Publications by authors named "Sajjad Ali"

77 Publications

Qualitative and quantitative analysis of steatite using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in conjunction with x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

Appl Opt 2021 Jun;60(17):5110-5116

The qualitative and quantitative study of raw steatite was carried out using a pulsed nanosecond Nd:YAG laser set to fundamental harmonic (1064 nm) at atmospheric pressure. To cross-validate the data, x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used. The analysis of optical emission spectra in the wavelength range 200-720 nm showed the existence of silica (Si), magnesium (Mg), and calcium (Ca). The plasma temperature and electron number density were estimated using the Boltzmann plot and Stark-broadening line profile methods, with results at 4906 K and ${1.47}\times{{10}^{17}}\;{{\rm cm}^{- 3}}$, respectively. The quantitative study was carried out using the calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) process, assuming local thermodynamic equilibrium and an optically thin plasma, and the following results were obtained: Si = 63.37%, Mg = 35.95%, and Ca = 0.671%. The quantitative findings obtained using the CF-LIBS approach were consistent with those obtained using XRD, XRF, and FTIR, demonstrating the applied methods' potential to be effective and complementary for the qualitative and quantitative study of multiphase raw steatite.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.427011DOI Listing
June 2021

The Need for Inclusion of Transgender Community in Health Care Education System of Pakistan.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2021 Jun 18:10105395211026064. Epub 2021 Jun 18.

Ziauddin Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/10105395211026064DOI Listing
June 2021

Silver Catalyzed Decarbonylative [3 + 2] Cycloaddition of Cyclobutenediones and Formamides.

Molecules 2021 May 17;26(10). Epub 2021 May 17.

Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Natural Products and Chemical Biology, College of Chemistry and Pharmacy, Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, 3 Taicheng Road, Yangling 712100, China.

As an important moiety in natural products, ,-acetal has attracted wide attention in the past few years. An efficient method to construct ,-acetal has been developed. Using silver catalyst, cyclobutenediones were smoothly converted to the corresponding -aminobutenolides in the presence of formamides, in which cyclobutenediones likely proceed with a key decarbonylative [3 + 2] cycloaddition process. In this way, a series of products with varied substituents were isolated in moderate yield and fully characterized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules26102974DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156422PMC
May 2021

Effect of necrotrophic fungus and PGPR on the comparative histochemistry of Vigna radiata by using multiple microscopic techniques.

Microsc Res Tech 2021 May 24. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Botany, Bacha Khan University, Charsadda, Pakistan.

Rapid advances in the field of pathogen detection have opened new opportunities and better understanding for their management approaches. Aim of this study was to elucidate histopathological observations of different tissues affected by Macrophomina phaseolina and to observe the defense responses of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) in mungbean plants. Sections of the stem and root were prepared and stained with ferric chloride, Lugol's iodine and Wiesner's reagent and were then observed under multiple microscopic techniques. Results revealed that both pathogen and PGPR produce responses on the plant that include colonization of xylem vessels by hyphae and sclerotia, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the cells, destruction of xylem fibers and amyloplasts in parenchymatous cells; and production of gels by the plant were observed. There was a significant increase in lignin and phenolic compounds deposition in stem and root sections of PGPR treated and non-treated mungbean plants. Whereas the soil amended with PGPR showed very less to no starch production. Moreover, production of gels and gums were also observed in both stem and root sections. Compared to light microscopy, scanning electron microscope provided greater depth of focus and resolution of the pathogen attack on plant tissues, associated bacteria. As a whole, the data demonstrated that inoculation of PGPR can be an effective strategy to stimulate plant growth and they could significantly activate disease resistance against M. phaseolina.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.23836DOI Listing
May 2021

Extracts of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham. showed both phytotoxic and insecticidal capacities against Lemna minor L. and Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa.

PLoS One 2021 30;16(4):e0250118. Epub 2021 Apr 30.

Department of Biotechnology, College of Sciences, Taif University, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

Many phytochemicals can affect the growth and development of plants and insects which can be used as biological control agents. In this study, different concentrations of crude, hexane, chloroform, butanol, and aqueous extracts of Euphorbia nivulia Buch.-Ham., an endemic plant of the Cholistan desert in South Punjab of Pakistan, were analysed for their chemical constituents. Their various concentrations were also tested for their phytotoxic and insecticidal potential against duckweed, Lemna minor L., and the dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa. various polyphenols, i.e., quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid were detected in different concentrations with different solvents during the phytochemical screening of E. nivulia. In the phytotoxicity test, except for 100 μg/mL of the butanol extract gave 4.5% growth regulation, no phytotoxic lethality could be found at 10 and 100 μg/mL of all the extracts. The highest concentration, 1000 μg/mL, of the chloroform, crude, and butanol extracts showed 100, 63.1, and 27.1% of growth inhibition in duckweed, respectively. In the insecticidal bioassay, the highest O. hyalinipennis mortalities (87 and 75%) were recorded at 15% concentration of the chloroform and butanol extracts of E. nivulia. In contrast, the lower concentrations of the E. nivulia extracts caused the lower mortalities. Altogether, these findings revealed that E. nivulia chloroform extracts showed significant phytotoxicity while all the extracts showed insecticidal potential. This potential can be, further, refined to be developed for bio-control agents.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0250118PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8087071PMC
April 2021

Preparedness and impact of COVID 19 infection at tertiary care neurology centers in Pakistan.

