Publications by authors named "Saeideh Saadat"

27 Publications

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Human T-Cell Leukemia Virus Type 1 Changes Leukocyte Number and Oxidative Stress in the Lung and Blood of Female BALB/c Mice.

Adv Biomed Res 2021 30;10. Epub 2021 Jan 30.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1(HTLV-1) infection is likely to induce nonneoplastic inflammatory pulmonary diseases. Therefore, an experimental study was conducted to evaluate the leukocytes' number alteration and oxidative stress in the lung and blood of HTLV-1-infected BALB/c mice, which could be of benefit for the recognition of HTLV-1 mechanism in the induction of pulmonary disorders.

Materials And Methods: Twenty female BALB/c mice were divided into two groups of control and HTLV-1-infected animals. The HTLV-1-infected group was inoculated with 10 MT-2 HTLV-1-infected cells. Two months later, the infection was confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction, and then lung pathological changes, total and differential inflammatory cell counts in the blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), along with oxidative stress biomarker levels in the BALF and lung tissue were evaluated.

Results: In the HTLV-1-infected group, the peribronchitis score ( < 0.01), the number of total leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes ( < 0.05) in the blood and BALF were increased. The number of eosinophils in the blood of the HTLV-1-infected group was higher than in the control group ( < 0.01), whereas the number of basophils of BALF was increased in the HTLV-1-infected group ( < 0.001). The lung and BALF oxidative stress results showed that the MDA level was increased, while the total thiol level and superoxide dismutase activity were decreased in the HTLV-1-infected group ( < 0.01).

Conclusion: The HTLV-1 infection seems to induce pulmonary inflammatory reactions by recruiting leukocytes as well as inducing oxidative stress in the lung tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/abr.abr_117_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8095261PMC
January 2021

Thymoquinone Ameliorates Lung Inflammation and Pathological Changes Observed in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Lung Injury.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2021 30;2021:6681729. Epub 2021 Mar 30.

Applied Biomedical Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of thymoquinone (TQ) have been shown. The effects of TQ on lipopolysaccharide- (LPS-) induced inflammation and pathological changes in rats' lung were investigated in this study. Four groups of rats included (1) control (saline treated); (2) LPS (treated with 1 mg/kg/day i.p. for two weeks); and (3 and 4) 5 or 10 mg/kg TQ i.p. 30 min prior to LPS administration. Total and differential WBC counts in the blood and bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF), TGF-1, INF-, PGE2, and IL-4 levels in the BALF and pathological changes of the lung were evaluated. Total WBC count and eosinophil, neutrophil, and monocyte percentage were increased, but the lymphocyte percentage was reduced in the blood and BALF. The BALF levels of PGE2, TGF-1, and INF- were also increased, but IL-4 level was reduced due to LPS administration. LPS also induced pathological insults in the lung of rats ( < 0.05 to < 0.001 for all changes in LPS-exposed animals). Treatment with TQ showed a significant improvement in all changes induced by LPS ( < 0.05 to < 0.05). TQ showed a protective effect on LPS-induced lung inflammation and pathological changes in rats which suggested a therapeutic potential for TQ on lung injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6681729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8024078PMC
March 2021

Experimental and clinical reports on anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of Curcuma longa and curcumin, an updated and comprehensive review.

Biofactors 2021 Feb 19. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Curcuma longa (C. longa) or turmeric is a plant with a long history of use in traditional medicine, especially for treating inflammatory conditions C. longa and its main constituent, curcumin (CUR), showed various pharmacological effects such as antioxidant and anti-microbial properties. The updated knowledge of anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects of C. longa and CUR is provided in this review article. Pharmacological effects of C. longa, and CUR, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties, were searched using various databases and appropriate keywords until September 2020. Various studies showed anti-inflammatory effects of C. longa and CUR, including decreased white blood cell, neutrophil, and eosinophil numbers, and its protective effects on serum levels of inflammatory mediators such as phospholipase A2 and total protein in different inflammatory disorders. The antioxidant effects of C. longa and CUR were also reported in several studies. The plant extracts and CUR decreased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels but increased thiol, superoxide dismutase, and catalase levels in oxidative stress conditions. Treatment with C. longa and CUR also improved immunoglobulin E (Ig)E, pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin 4 (IL)-4, transforming growth factor-beta, IL-17, interferon-gamma levels, and type 1/type 2 helper cells (Th1)/(Th2) ratio in conditions with disturbance in the immune system. Therefore C. longa and CUR showed anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory effects, indicating a potential therapeutic effect of the plant and its constituent, CUR, for treating of inflammatory, oxidative, and immune dysregulation disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/biof.1716DOI Listing
February 2021

The Relaxant Effect of Plantago Major on Rat Tracheal Smooth Muscles and Its Possible Mechanisms.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2020 Aug 25;19(4):386-396. Epub 2020 Aug 25.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran AND Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

This study was conducted to evaluate the possible mechanisms of the relaxant effects of hydroalcoholic extract of Plantago major (P. major) on tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) in rats. The effects of cumulative concentrations of P. major (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/mL) and theophylline (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mM) were evaluated on pre-contracted TSM with 10 μΜ methacholine or 60 mM KCl. To determine the possible mechanisms, the relaxant effect of the plant was also examined on incubated TSM with atropine, indomethacin, chlorpheniramine, glibenclamide, diltiazem, papaverine, and propranolol. The results indicated concentration-dependent relaxant effects for P. major in non-incubated TSM contracted by methacholine or KCl. There was no statistically significant difference in the relaxant effects of P. major between non-incubated and incubated tissues with indomethacin, papaverine, and propranolol. However, the relaxant effects of P. major in incubated tissues with atropine (p<0.01 to p<0.001), chlorpheniramine (p<0.05 to p<0.001), glibenclamide (p<0.05), or diltiazem (p<0.01) were significantly lower than non-incubated TSM. P. major indicated relatively potent relaxant effects which were lower than those of theophylline. Muscarinic and histamine (H1) receptors inhibition, as well as calcium channel blocking and potassium channel opening effects are suggested to contribute to the TSM relaxant effect of the plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v19i4.4113DOI Listing
August 2020

The effects of Nigella sativa on respiratory, allergic and immunologic disorders, evidence from experimental and clinical studies, a comprehensive and updated review.

