Publications by authors named "Sajesh Parathath"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hypoxia induces netrin-1 and Unc5b in atherosclerotic plaques: mechanism for macrophage retention and survival.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2013 Jun 18;33(6):1180-8. Epub 2013 Apr 18.

Department of Medicine, Marc and Ruti Bell Vascular Biology and Disease Program, Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Objective: Hypoxia is intimately linked to atherosclerosis and has become recognized as a primary impetus of inflammation. We recently demonstrated that the neuroimmune guidance cue netrin-1 (Ntn1) inhibits macrophage emigration from atherosclerotic plaques, thereby fostering chronic inflammation. However, the mechanisms governing netrin-1 expression in atherosclerosis are not well understood. In this study, we investigate the role of hypoxia in regulating expression of netrin-1 and its receptor uncoordinated-5-B receptor (Unc5b) in plaque macrophages and its functional consequences on these immune cells.

Approach And Results: We show by immunostaining that netrin-1 and Unc5b are expressed in macrophages in hypoxia-rich regions of human and mouse plaques. In vitro, Ntn1 and Unc5b mRNA are upregulated in macrophages treated with oxidized low-density lipoprotein or inducers of oxidative stress (CoCl2, dimethyloxalylglycine, 1% O2). These responses are abrogated by inhibiting hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)-1α, indicating a causal role for this transcription factor in regulating Ntn1 and Unc5b expression in macrophages. Indeed, using promoter-luciferase reporter genes, we show that Ntn1- and Unc5b-promoter activities are induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein and require HIF-1α. Correspondingly, J774 macrophages overexpressing active HIF-1α show increased netrin-1 and Unc5b expression and reduced migratory capacity compared with control cells, which was restored by blocking the effects of netrin-1. Finally, we show that netrin-1 protects macrophages from apoptosis under hypoxic conditions in a HIF-1α-dependent manner.

Conclusions: These findings provide a molecular mechanism by which netrin-1 and its receptor Unc5b are expressed in atherosclerotic plaques and implicate hypoxia and HIF-1α-induced netrin-1/Unc5b in sustaining inflammation by inhibiting the emigration and promoting the survival of lesional macrophages.
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June 2013

Scavenger receptor class B type I is a plasma membrane cholesterol sensor.

Circ Res 2013 Jan 28;112(1):140-51. Epub 2012 Sep 28.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, 5323 Harry Hines Blvd, Dallas, TX 75390, USA.

Rationale: Signal initiation by the high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI), which is important to actions of HDL on endothelium and other processes, requires cholesterol efflux and the C-terminal transmembrane domain. The C-terminal transmembrane domain uniquely interacts with plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol.

Objective: The molecular basis and functional significance of SR-BI interaction with PM cholesterol are unknown. We tested the hypotheses that the interaction is required for SR-BI signaling, and that it enables SR-BI to serve as a PM cholesterol sensor.

Methods And Results: In studies performed in COS-M6 cells, mutation of a highly conserved C-terminal transmembrane domain glutamine to alanine (SR-BI-Q445A) decreased PM cholesterol interaction with the receptor by 71% without altering HDL binding or cholesterol uptake or efflux, and it yielded a receptor incapable of HDL-induced signaling. Signaling prompted by cholesterol efflux to methyl-β-cyclodextrin also was prevented, indicating that PM cholesterol interaction with the receptor enables it to serve as a PM cholesterol sensor. Using SR-BI-Q445A, we further demonstrated that PM cholesterol sensing by SR-BI does not influence SR-BI-mediated reverse cholesterol transport to the liver in mice. However, the PM cholesterol sensing does underlie apolipoprotein B intracellular trafficking in response to postprandial micelles or methyl-β-cyclodextrin in cultured enterocytes, and it is required for HDL activation of endothelial NO synthase and migration in cultured endothelial cells and HDL-induced angiogenesis in vivo.

Conclusions: Through interaction with PM cholesterol, SR-BI serves as a PM cholesterol sensor, and the resulting intracellular signaling governs processes in both enterocytes and endothelial cells.
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January 2013

The neuroimmune guidance cue netrin-1 promotes atherosclerosis by inhibiting the emigration of macrophages from plaques.

Nat Immunol 2012 Jan 8;13(2):136-43. Epub 2012 Jan 8.

Marc and Ruti Bell Vascular Biology and Disease Program, Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.

Atherosclerotic plaque formation is fueled by the persistence of lipid-laden macrophages in the artery wall. The mechanisms by which these cells become trapped, thereby establishing chronic inflammation, remain unknown. Here we found that netrin-1, a neuroimmune guidance cue, was secreted by macrophages in human and mouse atheroma, where it inactivated the migration of macrophages toward chemokines linked to their egress from plaques. Acting via its receptor, UNC5b, netrin-1 inhibited the migration of macrophages directed by the chemokines CCL2 and CCL19, activation of the actin-remodeling GTPase Rac1 and actin polymerization. Targeted deletion of netrin-1 in macrophages resulted in much less atherosclerosis in mice deficient in the receptor for low-density lipoprotein and promoted the emigration of macrophages from plaques. Thus, netrin-1 promoted atherosclerosis by retaining macrophages in the artery wall. Our results establish a causative role for negative regulators of leukocyte migration in chronic inflammation.
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January 2012

Hypoxia is present in murine atherosclerotic plaques and has multiple adverse effects on macrophage lipid metabolism.