J Neurol Sci 2021 06 17;425:117462. Epub 2021 Apr 17.

Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan. Electronic address:

Objective: We aimed to assess the response and impact of covid 19 pandemic at tertiary care centers in Pakistan especially pertaining to neurological care, facilities and training.

Methods: A pre-tested survey form was sent to 40 neurology tertiary care centers in all the provinces in the country in the first week of July 2020. 33 filled forms were received, out of which 18 were public (government) and 15 were private hospitals.

Results: Estimated 1300 HCW (faculty, medical officers, trainees and nurses) work at these 33 participating centers. There were 17 deaths among HCW (1.3%) at ten centers. Sufficient personal protective equipment (PPE) were provided to 158 HCW (12%). 129 (10%)HCW tested positive for COVID 19 at 31 centers including trainees/medical officers (39), consultants (29) and nursing and other staff (61). Due to low neurology admissions, 23/33 hospitals (70%) posted neurology trainees in COVID 19 units to contribute to covid care. Less than 50% hospitals did covid screening PCR before admission to neurology wards. Only 10% hospitals provide training and regular update to HCW. Neurology tele-health services were started for clinically stable patients at 15 (45%) centers. Only 60% neurology training programs were able to start online training. Ongoing research studies and trials focusing neurological manifestations of COVID-19 were done at 10 (30%) centers. Modification of facilities for COVID patients showed that 24(72%) hospitals strictly reduced the number of attendants accompanying patients. Only 10 (30%) centers had neurophysiological tests being conducted on COVID-19 patients. Mental health support services to HCW were provided at 12 (36%) centers.

Conclusions: Among HCW 10% tested positive for covid and 1.3% died. Mental health support services offered for HCW were available in 36% institutions. Neurology training was substantially affected due to low admissions, limited ward rounds and limited availability of online training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jns.2021.117462DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8052505PMC
June 2021

Sublethal effects of bistrifluron on key biological traits, macronutrients contents and vitellogenin (SeVg) expression in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner).

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2021 May 23;174:104802. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

State Key Laboratory Breeding Base for Zhejiang Sustainable Pest and Disease Control, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Institute of Plant Protection and Microbiology, Hangzhou 310021, PR China. Electronic address:

The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, is a highly polyphagous pest originated from Southeast Asia but has spread globally, attacking economically important crops and fruits. Bistrifluron insecticide is one of the highly active insect growth regulators that has been reported to inhibit development and longevity in other lepidopteran species and could be used in the control of S. exigua. In the present study, the age-stage, two-sex life table technique was applied to assess the sublethal effects of bistrifluron on biological traits and vitellogenin gene (SeVg) expression when 2nd instar larvae fed to sublethal concentrations (LC, LC and LC) of bistrifluron. Mean generation time from eggs to adults was longer at LC (37.79 ± 0.81 d) and LC (37.04 ± 0.72) compared to the LC (36.89 ± 0.63 d) and control groups (36.07 ± 0.38 d). Fecundity of female at LC (279.17 ± 42.8 eggs), LC (347 ± 35.4 eggs) and LC (411.58 ± 42.38 eggs) were significantly lower than the control treatment (532.47 ± 7.13). Furthermore, the lower intrinsic rates of increase (LC; r = 0.1207 ± 0.009, LC; r = 0.1329 ± 0.009 and LC; r = 0.14398 ± 0.009 compared to the control r = 0.164 ± 0.0076), was observed along with significantly extended mean generation times (LC; T = 34.825 ± 0.317 days, LC; T = 33.27 ± 0.368 days and LC; T = 31.899 ± 0.398 days compared to the control 30.927 ± 0.255 days). Furthermore, the contents of energy reserve macronutrients (carbohydrate, lipid and protein) significantly reduced in dose and time dependent manner in treated insects as compared to control. Furthermore, the expression level of SeVg mRNA significantly decreased by 43.8% in the female adults when one-day-old second instar larvae were treated with sublethal concentrations of bistrifluron in comparison with the control. Documenting these sublethal effects is a vital, and often overlooked factor, in assessing the overall efficacy of insecticides in the management of pest populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2021.104802DOI Listing
May 2021

The combined effect of climatic factors and technical advancement on yield of sugarcane by using ARDL approach: evidence from Pakistan.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Mar 25. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

College of Resource and Environment, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, 430070, China.