Phytother Res 2021 Jun 17;35(6):2968-2996. Epub 2021 Jan 17.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Nigella sativa (N. sativa) seed had been used traditionally due to several pharmacological effects. The updated experimental and clinical effects of N. sativa and its constituents on respiratory, allergic and immunologic disorders are provided in this comprehensive review article. Various databases including PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus were used. The preventive effects of N. sativa on pulmonary diseases were mainly due to its constituents such as thymoquinone, thymol, carvacrol and alpha-hederin. Extracts and constituents of N. sativa showed the relaxant effect, with possible mechanisms indicating its bronchodilatory effect in obstructive pulmonary diseases. In experimental animal models of different respiratory diseases, the preventive effect of various extracts and constituents of N. sativa was demonstrated by mechanisms such as antioxidant, immunomodulatory and antiinflammatory effects. Bronchodilatory and preventive effects of the plant and its components on asthma, COPD and lung disorders due to exposure to noxious agents as well as on allergic and immunologic disorders were also shown in the clinical studies. Various extracts and constituents of N. sativa showed pharmacological and therapeutic effects on respiratory, allergic and immunologic disorders indicating possible remedy effect of that the plant and its effective substances in treating respiratory, allergic and immunologic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.7003DOI Listing
June 2021

Correlation of Serum Adipolin with Epicardial Fat Thickness and Severity of Coronary Artery Diseases in Acute Myocardial Infarction and Stable Angina Pectoris Patients.

Med Princ Pract 2021 21;30(1):52-61. Epub 2020 May 21.

Lung Inflammatory Diseases Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran,

Objective: Adipolin/C1q/TNF-related protein-12 is a family of CTRPs highly expressed in adipose tissue with glucose-lowering and anti-inflammatory effects. Various risk factors have been suggested in the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, such as a decrease in anti-inflammatory or an increase in inflammatory factors. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the correlation of adipolin with anthropometric, angiographic, echocardiographic, and biochemical parameters.

Subject And Methods: A total of 90 patients who were candidates for angiography were included in the study and divided into 3 groups: 30 patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), 30 patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP), and 30 subjects as a control group with a history of chest pain but normal angiography. Anthropometric, angiographic, echocardiographic, and biochemical parameters were measured in all subjects.

Results: Serum adipolin levels were significantly decreased in patients with AMI compared with the SAP and control groups (p < 0.001 for both). In addition, there was a negative association between serum levels of adipolin and epicardial fat thickness (EFT) and Gensini score in CAD patients. The results of multivariate linear regression analysis revealed that EFT values were independently associated with serum adipolin levels.

Conclusion: The current study showed an independent association of adipolin with EFT for the first time in patients with AMI. Decreased adipolin levels in patients with AMI may be involved in the process of atherosclerosis, which requires further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508834DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7923895PMC
May 2020

Effects of levothyroxine on lung inflammation, oxidative stress and pathology in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

Respir Physiol Neurobiol 2020 06 5;277:103437. Epub 2020 Apr 5.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: In this study, the effect of levothyroxine (L-T4) on tracheal responsiveness, lung inflammation, oxidative stress and pathological features in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD), was evaluated.

Methods: An animal model of AD was established by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ) (3 mg/kg) in rats. The rats were then treated for 3 weeks with L-T4 (10 and 100 μg/kg).

Results: In AD animals, tracheal responsiveness to methacholine and ovalbumin (p < 0.05), white blood cell (WBC) count (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (p < 0.05) and inflammation score (p < 0.01) were increased, but superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total thiol content (for both cases p < 0.05) were decreased compared to the controls. Tracheal responsiveness to methacholine and MDA concentration (p < 0.05) were decreased in AD animals treated with T4 compared to the AD group. Bronchial inflammation in terms of total and some differential WBC in the BALF and inflammatory score, was significantly worsened in AD animals treated with high dose of T4 (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001) compared to the controls.

Conclusion: Alzheimer's disease may cause lung inflammation and treatment with low dose of T4 improved MDA level and lung inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.resp.2020.103437DOI Listing
June 2020

