Publications by authors named "Sahasransu Mahapatra"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

STIM1 triggers a gating rearrangement at the extracellular mouth of the ORAI1 channel.

Nat Commun 2014 Oct 9;5:5164. Epub 2014 Oct 9.

Division of Signalling and Gene Expression, La Jolla Institute for Allergy and Immunology, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

The ER-resident regulatory protein STIM1 triggers store-operated Ca(2+) entry by direct interaction with the plasma membrane Ca(2+) channel ORAI1. The mechanism of channel gating remains undefined. Here we establish that STIM1 gates the purified recombinant ORAI1 channel in vitro, and use Tb(3+) luminescence and, separately, disulfide crosslinking to probe movements of the pore-lining helices. We show that interaction of STIM1 with the cytoplasmic face of the human ORAI1 channel elicits a conformational change near the external entrance to the pore, detectable at the pore Ca(2+)-binding residue E106 and the adjacent pore-lining residue V102. We demonstrate that a short nonpolar segment of the pore including V102 forms a barrier to ion flux in the closed channel, implicating the STIM1-dependent movement in channel gating. Our data explain the close coupling between ORAI1 channel gating and ion selectivity, and open a new avenue to dissect the gating, modulation and inactivation of ORAI-family channels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms6164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4376667PMC
October 2014

Vitamin C induces Tet-dependent DNA demethylation and a blastocyst-like state in ES cells.

Nature 2013 Aug 30;500(7461):222-6. Epub 2013 Jun 30.

Eli and Edythe Broad Center of Regeneration Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology and Center for Reproductive Sciences, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, California 94143, USA.

DNA methylation is a heritable epigenetic modification involved in gene silencing, imprinting, and the suppression of retrotransposons. Global DNA demethylation occurs in the early embryo and the germ line, and may be mediated by Tet (ten eleven translocation) enzymes, which convert 5-methylcytosine (5mC) to 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC). Tet enzymes have been studied extensively in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells, which are generally cultured in the absence of vitamin C, a potential cofactor for Fe(II) 2-oxoglutarate dioxygenase enzymes such as Tet enzymes. Here we report that addition of vitamin C to mouse ES cells promotes Tet activity, leading to a rapid and global increase in 5hmC. This is followed by DNA demethylation of many gene promoters and upregulation of demethylated germline genes. Tet1 binding is enriched near the transcription start site of genes affected by vitamin C treatment. Importantly, vitamin C, but not other antioxidants, enhances the activity of recombinant Tet1 in a biochemical assay, and the vitamin-C-induced changes in 5hmC and 5mC are entirely suppressed in Tet1 and Tet2 double knockout ES cells. Vitamin C has a stronger effect on regions that gain methylation in cultured ES cells compared to blastocysts, and in vivo are methylated only after implantation. In contrast, imprinted regions and intracisternal A particle retroelements, which are resistant to demethylation in the early embryo, are resistant to vitamin-C-induced DNA demethylation. Collectively, the results of this study establish vitamin C as a direct regulator of Tet activity and DNA methylation fidelity in ES cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature12362DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3893718PMC
August 2013

Genome-wide mapping of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine in embryonic stem cells.

Nature 2011 May 8;473(7347):394-7. Epub 2011 May 8.

Harvard Medical School, Immune Disease Institute and Program in Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Children's Hospital Boston, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) is a modified base present at low levels in diverse cell types in mammals. 5hmC is generated by the TET family of Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate-dependent enzymes through oxidation of 5-methylcytosine (5mC). 5hmC and TET proteins have been implicated in stem cell biology and cancer, but information on the genome-wide distribution of 5hmC is limited. Here we describe two novel and specific approaches to profile the genomic localization of 5hmC. The first approach, termed GLIB (glucosylation, periodate oxidation, biotinylation) uses a combination of enzymatic and chemical steps to isolate DNA fragments containing as few as a single 5hmC. The second approach involves conversion of 5hmC to cytosine 5-methylenesulphonate (CMS) by treatment of genomic DNA with sodium bisulphite, followed by immunoprecipitation of CMS-containing DNA with a specific antiserum to CMS. High-throughput sequencing of 5hmC-containing DNA from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells showed strong enrichment within exons and near transcriptional start sites. 5hmC was especially enriched at the start sites of genes whose promoters bear dual histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) and histone 3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) marks. Our results indicate that 5hmC has a probable role in transcriptional regulation, and suggest a model in which 5hmC contributes to the 'poised' chromatin signature found at developmentally-regulated genes in ES cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3124347PMC
May 2011

Yeast H2A.Z, FACT complex and RSC regulate transcription of tRNA gene through differential dynamics of flanking nucleosomes.

Nucleic Acids Res 2011 May 25;39(10):4023-34. Epub 2011 Jan 25.

Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, Uppal Road, Hyderabad 500007, India.

FACT complex is involved in elongation and ensures fidelity in the initiation step of transcription by RNA polymerase (pol) II. Histone variant H2A.Z is found in nucleosomes at the 5'-end of many genes. We report here H2A.Z-chaperone activity of the yeast FACT complex on the short, nucleosome-free, non-coding, pol III-transcribed yeast tRNA genes. On a prototype gene, yeast SUP4, chromatin remodeler RSC and FACT regulate its transcription through novel mechanisms, wherein the two gene-flanking nucleosomes containing H2A.Z, play different roles. Nhp6, which ensures transcription fidelity and helps load yFACT onto the gene flanking nucleosomes, has inhibitory role. RSC maintains a nucleosome abutting the gene terminator downstream, which results in reduced transcription rate in active state while H2A.Z probably helps RSC in keeping the gene nucleosome-free and serves as stress-sensor. All these factors maintain an epigenetic state which allows the gene to return quickly from repressed to active state and tones down the expression from the active SUP4 gene, required probably to maintain the balance in cellular tRNA pool.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkq1286DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3105386PMC
May 2011