Sugarcane is one of the most important crops in the world and has a major influence on environmental concerns. This study aims to examine the association between sugarcane crop yield, climate change factors, and technical advancement using time series data for the period of 1989 to 2015 in Pakistan. An autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) model and descriptive statistics analysis were employed in this study. The outcomes of the bound F-test for co-integration confirmed that there is a long-run and short-run equilibrium among sugarcane crop yield, temperature, rainfall, fertilizer use, and agricultural machinery. The results of long-run estimate that the coefficient of area, rainfall, and fertilizer use have significantly positive impacts on sugarcane crop yield. The coefficient of temperature had positive and non-significant while agricultural machinery had negative and statistically significant relationship with sugarcane crop yield. In the short-run estimates, the coefficient of area, rainfall, and fertilizer use have statistically positive impact, temperature had non-significant impact, and agricultural machinery had significantly negative impact on the yield of sugarcane crop. In addition, both CUSUM and CUSUMsq test results confirmed the goodness of fit of this model. The outcomes of our study suggest that climate change has negative impact on the yield of sugarcane. Based on the study findings, the Government requires to take effective measures for constructive policy-making and identification of environmental threats in Pakistan. Large-scale mechanical activities and rapid growing may be useful initiatives for raising the yield of sugarcane. Furthermore, technical advancement needs to be improved because it plays a vital role in increasing the yield of sugarcane and other major crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-13313-xDOI Listing
March 2021

Impact of covid 19 pandemic on presentation,treatment and outcome of paediatric surgical emergencies.

J Ayub Med Coll Abbottabad 2020 Oct-Dec;32(Suppl 1)(4):S621-S624

Department of Paediatric Surgery Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar, Pakistan.

Background: During the current pandemic it was observed that factors such as lockdown, campaign to discourage unnecessary visits to hospitals, inadequate clinical evaluation and investigations culminated in serious complications of common paediatric surgical conditions. This observation led to the basis of the idea to statistically and objectively evaluate the impact of the current pandemic on paediatric surgical emergencies.

Methods: Data of paediatric surgical emergencies during March-May 2019 and March-May 2020 was collected from database of the paediatric surgical department of Khyber Teaching Hospital Peshawar and two groups were constituted, i.e., Pre COVID and COVID groups respectively. These two groups were compared for the number of emergency admissions, the number of emergency surgeries, complications at the time of presentation and surgical treatment given. Data were analysed in SPSS version-22 and p-value after Yates correction was generated were necessary to see if the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05).

Results: There were 47.8% fewer emergency admissions and a 77.45% reduction in the number of emergency surgeries done in COVID time as compared to the Pre COVID time. Similarly, the number of perforated appendicitis and complicated intestinal obstruction was significantly higher than expected in COVID group. Same was the difference in the number of patients requiring extensive surgery between the groups.

Conclusion: Delay in presentation, complications and requirement for extensive surgical procedure are the indirect impacts of the current pandemic on emergency surgical conditions of children.
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April 2021

Mean Changes in Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Having Renal Stone Disease.

Cureus 2021 Feb 13;13(2):e13328. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Medicine and Surgery, Alexandria Faculty of Medicine, Alexandria, EGY.

Background Urinary stone disease is associated with renal impairment because of obstruction and infection. Comorbidities include hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, and impaired renal function. Furthermore, as recurrences are common in urolithiasis, such patients undergo many treatments throughout their life. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) is an effective treatment for renal stones with a diameter greater than 2 cm. The primary objective of this study was to observe the mean changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in patients undergoing PCNL having renal stone disease. Methodology This cross-sectional study was conducted for six months between June and November 2020 at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. All male and female patients aged between 15 and 70 years who were diagnosed with renal stones using X-ray of the kidney, ureter, and bladder or using ultrasound of the abdomen and planned for PCNL were selected. Patients with any duration of kidney stone disease were included. Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) was used to statistically analyze the data. Results The mean age of the patients was 41.11 ± 14.30 (17-70) years. A total of 61 (38.1%) patients were female and 99 (61.9%) were male. Mean preoperative GFR was 91.22 ± 5.88 mL/min which decreased to 83.64 ± 5.70 mL/min at 48 hours post-PCNL. GFR significantly decreased after surgery (p = 0.0001). Conclusions During early postoperative days, GFR was decreased in patients undergoing PCNL. Factors that may impair renal function should be avoided during the first few days after undergoing PCNL. Further large-scale studies are needed to investigate these changes in GFR in post-PCNL patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.13328DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7959873PMC
February 2021

Toxicological risk assessment of some commonly used insecticides on Cotesia flavipes, a larval parasitoid of the spotted stem borer Chilo partellus.

