Publications by authors named "Saeid Tavanafar"

21 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The effects of orthognathic surgery on auditory function.

Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Mar 25;43(1):11. Epub 2021 Mar 25.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Orthognathic surgery is widely used in treating functional and skeletal problems. Any surgical procedure could cause side effects.

Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the potential changes in orthognathic surgery on the hearing function of patients.

Materials And Methods: Thirty-one orthognathic surgery candidates were recruited in this study. Patients underwent either single or double jaw surgery. Pure tone audiometry (PTA), tympanometry, and Eustachian Tube Dysfunction Test (ETFT) were performed postoperatively at 24 h, 6 weeks, and 6 months after surgery. Patients were tabulated based on the type of maxilla and mandibular surgical movements (vertical and horizontal).

Results: PTA evaluation, based on horizontal or vertical movements, did not show significant differences, although vertical movements resulted in less change in hearing threshold. In other words, no significant changes occurred in patients' hearing threshold after surgery. No significant difference was also observed between horizontal and vertical movements in the results of tympanometry. Negative changes were found in the results of ETFT in vertical movements, which returned to pre-surgery values in the final test.

Conclusions: The risk of minor changes in hearing function is probable during the first week after orthognathic surgery, but these negative changes will either totally fade or remain negligible. Patients gave informed consent preoperatively, and reassurance postoperatively is prudent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40902-021-00296-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7994494PMC
March 2021

A Long-Standing Giant Mandibular Ameloblastoma and its Management with Microvascular Free Fibular Graft: a Case Report.

J Dent (Shiraz) 2021 Mar;22(1):71-75

Computed Tomography Technician, Shahid Rajaei Acute Care Surgical Hospital, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Ameloblastoma is one of the most common benign epithelial odontogenic tumors of jaws. We report a case of long-standing slow-growing giant ameloblastoma involving almost all of mandibular bone. The solid multicystic lesion was excised, and the histopathological examination showed the follicular type of ameloblastoma. Furthermore, the defect was reconstructed with microvascular osteocutaneous free fibular graft.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.30476/DENTJODS.2020.81805.0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921762PMC
March 2021

Does the systemic administration of L-arginine affect dental implant stability in nicotine consumer dogs?

Maxillofac Plast Reconstr Surg 2021 Feb 10;43(1). Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, Qazvin, Iran.

Background: Nicotine can have detrimental effects on dental implant osseointegration. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of systemic L-arginine supplement on the osseointegration of dental implants in nicotine consumer dogs.

Methods: Twelve 1-year Labrador Retriever dogs had their right and left third and fourth mandibular premolars removed, and the sockets were left to heal for 6 months. Dogs were randomly divided into three groups (n = 16): group 1-0.2 mg/kg nicotine was injected twice daily; group 2-0.2 mg/kg nicotine was injected twice daily in addition to 200 mg/kg L-arginine capsules taken orally; and group 3-placebo. Forty-eight dental implants were inserted into the healed sockets of the dog's mandible and were assessed by implant stability quotient (ISQ) using resonance frequency analysis (RFA) during 4 weeks and insertion and removal torque value analysis.

Results: No implant failure occurred during the study period. The change in torque value between insertion and removal was similar in the placebo and nicotine+arginine consumer dogs (p = 0.276), which shows a positive effect of arginine supplementation in nicotine consumers. There was a significant difference in torque value change between nicotine+arginine vs. nicotine consumers (p = 0.049) and placebo vs. nicotine (p = 0.003). After 4 weeks, the placebo had the most significant improvement in torque value (47.0 ± 16.9), followed by nicotine+arginine (25.1 ± 37.8), and the worst torque value was for the nicotine group (- 5.7 ± 24.0) pound per inch. The results show that except in the first week, there are significant differences in ISQ between the groups in different periods. ISQ in all of the groups has reduced at first but then increased over time. At the time of implant placement, insertion torque was significantly higher in the nicotine consumer group than the nicotine+arginine consumer group and placebo group (p = 0.020).

Conclusion: Arginine supplementation promotes bone healing and implant primary stability by improving dental implant osseointegration biomechanical characteristics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40902-021-00292-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876185PMC
February 2021

Maxillary Sinus Myxofibrosarcoma Mimicking Nodular Fasciitis: A Rare Case Report.

Head Neck Pathol 2021 Feb 5. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Medicine, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Science, Shiraz, Iran.