Rosuvastatin Affects Tracheal Responsiveness, Bronchoalveolar Lavage Inflammatory Cells, and Oxidative Stress Markers in Hyperlipidemic and Asthmatic Rats.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2019 Oct 12;18(6):624-638. Epub 2019 Oct 12.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran AND Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Statins provide greater protection than predicted from just cholesterol-lowering effects, which is possibly mediated by other pleiotropic actions. This study aimed to examine the possible interaction effect of asthma on lipid profiles and evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin treatment on asthma. The animals were assigned into (1) control, (2) asthmatic, (3) hyperlipidemic, (4) asthmatic-hyperlipidemic, (5) rosuvastatin (40 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally, for 3 weeks)-treated asthmatic, (6) rosuvastatin-treated hyperlipidemic and (7) rosuvastatin-treated asthmatic-hyperlipidemic groups. Tracheal responsiveness to methacholine and ovalbumin, total and differential WBC (white blood cell) counts, and oxidative stress markers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were evaluated. In the asthmatic and asthmatic-hyperlipidemic groups, tracheal responsiveness to ovalbumin, total WBC count, numbers of eosinophils, neutrophils, and monocytes were higher than the control group (p<0.001). A left-ward shift in the concentration-response curves to methacholine, an increase in nitrite and malondialdehyde concentrations, and a decrease in total thiol content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were also observed in the asthmatic and asthmatic-hyperlipidemic groups compared to control group (p<0.01 to p<0.001). Beyond lipid-lowering effect in the treated hyperlipidemic and asthmatic-hyperlipidemic groups, rosuvastatin treatment decreased tracheal responsiveness to methacholine, reduced total WBC count, the numbers of eosinophils, neutrophils, and monocytes, as well as decreased malondialdehyde concentration, and increased total thiol content, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in treated asthmatic and asthmatic-hyperlipidemic groups (p<0.05 to p<0.001). The improving effect of rosuvastatin on asthmatic and asthmatic-hyperlipidemic animals was shown due to pleiotropic mechanisms including the effect on airway hyperresponsiveness, lung inflammation, and oxidative stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v18i6.2175DOI Listing
October 2019

Calcium and potassium channels are involved in curcumin relaxant effect on tracheal smooth muscles.

Pharm Biol 2020 Dec;58(1):257-264

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Curcumin, the active component of L. (Zingiberaceae), exhibits a wide variety of biological activities including vasodilation and anti-inflammation. The relaxant effect of curcumin in tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) was not examined so far, thus, this study was designed to assess the relaxant effect of curcumin on rat TSM and examine the underlying mechanism(s) responsible for this effect. TSM was contracted by KCl (60 mM) or methacholine (10 μM), and cumulative concentrations of curcumin (12.5, 25, 50, and 100 mg/mL) or theophylline (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8 mM, as positive control) were added to organ bath. The relaxant effect of curcumin was examined in non-incubated or incubated tissues with atropine (1 μM), chlorpheniramine (1 μM), indomethacin (1 μM), and papaverine (100 μM). In non-incubated TSM, curcumin showed significant relaxant effects on KCl-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner ( < 0.001 for all concentrations). The relaxant effects of curcumin 12.5, 25, and 50 mg/mL were significantly lower in atropine-incubated tissue compared to non-incubated TSM ( < 0.05 to  < 0.001). A significant difference was observed in EC between atropine-incubated (48.10 ± 2.55) and non-incubated (41.65 ± 1.81) tissues ( < 0.05). Theophylline showed a significant relaxant effect on both KCl and methacholine-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner ( < 0.001 for all cases). The results indicated a relatively potent relaxant effect of curcumin on TSM, which was less marked than the effect of theophylline. Calcium channel blocking and/or potassium channel opening properties of curcumin may be responsible for TSM relaxation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2020.1723647DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7170316PMC
December 2020

A Randomized, Doubled-Blind Clinical Trial on the Effect of Zataria multiflora on Clinical Symptoms, Oxidative Stress, and C-Reactive Protein in COPD Patients.

J Clin Pharmacol 2020 07 23;60(7):867-878. Epub 2020 Mar 23.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

The effects of Zataria multiflora on clinical symptoms, pulmonary function tests, oxidative stress, and C-reactive protein levels in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were evaluated. Forty-five patients were allocated to 3 groups: placebo group and 2 groups that received 3 and 6 mg/kg/day Z. multiflora extract (Z3 and Z6) for 2 months. Clinical symptoms, pulmonary function tests, oxidative stress, and serum C-reactive protein levels were evaluated pretreatment (step 0) and 1 (step I) and 2 (step II) months after treatment. Clinical symptoms including breathlessness and chest wheeze in Z3- and Z6-treated groups and sputum production only in the Z6-treated group were significantly improved 1 and 2 months after treatment compared with baseline values (P < .01 to P < .001). The FEV was significantly increased after 2 months of treatment with Z3 and Z6 (P < .05 to P < .01). Malondialdehyde and nitrite levels were significantly decreased after a 2-month treatment with Z6 compared with step 0 (P < .05 to P < .01). The thiol contents in the Z6 group as well as superoxide dismutase and catalase activities in both groups treated with the extract were significantly increased in step II compared with step 0 (P < .05 to P < .01). The C-reactive protein level at the end of the study was significantly reduced compared with the step 0 in both treated groups (P < .05 for both cases). Two-month treatment with Z. multiflora improved clinical symptoms, pulmonary function tests, oxidative stress, and C-reactive protein in COPD patients. The results suggest that this herbal medicine could be of therapeutic value as a preventive drug for the treatment of COPD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcph.1586DOI Listing
July 2020

Contribution of potassium channels, beta2-adrenergic and histamine H1 receptors in the relaxant effect of baicalein on rat tracheal smooth muscle.

Iran J Basic Med Sci 2019 Nov;22(11):1347-1352

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objectives: Baicalein, a compound extracted from a variety of herbs, showed various pharmacological effects. This study evaluated the relaxant effects of baicalein and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action on rat's isolated tracheal smooth muscle.