Ecotoxicology 2021 Apr 5;30(3):448-458. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Entomology, UCA & ES, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, Bahawalpur, 63100, Pakistan.

Cotesia flavipes Cameron is an important larval parasitoid exploited for the control of the spotted stem borer, Chilo partellus (Swinhoe). Several studies have evaluated the toxic effects of insecticides on C. partellus, however, little is known about non-target effects of insecticides on this parasitoid, when used to control C. partellus. This laboratory study evaluated the lethal and sublethal effects of twelve insecticides on C. flavipes. Residual toxicity tests showed that organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, triazophos and profenofos) exhibited highest contact toxicity to C. flavipes adults with a LC range from 0.63 to 1.05 mg a.i/l, while neonicotinoids (nitenpyram, acetamiprid and imidacloprid) were less toxic to C. flavipes with a LC range from 1.27 to 139.48 mg a.i/l. Sugar-insecticide feeding bioassays showed that organophosphates, pyrethroids (cypermethrin, bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin) and carbamates (thiodicarb, carbaryl and methomyl) were highly toxic to C. flavipes adults and caused 100% mortality at 48 h of exposure, while imidacloprid caused 66% mortality at 48 h of exposure. Risk quotient analysis showed that among all tested insecticides, imidacloprid and acetamiprid were less toxic to C. flavipes adults with a risk quotient value of 0.88 and 1.6, respectively. Furthermore, exposure of immature C. flavipes through their host bodies significantly decreased the parasitism rate at their F and F generations. Risk quotient analysis of insecticides indicated that imidacloprid and acetamiprid were the least toxic to C. flavipes. This study provides important information that will be used in incorporating the most suitable insecticides in integrated pest management programs with reduced negative impacts on non-target beneficial arthropods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10646-021-02372-yDOI Listing
April 2021

Validity of TIMI Score for Predicting 14-Day Mortality of Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction Patients.

Cureus 2021 Jan 6;13(1):e12518. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Statistics, National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, PAK.

Background Accurate management of non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients can be achieved by stratifying risks as early as possible on hospital admission. Previously, the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) risk score has been validated and used on patients presenting with NSTEMI or unstable angina (UA) in developed countries. The aim of this study was to assess the validity of the TIMI risk score in patients presenting with NSTEMI in Pakistan. Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken on 300 patients who were diagnosed with NSTEMI. Data were collected from medical records, the TIMI score was calculated, and 14-day outcome was recorded. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed, and area under the curve (AUC) along with 95% confidence interval (CI) was reported. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed and odds ratio (OR) along with 95% CI was reported. Results This cross-sectional study was undertaken on 300 patients who were diagnosed with NSTEMI. Data were collected from medical records, the TIMI score was calculated, and 14-day outcome was recorded. Validity of TIMI score in predicting hospital mortality 14 days after the diagnosis of NSTEMI in a population in Pakistan was assessed by ROC curve and logistic regression analysis. The AUC of the TIMI score for predicting 14-day outcome was 0.788 [95% CI: 0.689-0.887], with optimal cutoff of ≥4 with sensitivity of 77.78%. On multivariate analysis, cardiac arrest at presentation and the TIMI risk score were found to be independent predictors of 14-day mortality with adjusted ORs of 136.49 [10.23-1821.27] and 2.67 [1.09-6.57], respectively. Conclusions The TIMI risk score is a useful and simple score for the stratification of patients with high risk of 14-day mortality with reasonably acceptable discriminating ability in patients with NSTEMI acute coronary syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7759/cureus.12518DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7863063PMC
January 2021

Towards Secure and Privacy-Preserving IoT Enabled Smart Home: Architecture and Experimental Study.

Sensors (Basel) 2020 Oct 28;20(21). Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Applied Research, British Telecomm, Ipswich IP5 3RE, UK.

Internet of Things (IoT) technology is increasingly pervasive in all aspects of our life and its usage is anticipated to significantly increase in future Smart Cities to support their myriad of revolutionary applications. This paper introduces a new architecture that can support several IoT-enabled smart home use cases, with a specified level of security and privacy preservation. The security threats that may target such an architecture are highlighted along with the cryptographic algorithms that can prevent them. An experimental study is performed to provide more insights about the suitability of several lightweight cryptographic algorithms for use in securing the constrained IoT devices used in the proposed architecture. The obtained results showed that many modern lightweight symmetric cryptography algorithms, as CLEFIA and TRIVIUM, are optimized for hardware implementations and can consume up to 10 times more energy than the legacy techniques when they are implemented in software. Moreover, the experiments results highlight that CLEFIA significantly outperforms TRIVIUM under all of the investigated test cases, and the latter performs 100 times worse than the legacy cryptographic algorithms tested.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s20216131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7662378PMC
October 2020

The potential use of ABO blood group system for risk stratification of COVID-19.

