Publications by authors named "Sahar E Fard"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Mechanisms of anti-retroviral drug resistance: implications for novel drug discovery and development.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2013 Oct;13(5):330-6

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Imam Khomeini Hospital, Keshavarz Blvd, Tehran, Iran.

Anti-retroviral drug resistance evolves as an inevitable consequence of expanded combination Anti-retroviral Therapy (cART). According to each drug class, resistance mutations may occur due to the infidel nature of HIV reverse transcriptase (RT) and inadequate drug pressures. Correspondingly, resistance to Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NRTIs) occurs due to incorporation impairment of the agent or its removal from the elongating viral DNA chain. With regard to Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors (NNRTIs), resistance mutations may alter residues of the RT hydrophobic pocket and demonstrate high level of cross resistance. However, resistance to Protease Inhibitors requires complex accumulation of primary and secondary mutations that substitute amino acids in proximity to the viral protease active site. Resistance to novel entry inhibitors may also evolve as a result of mutations that affect the interactions between viral glycoprotein and CD4 or the chemokine receptors. According to the current studies, future drug initiative programs should consider agents that possess higher genetic barrier toward resistance for ascertaining adequate drug efficacy among patients who have failed first-line regimens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1871526514666140321104049DOI Listing
October 2013

In vitro evaluation of biomimetic nanocomposite scaffold using endometrial stem cell derived osteoblast-like cells.

Tissue Cell 2013 Oct 14;45(5):328-37. Epub 2013 Jun 14.

Department of Tissue Engineering, School of Advanced Technologies in Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Current study encourages the differentiation of human endometrial stem cells into osteoblast-like cells using osteogenic media for potential bone tissue engineering purposes. A biomimetic nanocomposite scaffolds based on GEL/calcium phosphate were fabricated and behavior of differentiated osteoblast cells was evaluated after seeding on this scaffold. Prepared scaffolds were assessed in terms of attachment, alkaline phosphatase activity, gene expression and proliferation of osteoblast cells. The matrix mineralization was approved by alizarin red and the treated cultures with osteogenic media and BMP2 were positive for osteopontin and osteocalcin antibodies. RT-PCR confirmed presence of osteopontin, osteonectin and alkaline phosphatase mRNA after differentiation in EnSCs-derived osteoblast-like cells. Also, it has been shown that the biomimetic nanocomposites possess appropriate chemical and physical properties to support the attachment and proliferation of differentiated osteoblast cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tice.2013.05.002DOI Listing
October 2013

Adherence to anti-retroviral therapy and its determinants in HIV/AIDS patients: a review.

Infect Disord Drug Targets 2012 Oct;12(5):346-56

Iranian Research Center for HIV/AIDS (IRCHA), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Although Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART) significantly reduced HIV/AIDS mortality, appropriate adherence level is recommended for viral suppression and therapeutic response in People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). In the most studies, adherence is defined as taking ≥95% of prescribed medications. Poor or non-adherence may lead to treatment failure and drug resistance. There is no golden standard for evaluation of adherence to medication and many measurement methods are used to assess adherence rate. Moreover, several determinants have been contemplated for adherence in different studies; however, the exact roles of some determinants are not well established. The goals of this review are to describe the adherence rates, to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of common adherence measurement methods, to examine significant correlations related to adherence and to recommend strategies for improving adherence in clinical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/187152612804142251DOI Listing
October 2012