Materials And Methods: Tracheal smooth muscle were contracted by 10 μM methacholine or 60 mM KCl and the effects of cumulative concentrations of baicalein (5, 10, 20 and 40 mg/ml) and theophylline (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mM) were evaluated. To examine the possible mechanism(s) of the relaxant effect of baicalein, its effect was also evaluated on incubated tissues with atropine, indomethacin, diltiazem, N(G)-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), glibenclamide, propranolol and chlorpheniramine.

Results: A concentration-dependent and significant relaxant effect was seen for baicalein in non-incubated tissues contracted by KCl or methacholine (0.01 to 0.001). No significant difference was seen between the relaxant effects of high concentrations of baicalein and theophylline. The relaxant effects of all concentrations of baicalein in incubated tissues with glibenclamide, propranolol and chlorpheniramine were significantly lower than non-incubated tissues (0.05 to 0.001). Additionally, the EC values of baicalein in incubated tissue with propranolol was significantly higher than non-incubated condition (0.05).

Conclusion: A potent relaxant effect comparable to the effect of theophylline was shown for baicalein, which was probably mediated via inhibition of histamine (H1) receptors, stimulation of beta2-adrenergic receptors and potassium channels activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.22038/ijbms.2019.36377.8666DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7038427PMC
November 2019

Rosuvastatin suppresses cytokine production and lung inflammation in asthmatic, hyperlipidemic and asthmatic-hyperlipidemic rat models.

Cytokine 2020 04 31;128:154993. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Background: Given the role that T lymphocytes play on the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, drugs targeting Th2 and Th17 cells may be a hopeful therapeutic strategy. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of rosuvastatin treatment on cytokine production and lung inflammation in allergic asthma.

Methods: The animals were assigned into control (C), asthmatic (A), hyperlipidemic (H), asthmatic-hyperlipidemic (AH), rosuvastatin (40 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally, for 3 weeks)-treated asthmatic (AR), rosuvastatin-treated hyperlipidemic (HR) and rosuvastatin-treated asthmatic-hyperlipidemic (AHR) groups (n = 6 in each group). The levels of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17, total and differential WBC counts in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), Th1/Th2 balance, and pathological changes were evaluated.

Results: The BALF level of IL-4 in A, H and AH groups, and IL-17A in A and AH groups were significantly higher than that in C group (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). IFN-γ level and Th1/Th2 balance (IFN‑γ/IL-4 ratio) in A and AH groups were significantly decreased (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01). Inflammatory cells infiltration, muscle hypertrophy and emphysema were also observed in A and AH groups. The BALF levels of IL-4 in AR, HR and AHR groups, IFN-γ level in HR group, and IL-17A level in AR and AHR groups showed a significant improvement compared to that of A, H and AH groups (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Rosuvastatin treatment increased Th1/Th2 balance in all treated groups (p < 0.05 to p < 0.01), decreased total WBC counts, neutrophilia, eosinophilia and lung inflammation in AR and AHR groups, and improved muscle hypertrophy and emphysema in AHR group.

Conclusions: Rosuvastatin treatment improved lung pathological changes by suppression of Th2 and Th17-mediated cytokines which was unrelated to its lipid-lowering activity. Therefore, rosuvastatin might be a candidate immunomodulatory drug for treatment of patients with allergic asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cyto.2020.154993DOI Listing
April 2020

Treadmill exercise restores memory and hippocampal synaptic plasticity impairments in ovalbumin-sensitized juvenile rats: Involvement of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).

Neurochem Int 2020 05 23;135:104691. Epub 2020 Jan 23.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Studies demonstrate that asthma, especially during childhood, affects the functions of the brain including learning and memory. Exercise is well known for its neuroprotective functions and for its beneficial effects on asthma. We aimed to assess the effects of exercise on cognitive function, synaptic plasticity, and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in ovalbumin (OVA) sensitized juvenile rats. Rats were sensitized by intraperitoneal administration and inhaled OVA. Animals were subjected to treadmill running exercise during the OVA-challenged period. T-helper type 2 (Th2) cytokine [interleukin (IL)-4], Th1 cytokine (INF-γ) levels, and INF-γ/IL-4 (Th1/Th2) ratio in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and tracheal response to methacholine and OVA were measured. Further, memory behaviors and BDNF levels were measured in the hippocampus as well as long-term potentiation (LTP) was assessed by recording field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) in the hippocampus. The levels of IL-4 and TGF-β were decreased but INF-γ level and INF-γ/IL-4 ratio increased in the BALF due to exercise in the OVA-sensitized animals. In addition, exercise improved OVA-sensitization induced cognitive impairments, increased BDNF levels, and enhanced hippocampal LTP in OVA-sensitized rats. Exercise is not only effective in the alleviation of airway inflammation by restoring Th1/Th2 cytokines balance, but also is a candidate for improvement of memory and synaptic plasticity deficits partially through increasing the levels of hippocampal BDNF in OVA-sensitized rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuint.2020.104691DOI Listing
May 2020

Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of hydro-ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum leaves and its effect on lung pathological changes in an ovalbumin-induced rat model of asthma.

BMC Complement Altern Med 2019 Dec 4;19(1):349. Epub 2019 Dec 4.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Background: Ocimum species (Lamiaceae) has been traditionally used for treatment of upper respiratory tract infections, bronchitis, coughs, sore throat, and wound healing. The Immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of hydro-ethanolic extract of Ocimum basilicum (O. basilicum) leaves was examined in ovalbumin sensitized animals.