Med Hypotheses 2020 Dec 9;145:110343. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Student and Internship Research Program (Research Accessibility Team), Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Egypt.

ABO blood groups is a cheap and affordable test that can be immediately retrieved from COVID-19 patients at the diagnosis. There is increasing evidence that non-O blood groups have both higher susceptibility and higher severity of COVID-19 infections. The reason behind such relationship seems elusive. Regarding susceptibility, Non-O individuals have Anti-A antibodies which can prevent viral entry across ACE-2 receptors, moreover, Non-O individuals are at higher risk of autoimmunity, hypercoagulable state, and dysbiosis resulting in an augmented tendency for vascular inflammatory sequelae of COVID-19. We can conclude, on the diagnostic level, that ABO blood groups can be potentially used for risk stratification of affected COVID-19 patients, to anticipate the deterioration of patients at higher risk for complications. On a therapeutic level, plasma from normal O blood group individuals might potentially replace the use of convalescent serum for the treatment of COVID-19.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110343DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7546667PMC
December 2020

Domestic Violence Amid COVID-19 Pandemic: Pakistan's Perspective.

Asia Pac J Public Health 2020 Nov 5;32(8):525-526. Epub 2020 Oct 5.

Ziauddin Medical University, Karachi, Pakistan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1010539520962965DOI Listing
November 2020

Analysis on the nexus of CO2 emissions, energy use, net domestic credit, and GDP in Pakistan: an ARDL bound testing analysis.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2021 Jan 18;28(4):4594-4614. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Department of Agronomy, Gardan Campus, Abdul Wali Khan University, Mardan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.

Greenhouse gas effect is known as the main cause of worldwide warming and environmental change. The present study was planned to examine the causal relationship between carbon dioxide (CO) emissions, CO emissions from solid fuel consumption (COS), energy use (EU), fossil fuel energy consumption (FOF), gross domestic product (GDP), and net domestic credit (NDC). This research work is based on Pakistan's annual data from 1971 to 2014. Autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bound testing design was used to measure both long-run and the short-run relationships among all study variables. To inspect the stationarity of the study variables, augmented Dickey-Fuller (ADF) and Phillips-Perron (PP) tests were also carried out. The outcome of the long-run estimates indicated that COS, EU, and GDP all have a significant relationship with CO emissions while both FOF and NDC did not exhibit any significant effect. The value of error correction term (ECT) was - 0.977 which signifies that the deviation of CO emissions from short-run to long-run equilibrium was fitted by 97.7% per year. Johansen co-integration test results display a long-run association between the study variables. Based on the study findings, the government requires to take effective measures for constructive policy-making and identification of environmental threats in Pakistan. Additionally, emission decreasing actions should be settled the fundamental agenda in energy and environmental strategies of Pakistan for the reduction in damages connected with carbon dioxide emissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-10763-7DOI Listing
January 2021

Computation of solution to fractional order partial reaction diffusion equations.

J Adv Res 2020 Sep 15;25:31-38. Epub 2020 May 15.

Department of Mathematics, Abdul Wali Khan Univeristy, Mardan, Pakistan.

In this article, the considered problem of Cauchy reaction diffusion equation of fractional order is solved by using integral transform of Laplace coupled with decomposition technique due to Adomian scheme. This combination led us to a hybrid method which has been properly used to handle nonlinear and linear problems. The considered problem is used in modeling spatial effects in engineering, biology and ecology. The fractional derivative is considered in Caputo sense. The results are obtained in series form corresponding to the proposed problem of fractional order. To present the analytical procedure of the proposed method, some test examples are provided. An approximate solution of a fractional order diffusion equation were obtained. This solution was rapidly convergent to the exact solution with less computational cost. For the computation purposes, we used MATLAB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jare.2020.04.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7474206PMC
September 2020

Prevalence of Cardiac Risk Factors and Attitude toward Self-Risk Assessment among Cardiac Care Givers.

J Prim Care Community Health 2020 Jan-Dec;11:2150132720950531

National Institute of Cardiovascular Diseases, Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan.

Objective: Aim of this survey was to assess the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors and attitude toward self-risk assessment among cardiac care physicians (who did not have CVD history), at a tertiary care cardiac center in Pakistan.

Design: In this survey we included cardiac care givers who had a minimum of 1 year of working experience in a cardiac care center.

Participants: Participants with self-reported history of established diagnosis of CVD were excluded. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with the help of a structured questionnaire which consisted of demographic information, data regarding established CVD risk factors, self-awareness, and attitude toward CVD risk assessment.

