: There are no hearing protection regulations in place for passengers using public transport, such as the London Underground. In light of this, we sought to examine sound pressure levels experienced by regular users of the London Underground.

Methods: Sound pressure levels (A-weighted decibels: dBA) were taken on moving London Underground carriages between Euston and South Wimbledon on the Northern Line, and between Euston and Vauxhall on the Victoria Line, during 2006 and 2018. In addition, carriage sound pressure levels travelling within Zone 1 of the London Underground were tested in 2019. Three experimental and three technical repeats were undertaken using a hand-held calibrated multi-function sound level meter.

Results: Passengers are routinely and consistently subjected to sound pressure levels exceeding 80 dBA, with levels sometimes reaching over 100 dBA.

Conclusion: This study is unique within the literature, with no published studies outlining exposure levels for London Underground passengers. It provides evidence of elevated noise exposure to passengers, consistently along large stretches of the London Underground, over a prolonged study period (2006-2019).

Key Words: Sensorineural hearing losssound pressureexposureLondonundergroundtube.

Level Of Evidence: N/A Laryngoscope, 2020.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lary.28547DOI Listing
December 2020

A Randomized Controlled Trial to Assess the  Impact of Clinical Pharmacy Interventions on Treatment Outcomes, Health Related Quality of Life and Medication Adherence Among Hepatitis C Patients.

Patient Prefer Adherence 2019 13;13:2089-2100. Epub 2019 Dec 13.

Department of Pharmacy, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan.

Purpose: The role of specialized pharmacy services remains unexplored in clinical practice for hepatitis C patients in Pakistan. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of clinical pharmacy interventions on treatment outcomes, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and medication adherence among hepatitis C patients.

Methods: A randomized control trial was conducted at two tertiary-care teaching hospitals in Pakistan. Hepatitis C patients who attended the outpatient clinics between October 2015 and September 2018 were randomized to two groups [usual care (UC) and pharmaceutical care (PC)] in a 1:1 ratio, applying simple envelope method. The PC group received pharmaceutical care led by a clinical pharmacist. The care that patients received included education and counseling on medication compliance, labeling of medication packs, and monitoring of adverse drug events, led by a qualified clinical pharmacist during the 15- to 20-minute monthly sessions, while the UC group received standard care at hospital, which did not involve clinical pharmacist input. Outcome measures, such as sustained virological response, HRQoL, and adherence rate (pharmacy data) were assessed at enrolment and distinct time intervals: 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and end of treatment.

Results: A total of 931 patients were included in the study (UC 466 and PC 465), with mean age 42.35±1.9 years. Sustained virological response at 12 weeks was achieved in 86.0% patients in the PC group, significantly (<0.001) higher than the UC (69.3%) group. Fewer patients (9.9%) in the PC group reported mobility problems, significantly fewer (<0.001) than the UC group (11.8%). Self-care, usual activity, pain, and depression were relieved significantly in the PC group compared to the UC group. The EuroQol visual analogue scale (baseline 56.1 of UC group versus 55.2 for PC group) was raised to 71.8 and 71.9 in the UC and PC groups, respectively. Medication adherence was significantly improved (<0.001) in the PC group (88.6%) when compared to the UC group (77.9%, 95% CI 88.9%-91.9%).

Conclusion: Pharmacist-led clinical pharmacy interventions as part of multidisciplinary care had a significant impact on improving cure rates, HRQoL, and medication adherence for hepatitis C patients. This study suggests that clinical pharmacists should be incorporated into the multidisciplinary health-care team for care of hepatitis C patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/PPA.S224937DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6917610PMC
December 2019

Lateral nasal wall abscess following manipulation of fractured nasal bones.

BMJ Case Rep 2019 Nov 25;12(11). Epub 2019 Nov 25.

ENT, Morriston Hospital, Swansea, UK.

Nasal fracture accounts for over 50% of facial fractures and is a frequent presentation to ear, nose and throat emergency clinics. Optimal management of nasal injuries with deformity is by manipulation under anaesthetic and should be offered when appropriate. A healthy 27-year-old woman presented with a lateral nasal wall mass with purulent discharge 1 month following manipulation. CT imaging revealed a mass arising from fragments of the nasal bone, consistent with an abscess. Bone fragments and purulent material were initially debrided, with a subsequent formal excision of a persistent granuloma performed with an excellent cosmetic outcome. This appears to be the first description of a granuloma resulting from a closed reduction-manipulation of a nasal fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bcr-2019-232089DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6887352PMC
November 2019

Reactive oxygen: A novel antimicrobial mechanism for targeting biofilm-associated infection.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2017 03 14;8:186-191. Epub 2017 Feb 14.