Methods: Wistar rats were divided to six groups; non-sensitized, sensitized to ovalbumin, sensitized and treated with dexamethasone (1.25 μg/mL), and O. basilicum extract (0.75, 1.50 and 3.00 mg/mL) in drinking water for 21 days. The levels of interleukin 4 (IL-4), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio, immunoglobulin E (IgE), phospholipase A (PLA) and total protein (TP) in BALF, and lung pathological changes were examined.

Results: A significant increase in IL-4, IgE, PLA and TP levels, all lung pathological indices as well as significant decrease in IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio was seen in the asthmatic compared to the control rats (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001). Treatment with O. basilicum extract resulted in decreased IL-4, IgE, PLA and TP levels, but increased IFN-γ/IL-4 ratio compared to untreated sensitized rats (P < 0.01 to P < 0.001). The plant significantly improved the pathological changes of sensitized rats (P < 0.05 to P < 0.01). The improvement effects of higher concentrations of the O. basilicum extract were significantly more than those of dexamethasone (P < 0.05 to P < 0.001).

Conclusion: The improvement effects of O. basilicum on pathological changes, immunological and inflammatory markers in sensitized rats comparable or even more potent than dexamethasone suggests the therapeutic potential of the plant in asthma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12906-019-2765-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6894265PMC
December 2019

The effect of hydroalcoholic extract on memory and lung changes induced by rats that inhaled paraquat.

Nutr Neurosci 2019 Oct 4:1-14. Epub 2019 Oct 4.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences , Mashhad , Iran.

The effects of hydroalcoholic extract of () on memory changes, as well as lung injury due to inhaled paraqut (PQ) in rat, were examined. Control group of rat with saline aerosol administration, PQ groups with PQ aerosol (27 and 54 mg/m) administration, PQ groups treated with two doses of the extract (200 and 800 mg/kg/day) and dexamethasone (0.03 mg/kg/day) were studied. Shuttle box and Morris Water Maze (MWM) tests were carried out as well as oxidant, anti-oxidant markers, total and differential white blood cell (WBC) counts and cytokine levels in broncho-alveolar lavage (BALF). Inhaled PQ significantly increased the escape latency and travelled distance in MWM test, but the time spent in the target quadrant on the probe day was significantly reduced ( < 0.05 to p < 0.001). The latency to enter the dark room at 3, 24, and 48 h after an electrical shock was reduced due to PQ ( < 0.05 to < 0.001). Exposure to PQ significantly increased total WBC, neutrophil, eosinophil, lymphocyte, and monocyte counts, IL-10, interferon gama (INF-γ), nitrite (NO), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, but catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and thiol levels were decreased ( < 0.05 to < 0.00). and dexamethasone treatment significantly improved all behavioral as well as lung changes induced by inhaled PQ ( < 0.05 to < 0.01). treatment improved learning and memory impairment as well as lung inflammation and oxidative stress induced by inhaled PQ.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2019.1668173DOI Listing
October 2019

Histamine (H1) Receptors, Cyclooxygenase Pathway and Nitric Oxide Formation Involved in Rat Tracheal Smooth Muscle Relaxant Effect of Berberine.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2019 Jun 8;18(3):320-331. Epub 2019 Jun 8.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran AND Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

In this study we aimed to examine the relaxant effect of berberine, a compound extracted from a variety of herbs, on rat tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) and its possible mechanism(s). Cumulative concentrations of berberine (20, 65, 200 and 600 μg/mL) were added on pre-contracted TSM by methacholine or KCl in non-incubated or incubated tissues with atropine, chlorpheniramine, propranolol, diltiazem, glibenclamide, indomethacin, L-NG-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and papaverine. The relaxant effects of theophylline (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mM) as positive control and saline (1 mL) as negative control were also examined in non-incubated tissues. Berberine showed significant and concentration-dependent relaxant effects in non-incubated tissues contracted by KCl and methacholine (p<0.01 to p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the relaxant effects of berberine between non-incubated and incubated tissues with atropine, propranolol, diltiazem, glibenclamide, and papaverine. The relaxant effects of second concentrations of berberine in incubated tissues with L-NAME, its three lower concentration in incubated tissues with chlorpheniramine and its all concentrations in incubated tissues with indomethacin were significantly lower than non-incubated tissues (p<0.05 to p<0.001). The EC50 values of berberine in incubated tissues with chlorpheniramine was significantly higher than the non-incubated condition (p<0.05). Our findings reveal a relatively potent relaxant effect of berberine that is lower than the effect of theophylline. Proposed mechanisms for the relaxant effect of berberine are histamine (H1) receptor blockade, inhibition of cyclooxygenase pathways and/or nitric oxide formation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18502/ijaai.v18i3.1125DOI Listing
June 2019

The contribution of beta-2 adrenergic, muscarinic and histamine (H) receptors, calcium and potassium channels and cyclooxygenase pathway in the relaxant effect of Allium cepa L. on the tracheal smooth muscle.

J Ethnopharmacol 2019 Sep 3;241:112012. Epub 2019 Jun 3.

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Ethnopharmacological Relevance: There are report regarding therapeutic effects for Allium cepa L. (A. cepa) in Iranian traditional medicine and the plant has showed anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic, anti-hyperglycemic, antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-hypertension, anti-hypercholesterolemia and anti-asthmatic activities in previous studies.

Aim Of The Study: In this study, the contribution of β2 adrenergic, muscarinic and histamine (H1) receptors, calcium and potassium channels, and cyclooxygenase pathway in the relaxant effect of A. cepa extract on tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) was assessed.