Results: A total of 126 participants were interviewed, out of which 20.6% (26) were females and mean age was 36.1±7.6 years. The most prevalent CVD risk factor was family history of CVD (33.3%) followed by smoking (14.3%) and 23.8% had body mass index of ≥27.5 kg/m. Around 23% of the participants did not know their cholesterol levels, similarly more than 74% were not aware of their high-density lipoproteins levels. More than 76% had never assessed their CVD risk and more than 37% don't know or don't have any opinion about their own CVD risk.

Conclusions: The present study reveals low prevalence of conventional cardiac risk factors and marginally higher tendency of modifiable risk factors, such as smoking and obesity, among the cardiac physicians. A large proportion of these cardiac physicians have not yet assessed their CVD risk.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/2150132720950531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7427134PMC
August 2020

Investigating the long-run interaction between electricity consumption, foreign investment, and economic progress in Pakistan: evidence from VECM approach.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2020 Jul 30;27(20):25664-25674. Epub 2020 Apr 30.

School of Management Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology (NUIST), No. 219 Ningliu Road, Nanjing City, Jiangsu Province, China.

In this study, we attempt to investigate the relationship between electricity consumption, foreign direct investment (FDI) and economic progress in Pakistan during the period from 1997 to 2017. We applied the unit root tests to cointegration approach with the vector error correction model (VECM) approach. We also authenticated the robustness of the outcomes with the help of the regression methods. The main findings indicated that variables are cointegrated in the long-run and the VECM approach verified long-run causal links among the variables. The short-run causality is running from electricity consumption and economic development to FDI. The results remained uniform under the fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS), dynamic ordinary least squares (DOLS), and the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) estimations. Correspondingly, these three methods ratified that there is a significant long-run linkage between electricity consumption and the economic development of Pakistan. Additionally, the diagnostic assessments fixed that results are free from correlations and models are stable. Thus, based on these results, electricity generation and consumption, as well as FDI, is crucial for the economic progress of Pakistan. The priority should be given to promote the optimum use of available resources to generate energy, and FDI in the energy sector should be attracted through various incentives to support the economic advancement of Pakistan. Renewable energy resources are recyclable springs that can cut the intensity of carbon emissions and encourage to the promising magnitude of FDI and also certify sustainable and economic progression of Pakistan.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08966-zDOI Listing
July 2020

Role of Perceived Social Support on the Association between Physical Disability and Symptoms of Depression in Senior Citizens of Pakistan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 02 25;17(5). Epub 2020 Feb 25.

Department of Computer Science and Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

An emerging body of literature has implied that perceived social support is known as an upstream element of cognitive health. Various dimensions of perceived social support may have divergent influence on physical and cognitive health in later life. The present study aimed to investigate the mediating role of perceived social support on the relationship between physical disability and symptoms of depression in senior citizens of Pakistan. The data were collected from three metropolitan cities (Lahore, Faisalabad, Multan) in the Punjab province of Pakistan and 100 participants were approached from each city with a total sample size of 300. The results demonstrated that family support, friends' support, and significant others' support mediated the association between physical disability and symptoms of depression, with an indirect effect of 0.024, 0.058, and 0.034, respectively. The total direct and indirect effect was 0.493. Physical disability was directly associated with symptoms of depression and greater physical disability predicted a higher level of symptoms of depression. Perceived social support, including family support, friends' support, and significant others' support, showed an indirect association with symptoms of depression. Furthermore, family support and friends' support were more significantly associated with symptoms of depression as compared to significant others' support. The research discoveries have better implications for health care professionals, hospice care workers, and policy makers. A holistic approach is required to prevent senior citizens from late-life mental disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051485DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7084927PMC
February 2020

Repeated drop-weight impact tests on self-compacting concrete reinforced with micro-steel fiber.

Heliyon 2020 Jan 10;6(1):e03198. Epub 2020 Jan 10.

Civil Engineering Department, Wasit University, Kut, Iraq.

Steel fiber has become a proven material that can significantly alter the behavior of different types of concrete mixtures from brittle to more ductile ones. Rich literature is currently available on the mechanical properties of steel fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete. However, the investigation of the impact resistance of this material to drop weight is still required to enrich the knowledge about its behavior under different loading conditions. An experimental work was conducted in this research to evaluate the performance of steel fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete under repeated impact loading using the repeated blows test recommended by ACI 544-2R. The tests investigated the effect of drop weight and drop height in addition to fiber content. Straight micro-steel fibers were incorporated in three volumetric contents of 0.5, 0.75 and 1.0% and were compared with a similar plain mixture. The test equipment was adjusted to conduct repeated impact loading from different drop-heights and using different drop-weights. The adopted drop-heights were 450, 575 and 700 mm, while the adopted drop-weights were 4.5, 6.0 and 7.5 kg. The combination of the adopted drop-heights and weights composes four loading cases in addition to the standard loading case with a drop-weight and drop-height of 4.5 kg and 450 mm. The inclusion of micro steel fiber was found to significantly increase the impact resistance of self-compacting concrete with percentage developments ranging from 150 to 860% compared to plain samples. The specimens tested under 4.5 kg and 450 mm drop weight and height exhibited the highest percentage improvement in impact resistance among the five loading cases. The results also showed that the impact ductility of fibrous specimens was up to 24% higher than that of plain specimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03198DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6956759PMC
January 2020