Circ Res 2011 Oct 15;109(10):1141-52. Epub 2011 Sep 15.

NYU School of Medicine, Departments of Medicine (Cardiology) and Cell Biology, Marc and Ruti Bell Program in Vascular Biology, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Rationale: Human atherosclerotic plaques contain large numbers of cells deprived of O(2). In murine atherosclerosis, because the plaques are small, it is controversial whether hypoxia can occur.

Objective: To examine if murine plaques contain hypoxic cells, and whether hypoxia regulates changes in cellular lipid metabolism and gene expression in macrophages.

Methods And Results: Aortic plaques from apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice were immunopositive for hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF-1α) and some of its downstream targets. Murine J774 macrophages rendered hypoxic demonstrated significant increases in cellular sterol and triglycerides. The increase in sterol content in hypoxic macrophages correlated with elevated 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase activity and mRNA levels. In addition, when macrophages were incubated with cholesterol complexes, hypoxic cells accumulated 120% more cholesterol, predominately in the free form. Cholesterol-efflux assays showed that hypoxia significantly decreased efflux mediated by ATP-binding cassette subfamily A member 1 (ABCA1), whose sub cellular localization was altered in both J774 and primary macrophages. Furthermore, in vivo expression patterns of selected genes from cells in hypoxic regions of murine plaques were similar to those from J774 and primary macrophages incubated in hypoxia. The hypoxia-induced accumulation of sterol and decreased cholesterol efflux was substantially reversed in vitro by reducing the expression of the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor, HIF-1α.

Conclusion: Hypoxic regions are present in murine plaques. Hypoxic macrophages have increased sterol content due to the induction of sterol synthesis and the suppression of cholesterol efflux, effects that are in part mediated by HIF-1α.
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October 2011

Reversal of hyperlipidemia with a genetic switch favorably affects the content and inflammatory state of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques.

Circulation 2011 Mar 21;123(9):989-98. Epub 2011 Feb 21.

Smilow 8, 522 First Ave, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Background: We previously showed that the progression of atherosclerosis in the Reversa mouse (Ldlr(-/-Apob100/100Mttpfl/fl) Mx1Cre(+/+)) was arrested when the hyperlipidemia was normalized by inactivating the gene for microsomal triglyceride transfer protein. Here, we tested whether atherosclerosis would regress if the lipid levels were reduced after advanced plaques formed.

Methods And Results: Reversa mice were fed an atherogenic diet for 16 weeks. Plasma lipid levels were then reduced. Within 2 weeks, this reduction led to decreased monocyte-derived (CD68(+)) cells in atherosclerotic plaques and was associated with emigration of these cells out of plaques. In addition, the fall in lipid levels was accompanied by lower plaque lipid content and by reduced expression in plaque CD68(+) cells of inflammatory genes and higher expression of genes for markers of antiinflammatory M2 macrophages. Plaque composition was affected more than plaque size, with the decreased content of lipid and CD68(+) cells balanced by a higher content of collagen. When the reduced lipid level was combined with the administration of pioglitazone to simulate the clinical aggressive lipid management and proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonist treatment, the rate of depletion of plaque CD68(+) cells was unaffected, but there was a further increase in their expression of antiinflammatory macrophage markers.

Conclusion: The Reversa mouse is a new model of atherosclerosis regression. After lipid lowering, favorable changes in plaque composition were independent of changes in size. In addition, plaque CD68(+) cells became less inflammatory, an effect enhanced by treatment with pioglitazone.
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March 2011

Presecretory oxidation, aggregation, and autophagic destruction of apoprotein-B: a pathway for late-stage quality control.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2008 Apr 7;105(15):5862-7. Epub 2008 Apr 7.

Departments of Medicine, Leon H. Charney Division of Cardiology, and Cell Biology and the Marc and Ruti Bell Vascular Biology and Disease Program, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.

Hepatic secretion of apolipoprotein-B (apoB), the major protein of atherogenic lipoproteins, is regulated through posttranslational degradation. We reported a degradation pathway, post-ER pre secretory proteolysis (PERPP), that is increased by reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated within hepatocytes from dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). We now report the molecular processes by which PUFA-derived ROS regulate PERPP of apoB. ApoB exits the ER; undergoes limited oxidant-dependent aggregation; and then, upon exit from the Golgi, becomes extensively oxidized and converted into large aggregates. The aggregates slowly degrade by an autophagic process. None of the oxidized, aggregated material leaves cells, thereby preventing export of apoB-lipoproteins containing potentially toxic lipid peroxides. In summary, apoB secretory control via PERPP/autophagosomes is likely a key component of normal and pathologic regulation of plasma apoB levels, as well as a means for remarkably late-stage quality control of a secreted protein.
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April 2008