Materials And Methods: TSM was contracted by KCl (60 mM) or methacholine (10 μM) for 5 min and cumulative concentrations of A. cepa extract (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 mg/ml) were added to organ bath every 5 min. Theophylline (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mM) as positive control, and saline (1 ml) as negative control were also examined in non-incubated tissues. The relaxant effect of A. cepa extract was examined on non-incubated and incubated TSM with propranolol, chlorpheniramine, diltiazem, atropine, glibenclamide and indomethacin.

Results: A. cepa showed concentration-dependent relaxant effects on non-incubated TSM contracted by KCl (60 mM) or methacholine (10 μM), (P < 0.01 to p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in the relaxant effects of A. cepa between non-incubated and incubated tissues with glibenclamide, atropine, chlorpheniramine and indomethacin. The plant extract showed significant lower relaxant effects in incubated TSM with propranolol and diltiazem compared to non-incubated tissues. EC50 values of A. cepa extract in incubated TSM with propranolol and diltiazem were significantly lower than non-incubated tissues (p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). The relaxant effects of different concentrations of the extract of A. cepa were not significantly different with those of theophylline. The concentrations of A. cepa extract and theophylline were significant correlated with their relaxant effects (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). In incubated TSM with propranolol and diltiazem, concentration ratio minus one (CR-1) values was positive (2.65 ± 0.63 and 1.28 ± 0.43 respectively).

Conclusion: The A. cepa extract showed relatively potent relaxant effect on TSM which was comparable to the effect of theophylline. The results showed that β2-adrenergic stimulatory and/or calcium channel blockade are the possible mechanisms for the relaxant effects of the plant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2019.112012DOI Listing
September 2019

Clinical and experimental effects of and its constituents on respiratory and allergic disorders.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2019 May-Jun;9(3):195-212

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Objective: Black cumin or () seed has been widely used traditionally as a medicinal natural product because of its therapeutic effects. In this review, the medicinal properties of as a healing remedy for the treatment of respiratory and allergic diseases, were evaluated.

Material And Methods: Keywords including , black seed, thymoquinone, respiratory, pulmonary, lung and allergic diseases were searched in medical and nonmedical databases (i.e. PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar). Preclinical studies and clinical trials published between 1993 and 2018 were selected.

Results: In experimental and clinical studies, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, antihistaminic, antiallergic, antitussive and bronchodilatory properties of different extracts, extracts fractions and constituents were demonstrated. Clinical studies also showed bronchodilatory and preventive properties of the plant in asthmatic patients. The extract of showed a preventive effect on lung disorders caused by sulfur mustard exposure. The therapeutic effects of the plant and its constituents on various allergic disorders were also demonstrated.

Conclusion: Therefore, and its constituents may be considered effective remedies for treatment of allergic and obstructive lung diseases as well as other respiratory diseases.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6526035PMC
May 2019

Aminoguanidine affects systemic and lung inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide in rats.

Respir Res 2019 May 22;20(1):96. Epub 2019 May 22.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, 9177948564, Iran.

Background: Nitric oxide is a mediator of potential importance in numerous physiological and inflammatory processes in the lung. Aminoguanidine (AG) has been shown to have anti-inflammation and radical scavenging properties. This study aimed to investigate the effects of AG, an iNOS inhibitor, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced systemic and lung inflammation in rats.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were divided into control, LPS (1 mg/kg/day i.p.), and LPS groups treated with AG 50, 100 or 150 mg/kg/day i.p. for five weeks. Total nitrite concentration, total and differential white blood cells (WBC) count, oxidative stress markers, and the levels of IL-4, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, and PGE2 were assessed in the serum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF).

Results: Administration of LPS decreased IL-4 level (p < 0.01) in BALF, total thiol content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities (p < 0.001) in BALF and serum, and increased total nitrite, malondialdehyde (MDA), IFN-γ, TGF-β1 and PGE2 (p < 0.001) concentrations in BALF. Pre-treatment with AG increased BALF level of IL-4 and total thiol as well as SOD and CAT activities (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001), but decreased BALF levels of total nitrite, MDA, IFN-γ, TGF-β1, and PGE2 (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001). AG treatment decreased total WBC count, lymphocytes and macrophages in BALF (p < 0.01 to p < 0.001) and improved lung pathological changes including interstitial inflammation and lymphoid infiltration (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001).

Conclusions: AG treatment reduced oxidant markers, inflammatory cytokines and lung pathological changes but increased antioxidants and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Therefore, AG may play a significant protective role against inflammation and oxidative stress that cause lung injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12931-019-1054-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6530199PMC
May 2019

The Stimulatory Effects of Medicinal Plants on β2-adrenoceptors of Tracheal Smooth Muscle.

Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol 2019 Feb;18(1):12-26

Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran AND Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Medicinal plants have been identified and used as primary sources in prevention and treatment of pulmonary diseases (mainly obstructive pulmonary diseases) from ancient times due to various pharmacological activities. In this review, the stimulatory effects of extracts, some fractions and constituents of medicinal plants on β2-adrenoceptors which could be used as possible therapeutic agents in the future were reviewed. Various databases including; Medline, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched using stimulatory effect, β2-adrenoceptors, possible mechanism, tracheal smooth muscle (TSM), medicinal plants and their constituents as keywords from 1985 to 2017. All studied plants including; Nigella sativa, Rosa damascena, Thymus vulgaris, Carum copticom, Carum carvi, Zataria multiflora, Crocus sativus, Cuminum cyminum, Liomnia acidissima, Portulaca oleraceae, Satureja hortensis, Ephedra sinica and Achillea millefolium showed relaxant effect on tracheal smooth muscle with a stimulatory effect on β2-adrenoceptors mechanism. The studied plants and their constituents could be of therapeutic value in clinical practice as a bronchodilatory drug by β2-adrenoceptors stimulatory mechanism for treatment of obstructive pulmonary diseases.
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February 2019

Protective effects of curcumin against ischemia-reperfusion injury in the liver.