Expression and functional analysis of P450 gene induced tolerance/resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin in quercetin fed larvae of beet armyworm (Hübner).

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Jan 22;27(1):77-87. Epub 2019 May 22.

Research Center for Advanced Materials Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Beet armyworm, (Hübner) is an agronomical important and most devastating polyphagous pest that damages a variety of crops around the globe including China. Quercetin is one of the abundant dietary flavonoids and the important defense allelochemicals in plants. Therefore, the changes in insect detoxification enzymes activities in response to plants allelochemicals may result increased the sensitivity to insecticides. In this study, we examined the induced effect of quercetin on larval tolerance to lambda-cyhalothrin in Application of cytochrome P450 inhibitor piperonyl butoxide (PBO) significantly synergized the lambda-cyhalothrin toxicity in quercetin-fed larvae. Moreover, larval weight significantly reduced in quercetin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and quercetin + lambda-cyhalothrin treatment. Furthermore, our results showed that the P450 detoxification enzyme effectively increased in all treatments as compared to the control. Quantitative Real-time PCR analysis revealed that expression level of significantly upregulated in larvae treated with quercetin, lambda-cyhalothrin and quercetin + lambda-cyhalothrin in the midgut and fat body respectively. In addition, RNAi mediated knockdown of in larvae significantly decreased the transcription level of target cytochrome P450 gene followed by the exposure with quercetin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and quercetin + lambda-cyhalothrin. Similarly, the knockdown of by the injection of dsRNA led to increased mortality after the treatment with respective chemicals. Overall, these data showed that P450s might possibly play an important role in the metabolic adaptation of larvae to its host plant defense allelochemicals as well as insecticides. In conclusion, can take benefit from its host plant's secondary metabolites to elaborate its defense against synthetic insecticides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.05.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6933212PMC
January 2020

RNA interference-mediated knockdown of a cytochrome P450 gene enhanced the toxicity of α-cypermethrin in xanthotoxin-fed larvae of Spodoptera exigua (Hübner).

Pestic Biochem Physiol 2020 Jan 6;162:6-14. Epub 2019 Jul 6.

Hubei Insect Resources Utilization and Sustainable Pest Management Key Laboratory, College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University Wuhan, Hubei 430070, PR China. Electronic address:

The beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) is a highly polyphagous agricultural pest that is distributed worldwide. However, the adaptive mechanisms of S. exigua for various insecticides and defensive substances in host plants are unknown. Insect P450 monooxygenases play an important role in the detoxification of plant toxins and insecticides, leading to insecticides resistance. We investigated the induced effects of xanthotoxin exposure on detoxification enzyme activity and larval tolerance to α-cypermethrin in S. exigua. Our results showed that the lethal concentration (LC) of α-cypermethrin for xanthotoxin-exposed larvae was 2.1-fold higher than in the control. Moreover, cytochrome P450 enzyme activity was significantly elevated by upregulation of P450 genes in treated larvae. RT-qPCR results showed that CYP9A10 expression level was significantly increased in all treatments, while maximal expression level was observed in xanthotoxin+α-cypermethrin-fed larvae. RNAi-mediated silencing of CYP9A10 further increased mortality by 18%, 26% and 35% at 48 h and by 27%, 43% and 55% at 72 h when larvae were exposed to diets containing chemicals as compared to the control. The results show that CYP9A10 might play an important role in xanthotoxin and α-cypermethrin detoxification in S. exigua. RNAi-mediated silencing could provide an effective synergistic agent for pest control or insecticide resistance management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pestbp.2019.07.003DOI Listing
January 2020

Mediating Effect of Cognitive Social Capital on the Relationship Between Physical Disability and Depression in Elderly People of Rural Pakistan.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2019 10 31;16(21). Epub 2019 Oct 31.