Mycology Reference Centre Manchester, Centre for Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, University of Manchester and University Hospital of Manchester, Manchester M23 9LT, UK.

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a novel therapeutic strategy for topical or local application to wounds, mucosa or internal structures where there may be heavy bacterial bioburden with biofilm and chronic inflammation. Bacterial biofilms are a significant problem in clinical settings owing to their increased tolerance towards conventionally prescribed antibiotics and their propensity for selection of further antibacterial resistance. There is therefore a pressing need for the development of alternative therapeutic strategies that can improve antibiotic efficacy towards biofilms. ROS has been successful in treating chronic wounds and in clearing multidrug-resistant organisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and carbapenemase-producing isolates from wounds and vascular line sites. There is significant antifungal activity of ROS against planktonic and biofilm forms. Nebulised ROS has been evaluated in limited subjects to assess reductions in bioburden in chronically colonised respiratory tracts. The antibiofilm activity of ROS could have great implications for the treatment of a variety of persistent respiratory conditions. Use of ROS on internal prosthetic devices shows promise. A variety of novel delivery mechanisms are being developed to apply ROS activity to different anatomical sites.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2016.12.006DOI Listing
March 2017

Middle ear capillary haemangioma: Review of literature and appraisal of management options.

Auris Nasus Larynx 2016 Dec 15;43(6):595-601. Epub 2016 Mar 15.

Department of Otolaryngology/Head & Neck Surgery, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK.

Infantile middle ear capillary haemangiomas (MECH) are a rare entity with only five reported cases in the literature. At present there is no consensus regarding the management of such lesions. Extra-cutaneous haemangiomas have been successfully managed with oral propranolol but not yet reported in MECH. We present a further case and appraise the management options. At present oral propranolol has not been used in the treatment of MECH. The literature suggests that infantile MECH have a higher propensity to spontaneously involute and a greater likelihood of response to propranolol. Surgical excision is the best option in older children and adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anl.2016.02.008DOI Listing
December 2016

Bilateral temporal bone fractures associated with bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss.

Postgrad Med J 2016 May 30;92(1087):302-3. Epub 2015 Dec 30.

ENT Department, University Hospital Southampton NHS Foundation Trust, Southampton, UK.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/postgradmedj-2015-133862DOI Listing
May 2016

Comparison of doxorubicin anticancer drug loading on different metal oxide nanoparticles.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2015 Mar;94(11):e617

From the Department of Physics (KR, SA, MZB, MN, ARB), Government College University (GCU); Pakistan Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) (KR); Department of Medical Physics (MA, AS), Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Oncology (INMOL); Department of Physics (MA), The University of Lahore, Lahore, Pakistan; and Department of Physics (MN), Faculty of Science, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai, Johor, Malaysia.

Nanomaterials are being vigorously investigated for their use in anticancer drug delivery regimes or as biomarkers agents and are considered to be a candidate to provide a way to combat severe weaknesses of anticancer drug pharmacokinetics, such as their nonspecificity. Because of this weakness, a bigger proportion of the drug-loaded nanomaterials flow toward healthy tissues and result in undesirable side effects. It is very important to evaluate drug loading and release efficiency of various nanomaterials to find out true pharmacokinetics of these drugs.This observational study aims to evaluate various surface functionalized and naked nanomaterials for their drug loading capability and consequently strengthens the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). We analyzed naked and coated nanoparticles of transition metal oxides for their further loading with doxorubicin, a representative water-soluble anticancer drug.Various uncoated and polyethylene glycol-coated metal oxide nanoparticles were synthesized and loaded with anticancer drug using simple stirring of the nanoparticles in a saturated aqueous solution of the drug. Results showed that surface-coated nanoparticles have higher drug-loading capabilities; however, certain naked metal oxide nanoparticles, such as cobalt oxide nanoparticles, can load a sufficient amount of drug.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000000617DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4602492PMC
March 2015

Stability and survival of bone-anchored hearing aid implant systems in post-irradiated patients.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2015 Jun 17;272(6):1371-6. Epub 2014 Feb 17.

Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Countess of Chester Hospital, Chester, CH2 1UL, UK,

Bone-anchored hearing aids (BAHAs) are based on the principle of osseointegration, which is fundamental to implant stability and survival. Previous exposure to ionising radiation may compromise this, as evidenced in relation to dental and craniofacial implants. There is a dearth of data, however, regarding BAHA implant systems in patients with previously irradiated implant sites. We sought, therefore, to investigate implant stability and survival in such patients. Patients were identified retrospectively from our electronic BAHA database. Hospital records were reviewed for demographics; operative technique; complications; and details regarding previous irradiation. Implant stability was assessed by resonance frequency analysis (RFA), generating a numerical value-implant stability quotient (ISQ). Extrapolating from dental studies, successfully loaded implants typically have ISQs of ≥60. Readings were, therefore, interpreted with respect to this. Seven patients were identified for inclusion. Mean time between irradiation and implant insertion was 33 months (range 16-72 months), and mean time from implant insertion to RFA measurement was 41 months (range 3-96 months). Operatively, all patients underwent single-stage procedures under local anaesthesia. One patient suffered a Holger's grade 2 skin reaction, while two suffered significant skin flap failure, requiring revision procedures. The implant survival rate was 100 %. All ISQ values were >60, with a mean of 66.9 (95 % confidence interval 63.1-70.6). Our data support sufficient osseointegration of BAHA implant systems in post-irradiated patients, but highlight issues with wound healing. Contemporary soft tissue preservation operative techniques will likely overcome this, facilitating safe and efficacious BAHA insertion in this ever-increasing group of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-014-2932-7DOI Listing
June 2015

Methyl 2-(4-acetamido-benzene-sulfon-amido)-benzoate.

Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online 2011 Apr 19;67(Pt 4):o903. Epub 2011 Mar 19.

The mol-ecule of the title compound, C(16)H(16)N(2)O(5)S, has the shape of the letter V but with a small twist; the dihedral angle formed between the benzene rings is 79.66 (9)°. The presence of an intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bond, leading to an S(6) ring, correlates with the near coplanarity of the carboxyl-ate ester group with the benzene ring to which it is connected. The acetamide residue is slightly twisted out of the plane of its benzene ring [C-C-N-C = 13.1 (3)°]. In the crystal, supra-molecular chains along the a axis are mediated by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds. These are connected into layers via C-H⋯O inter-actions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600536811009500DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3099839PMC
April 2011

Libyan cochlear implant programme: achievements, difficulties, and future goals.

Libyan J Med 2011 30;6. Epub 2011 May 30.

Glan Clwyd Hospital, North Wales, UK.

Cochlear implantation has become established worldwide as a safe and effective method of auditory rehabilitation of selected severely and profound deaf children and adults. Over 100,000 patients have received cochlear implants worldwide with the paediatric population proving to be the main beneficiaries. The Libyan cochlear implant programme was set up in 2004. Data relating to the patients who received cochlear implantation at Tripoli Medical Centre between October 2007 and February 2010 were analysed. Implant operations were performed on 37 patients. All patients received Med-El SONATA(TI) (100) devices. Thirty-four (91.9%) of these patients were children, whilst three (8.1%) were adults. Combined, congenital hearing loss (56.8%) and perinatal/neonatal (29.7%) were the two main aetiological factors in children. Seventeen patients (45.9%) had a positive family history of deafness. Sixteen patients (43.2%) were born to blood-related parents. The overall rate of minor and major complications was 16.2%, which is comparable to previous studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/ljm.v6i0.5930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3118784PMC
July 2011

N,N-Dibenzyl-4-methyl-benzene-sulfonamide.

Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online 2010 Apr 30;66(Pt 5):o1218. Epub 2010 Apr 30.

The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C(21)H(21)NO(2)S, comprises two mol-ecules with similar conformations. The benzene rings of the nitro-gen-bound benzyl groups lie to the same side of the mol-ecule but are splayed in opposite directions precluding π-π inter-actions between them. In the crystal, each independent mol-ecule self-associates via inter-molecular C-H⋯O inter-actions, forming a supra-molecular chain propagating along the b axis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600536810015059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2979169PMC
April 2010