Pharmacol Res 2019 03 15;141:53-62. Epub 2018 Dec 15.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran; School of Pharmacy, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran. Electronic address:

Liver ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is a major complication of hepatic surgery and transplantation. It is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality because of post-surgery hepatic dysfunction. Several studies have suggested different mechanisms are involved in the pathogenesis of I/R injury in the liver that includes oxidative stress, inflammation, mitochondria dysfunction, liver Kupffer cells (KCs) activation, vascular cell adhesion molecule overexpression, and facilitation of polymorphonuclear neutrophil injury. Curcumin is a natural product extracted from Curcuma longa that is known to suppress these pathways and as a result reduces liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. This paper gives an overview of the protective effects of curcumin against I/R injury in the liver and discusses the studies that have linked biological functions of curcumin with liver I/R injury improvement.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2018.12.014DOI Listing
March 2019

The effects of medicinal plants on muscarinic receptors in various types of smooth muscle.

Phytother Res 2018 Dec 22;32(12):2340-2363. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Neurogenic Inflammation Research Center, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Pharmacological agents that can affect muscarinic receptors are commonly used to treat or manage various diseases. Medicinal plants have been used from ancient time to treat cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital disorders, which may related to their muscarinic receptors effects. Several pharmacological studies revealed the inhibitory or stimulatory effect of some herbal plants on muscarinic receptors. Medline, PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar as online database were searched from the beginning of 1983 to March 2018 using following keywords: muscarinic receptor, medicinal plant, herbal medicine, and smooth muscle, animal, human, in vivo, and in vitro. The original studies in English language were included. Based on the results of the reviewed articles, more than 70 medicinal plants extracts or constituents affected muscarinic receptors (stimulatory or inhibitory) of smooth muscles in cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, respiratory, and urogenital systems. Among them, there are some tropical plant and herbs that have been traditionally used as food additive. The therapeutic properties of these plants may be regarded in treatment of cardiovascular (hypertension and tachycardia); gastrointestinal (diarrhea, colitis, and constipation); and urological (overactive bladder, abortion, and preterm labor) diseases. However, more clinical trials are needed to use some of these medicinal plants in clinical target therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6179DOI Listing
December 2018

Comparative Antitussive Effects of Medicinal Plants and Their Constituents.

Altern Ther Health Med 2018 Jul;24(4):36-49

Context: The cough is a protective reflex, with 2 types, one being more sensitive to mechanical stimulation and the other to chemical stimulation, such as sulfur dioxide, ammonia, citric acid, and capsaicin. Some evidence is available that suppressant therapy is most effective when used for the short-term reduction of coughing. Today, use of herbal drugs is increasing all over the world for various ailments, including to provide antitussive activity.

Objective: The study intended to review the antitussive effects of various extracts, some fractions, and some constituents of the studied medicinal plants.

Design: Various databases, including the Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, and Google Scholar, were searched for studies published between 1978 and 2015, using the keywords antitussive and cough and the names of various medicinal plants and their constituents.

Setting: The study took place in the districts related to Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (Mashhad, Iran).

Outcome Measures: The antitussive effects of medicinal plants and their constituents were normalized to 50 mg/kg and 1 mg/mL against various cough stimulants and compared.

Results: The most potent antitussive effect was observed for Nigella sativa and Linum usitatissimum on coughs induced by sulfur dioxide. Artemisia absinthium showed a higher antitussive effect on cough induced by ammonia compared with the other studied medicinal plants. The antitussive effects of Cuminum cyminum and Glycyrrhiza glabra were more potent on cough induced by citric acid than other medicinal plants.

Conclusions: These results suggest the therapeutic potential of the studied medicinal plants as antitussive therapies. However, only a few clinical studies have examined the antitussive effects of medicinal plants, and more clinical studies are needed. The underlying mechanisms of the antitussive effects of medicinal plants should be also examined in further studies.
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July 2018

Effect of Alpha-Hederin, the active constituent of Nigella sativa, on miRNA-126, IL-13 mRNA levels and inflammation of lungs in ovalbumin-sensitized male rats.

Avicenna J Phytomed 2016 Jan-Feb;6(1):77-85

Tuberculosis and lung diseases research center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Objective: In previous studies the therapeutic effects of Nigella sativa have been demonstrated on asthmatic animals. In the present study, the preventive effect of single dose of alpha-hederin, its active constituent, has been evaluated on lung inflammation and some inflammatory mediators in lungs of ovalbumin sensitized rat in order to elicit its mechanism.

Materials And Methods: Forty rats were randomly grouped in 4 groups; control (C), sensitized (S), sensitized pretreated groups with thymoquinone (3 mg/kg i.p., S+TQ) and alpha-hederin (0.02 mg/kg i.p., S+AH). Levels of IL-13 mRNA and miRNA-126 in lung tissue and its pathological changes in each group were assessed.

Results: Elevated levels of miRNA-126, IL-13 mRNA and pathological changes were observed in the sensitized group compared to the control group (p<0.001 to p<0.05). All of these factors were significantly reduced in S+TQ and S+AH groups in comparison to S group (p<0.001 to p<0.05). Although alpha-hederin decreased the levels of miRNA-126, IL-13 mRNA and pathological changes in comparison with thymoquinone, the results were statistically not significant.