College of Economics and Management, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

Cognitive social capital is crucial for mental wellbeing and physical disability in order to avoid late-life depression. The objective of this study was to investigate the mediating effect of cognitive social capital (interpersonal trust and reciprocity) on the relationship between physical disability and depression in elderly people of rural Pakistan. For this purpose, 146 respondents aged 60 years or above and residents of rural areas of district Muzaffargarh (Punjab, Pakistan) were approached for data collection. The questionnaire includes socio-demographic variables (gender, age, education, marital status, family system, living status, household income, and number of chronic diseases); the geriatric depressive symptoms scale (GDS-15) was used to measure depression, physical disability was evaluated through ADL and IADL scales, and cognitive social capital, which includes interpersonal trust and reciprocity, was measured using single-item questions. It was found that interpersonal trust, reciprocity, depression, and physical disability were significantly correlated with each other and physical disability was directly associated with depression. In mediation analysis, reciprocity mediated the relationship between physical disability and depression. Our findings highlight the need to enhance cognitive social capital interventions and develop policies to promote mental and physical health of rural elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16214232DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6862206PMC
October 2019

Quantitative elemental analysis of high silica bauxite using calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy.

Appl Opt 2019 Sep;58(27):7588-7596

Bauxite is a primary ore of aluminum. Precise information about bauxite mineralogical composition is challenging and crucial for efficient aluminum extraction and for the determination of its appropriateness for different industrial applications. For the qualitative and quantitative analysis of bauxite ore, we performed laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in conjunction with x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Analysis of the acquired optical emission spectrum revealed the presence of Si, Al, Fe, K, Ti, Ca, Mg, Na, Cr, and Sr. The plasma temperature and electron number density values estimated using Boltzmann plot and Stark-broadening line profile methods were 5600 K and 7.65×10  cm, respectively. In the present study we show that a calibration-free LIBS method presents a powerful solution, enabling quantitative analysis of multi-element bauxite ore better than traditional analytical techniques. The bauxite quantification obtained using CF-LIBS under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium and optically thin plasma was Si=47.31%, Al=31.90%, Fe=16.54%, K=2.45%, Ti=1.64%, and Ca=0.16%, and its comparison with the outcome from XRD, XRF, SEM-EDS, and FTIR not only assisted but potentially enhanced the mineralogical composition understanding of bauxite ore in the present study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/AO.58.007588DOI Listing
September 2019

Benzo[ghi]perylene and coronene as ratiometric fluorescence probes for the selective sensing of nitroaromatic explosives.

Talanta 2020 Jan 3;207:120316. Epub 2019 Sep 3.

State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, 130022, PR China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100049, PR China. Electronic address:

A simple and efficient fluorometric sensing method is developed for the rapid detection of nitroaromatic explosives, based on the quenching of monomer and excimer emission of benzo[ghi]perylene and coronene. The ratiometric method (I/I) offers a linear response as a function of the concentration of picric acid (PA, i.e. 2,4,6-trinitrophenol), which is used as a model example of the nitroaromatic compounds (NOCs). The detection range is observed to be 0.1-120 μM of PA (22.9 ppb-27.5 ppm). The bright emission of the stable probe excimer and monomer can be easily distinguished under UV lamp from the quenched solution with nitro-aromatic molecules that enables naked-eye detection of nitro-aromatic explosives. The fluorescent paper strips prepared by embedding the probes on the surface of the paper are used for fast, portable and selective detection of NOCs. Our optimized methods can easily detect and quantify NOCs down to 0.1 μM. The sensing process is free of commonly encountered interferences such as volatile organic compounds (VOCs), acids, bases, oxygen, and salt solutions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.talanta.2019.120316DOI Listing
January 2020

Effects of Entomopathogenic Fungi on the Biology of (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its Reduviid Predator, (Heteroptera: Reduviidae).

Int J Insect Sci 2019 31;11:1179543319867116. Epub 2019 Jul 31.

Department of Entomology, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan.

Entomopathogenic fungi (EPFs), and , are efficient biological agents in the management of multiple arthropod pests. In this study, the effects of both EPF species on various life stages of (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and its natural enemy (Fab.) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) were determined under laboratory conditions. significantly ( < .05) reduced the growth rate of the third and fourth instar larvae of . For relative consumption rate (RCR), the maximum impact was recorded for , which reduced the RCR of the larvae. The larvae of treated with showed significantly lower efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) and the larval mortality rate (58.0%) was also higher compared with (33.3%). Similarly, had a significant effect on the pupal formation of ; however, no significant effect was found on adult emergence percentage. To determine the effect of EPF-infected prey on the adult predator, their handling time, predatory rate, consumption rate, and the survival rate were recorded. No significant effect of EPF species on the predation rate was found. Furthermore, no significant difference was found in the survival rate of predators fed on either EPF-infected prey or healthy larvae. The interaction of these EPFs with a reduviid predator suggested that both EPF species, especially , could be used together with the predator to boost the biological control of in commercial crops.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1179543319867116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6669838PMC
July 2019