Publications by authors named "Saila Ismail"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Inhibition of Autophagy Does Not Affect Innate Cytokine Production in Human Lung Epithelial Cells During Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection.

Viral Immunol 2021 Apr 9. Epub 2021 Apr 9.

Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia.

Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is one of the major causes of childhood acute lower respiratory tract infection worldwide. Autophagy is an intracellular pathway involved in nutrient recycling. Recently, autophagy has been reported to play a role in regulating host cytokine response to several viruses, including vesicular stomatitis virus and human immunodeficiency virus. Previous studies using mouse model has shown that inhibition of autophagy reduces RSV-induced cytokine production. However, the role of autophagy in modulating RSV-induced cytokine response in human cells has not been reported. We investigated the role of autophagy in regulating the production of the cytokines C-X-C motif ligand 8 (CXCL8) and C-C motif ligand 5 (CCL5), in RSV-infected human bronchial epithelium BEAS-2B cells. Fluorescent microscopic analysis showed that RSV infection induced autophagosome formation in BEAS-2B cells. This autophagy inducing ability of RSV was further confirmed by flow cytometry. The effects of pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by SAR405 or chloroquine on cell death and cytokine release were quantified using lactate dehydrogenase assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively. We found that SAR405 or chloroquine did not cause cell death. Importantly, ELISA analysis showed that pharmacological inhibition of autophagy by SAR405 or chloroquine did not affect the productions of both CXCL5 and CXCL8. In contrast to the previous studies using mouse model, our data suggest that pharmacological inhibition of autophagy may not be a suitable strategy in controlling RSV-induced airway inflammation.
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April 2021

Phosphoinositide-3 kinase inhibition modulates responses to rhinovirus by mechanisms that are predominantly independent of autophagy.

PLoS One 2014 26;9(12):e116055. Epub 2014 Dec 26.

Academic Unit of Respiratory Medicine, Department of Infection and Immunity, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health, University of Sheffield, Beech Hill Road, Sheffield, S10 2RX, United Kingdom.

Human rhinoviruses (HRV) are a major cause of exacerbations of airways disease. Aspects of cell signalling responses to HRV infection remain unclear, particularly with regard to signalling via PI3K, and the PI3K-dependent pathway, autophagy. We investigated the roles of PI3K and autophagy in the responses of epithelial cells to major and minor group HRV infection. The PI3K inhibitor 3-MA, commonly used to inhibit autophagy, markedly reduced HRV-induced cytokine induction. Further investigation of potential targets of 3-MA and comparison of results using this inhibitor to a panel of general and class I-selective PI3K inhibitors showed that several PI3Ks cooperatively regulate responses to HRV. Targeting by siRNA of the autophagy proteins Beclin-1, Atg7, LC3, alone or in combination, or targeting of the autophagy-specific class III PI3K had at most only modest effects on HRV-induced cell signalling as judged by induction of proinflammatory cytokine production. Our data indicate that PI3K and mTOR are involved in induction of proinflammatory cytokines after HRV infection, and that autophagy has little role in the cytokine response to HRV or control of HRV replication.
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November 2015

Role of interleukin-1 and MyD88-dependent signaling in rhinovirus infection.

J Virol 2011 Aug 18;85(15):7912-21. Epub 2011 May 18.

Academic Unit of Respiratory Medicine, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Sheffield, L Floor, Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Sheffield S10 2JF, United Kingdom.

Rhinoviral infection is an important trigger of acute inflammatory exacerbations in patients with underlying airway disease. We have previously established that interleukin-1β (IL-1β) is central in the communication between epithelial cells and monocytes during the initiation of inflammation. In this study we explored the roles of IL-1β and its signaling pathways in the responses of airway cells to rhinovirus-1B (RV-1B) and further determined how responses to RV-1B were modified in a model of bacterial coinfection. Our results revealed that IL-1β dramatically potentiated RV-1B-induced proinflammatory responses, and while monocytes did not directly amplify responses to RV-1B alone, they played an important role in the responses observed with our coinfection model. MyD88 is the essential signaling adapter for IL-1β and most Toll-like receptors. To examine the role of MyD88 in more detail, we created stable MyD88 knockdown epithelial cells using short hairpin RNA (shRNA) targeted to MyD88. We determined that IL-1β/MyD88 plays a role in regulating RV-1B replication and the inflammatory response to viral infection of airway cells. These results identify central roles for IL-1β and its signaling pathways in the production of CXCL8, a potent neutrophil chemoattractant, in viral infection. Thus, IL-1β is a viable target for controlling the neutrophilia that is often found in inflammatory airway disease and is exacerbated by viral infection of the airways.
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August 2011