Conclusion: The results suggested that alpha-hederin had preventive effect on sensitized rats like thymoquinone. It may intervene in miRNA-126 expression, which consequently could interfere with IL-13 secretion pathway leading to a reduction in inflammatory responses.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4884220PMC
June 2016

Effect of α-Hederin on IL-2 and IL-17 mRNA and miRNA-133a Levels in Lungs of Ovalbumin-Sensitized Male Rats.

Drug Dev Res 2016 Mar 10;77(2):87-93. Epub 2016 Feb 10.

Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

α-hederin, a saponin that is a major constituent of English Ivy (Hedera helix) is effective in the treatment of asthma. In the present study, the effect of α-hederin on lung tissue pathology and the levels of the inflammatory mediators; IL-2 mRNA, IL-17 mRNA, and MicroRNAs (miRNA)-133a was evaluated in a rat ovalbumin (OVA)-sensitized model of asthma. Rats were divided randomly into control (C), OVA-sensitized (S), OVA-sensitized pretreated with the antioxidant, thymoquinone (3 mg/kg, S + TQ) or OVA-sensitized pretreated with α-hederin (0.02 mg/kg, S + AH) groups. Levels of IL-2 and IL-17 mRNA were higher in the OVA-sensitized group than controls while the level of miRNA-133a gene expression was lower. IL-2 mRNA and miRNA-133a gene expression in the S + TQ group was higher than in the control and OVA-sensitized groups while the level of IL-17 mRNA in the S + TQ group was lower than in the OVA-sensitized group. Pretreatment with α-hederin decreased IL-17 mRNA levels and increased miRNA-133a gene expression compared with OVA-sensitized animals. All pathological changes in pretreated groups were lower than the OVA-sensitized group. These results showed a beneficial effect of α-hederin in OVA-sensitized rats, suggesting that α-hederin affects the IL-2 and IL-17 secretion pathways, altering miRNA-133a expression.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ddr.21292DOI Listing
March 2016

The Protective Effect of α-Hederin, the Active Constituent of Nigella sativa, on Lung Inflammation and Blood Cytokines in Ovalbumin Sensitized Guinea Pigs.

Phytother Res 2015 Nov 21;29(11):1761-7. Epub 2015 Aug 21.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

In the present study, the preventive effect of two different concentrations of α-hederin, the active constituent of Nigella sativa, on lung inflammation and blood cytokines in ovalbumin sensitized guinea pigs was examined. Forty eight male adult guinea pigs were divided into control (C), sensitized (S) and sensitized pretreated groups; with thymoquinone (S+TQ), low dose (S+LAH) and high dose of α-hederin (S+HAH) and inhaled fluticasone propionate (S+FP). The lung histopathology and blood levels of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-17 were assessed. Compared to sensitized animals, all pathological changes improved significantly in pretreated groups (p < 0.001 to p < 0.05). These improvements in α-hederin pretreated groups were similar to S+TQ and S+FP groups except cellular infiltration in S+LAH and S+HAH groups which was lower than S+TQ group (p < 0.05). The blood IL-4 and IL-17 levels in S+HAH groups showed a significant decrease compared to S group (p < 0.05) which were similar to S+TQ and S+FP groups. The level of IFN-γ in S+LAH and S+HAH groups increased significantly compared to S group (p < 0.05) which was higher than S+FP group (p < 0.05). Blood IL-4 in S+HAH group was significantly lower than S+LAH group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, α-hederin could attenuate the lung inflammation and improve the changes of cytokines like thymoquinone and fluticasone in used dosages.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.5429DOI Listing
November 2015

The protective effect of α-hederin, the active constituent of Nigella sativa, on tracheal responsiveness and lung inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs.

J Physiol Sci 2015 May 10;65(3):285-92. Epub 2015 Mar 10.

Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Many investigations have demonstrated the prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa on asthma disease. One of its active constituents is α-hederin. In the present study, the preventive effect of two different concentrations of α-hederin on tracheal responsiveness and lung inflammation in ovalbumin-sensitized guinea pigs was examined. Forty male adult Dunkin-Hartley guinea pigs were randomly divided into the control (C), sensitized (S) and sensitized pretreated groups with thymoquinone (3 mg/kg i.p., S + TQ), low-dose α-hederin (0.3 mg/kg i.p., S + LAH) and high-dose α-hederin (3 mg/kg i.p., S + HAH). The responsiveness of tracheal smooth muscle (TR) to methacholine, histamine and ovalbumin was assessed. Moreover, total and differential white blood cell counts in lung lavage fluid were examined. Compared with the S group, the mean EC50 value in the S + LAH group increased significantly (p < 0.05). The mean EC50 value of histamine contraction in the S + LAH and S + HAH groups was significantly higher than in the S group (p < 0.05). In all pretreated groups, the TR to ovalbumin decreased in comparison to the S group (p < 0.001). Both the S + HAH and S + LAH groups showed significantly decreased TR compared to the S + TQ group (p < 0.01-p < 0.01). Total WBC and eosinophil counts in all pretreated groups decreased significantly in comparison with the S group (0.001-0.01). There was a significant increase in neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts in the pretreated groups compared to the S group (p < 0.001-p < 0.05). The basophil count in the S + TQ and S + HAH groups was significantly lower than in the S group (p < 0.01-p < 0.05). This study suggested that α-hederin has anti-inflammatory and bronchodilatory effects like thymoquinone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12576-015-0367-6DOI Listing
May 2015