Myxofibrosarcoma (MFS) is a fibroblastic soft tissue sarcoma that is extremely rare in the maxillofacial region. Due to its non-specific clinicoradiographic findings and challenging histopathological features, the diagnosis is difficult. Here, we present a case of MFS which was first diagnosed as nodular fasciitis. The initial examination of the incisional biopsy showed a benign-appearing proliferation of fibroblasts without features of malignancy. The patient returned with recurrence four months after surgical excision of the primary lesion. The second histologic study revealed a high-grade spindle cell sarcoma with myxoid features most compatible with MFS. Definitive diagnosis of MFS was confirmed by these histopathologic features and supportive immunohistochemical stains. Unfortunately, the patient died of disease 3 months later.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12105-021-01298-5DOI Listing
February 2021

Kissing tumors; the concurrent diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.

BMC Surg 2021 Jan 6;21(1):14. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Radiology, Medical Imaging Research Center, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Esophageal leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a rare tumor that constitutes less than 1% of all malignant esophageal tumors. Concurrent occurrence of esophageal leiomyosarcoma with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is even rarer than isolated leiomyosarcoma.

Case Presentation: In this report, we present a case of concurrent leiomyosarcoma and SCC in a 64-year-old woman presenting with vomiting and solid dysphagia, which has not been properly diagnosed following several referrals and diagnostic modalities. At last Exploratory laparotomy with gastric pull-up was performed in addition to radical laryngectomy with partial resection of the esophagus and subtotal thyroidectomy. Pathologic evaluation of the surgical specimen showed concurrent LMS (5.2 × 4.5 × 3 cm) and SCC (1.5 × 0.6 × 0.6 cm) at the same anatomical level in the proximal esophagus.

Conclusions: This study proposes the importance of using ancillary diagnostic tests such as immunohistochemistry (IHC) to diagnose less common cases such as concurrent LMS and SCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12893-020-01031-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7789589PMC
January 2021

Synergic effects of decellularized bone matrix, hydroxyapatite, and extracellular vesicles on repairing of the rabbit mandibular bone defect model.

J Transl Med 2020 09 22;18(1):361. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Tissue Engineering Lab, Anatomy Department, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: Extracellular vesicles (ECV) and bone extracellular matrix (ECM) have beneficial effects on the treatment of some pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to find the synergic effects of decellularized bone (DB) ECM and ECVs on the repair of rabbit.

Methods: The quality of decellularized sheep bones was confirmed by H&E, Hoechst, DNA quantification, immunohistochemistry, histochemical staining, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Osteoblast-derived ECVs were evaluated by internalization test, Transmission electron microscopy, Dynamic light scattering, and flow cytometry for CD9, CD63, CD81 markers. The hydrogel containing DB and hydroxyapatite (HA) with or without ECVs was evaluated for osteoblast functions and bone repair both in vitro and in vivo.

Results: The data indicated ECM preservation after decellularization as well as cell depletion. In vitro assessments revealed that mineralization and alkaline phosphatase activity did not improve after treatment of MG63 cells by ECVs, while in vivo morphomatrical estimations showed synergic effects of ECVs and DB + HA hydrogels on increasing the number of bone-specific cells and vessel and bone area compared to the control, DB + HA and ECV-treated groups.

Conclusions: The DB enriched with ECVs can be an ideal scaffold for bone tissue engineering and may provide a suitable niche for bone cell migration and differentiation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12967-020-02525-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7510292PMC
September 2020

Intraoperative Blood Loss in Maxillofacial Trauma Surgery.

Ann Maxillofac Surg 2020 Jan-Jun;10(1):164-167. Epub 2020 Jun 8.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences,Shiraz, Iran.

Background And Objectives: This study is aimed to assess the intraoperative blood loss of patients with maxillofacial bone fracture surgical intervention and to assess their need for blood transfusion.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective study, intraoperative blood loss of 206 patients with facial bone fractures, who underwent surgery between 2017 and 2018, was retrieved. The patient's demographic information, the amount of blood loss, the type of facial bone fracture, and the patient's requirement for blood products were evaluated.

Results: The average amount of intraoperative blood loss was 77.6 ml, and none of the patients required a blood transfusion during the operation in this group of patients. maxillofacial bone fracture was most common in young males. The leading cause of fractures was motor vehicle accident. There was a reverse correlation between the patient's age and surgical blood loss, but there was no statistically significant relationship between the patient's gender and intraoperative surgical blood loss.

Conclusion: The results of the present study show that preparation for blood transfusion in patients with maxillofacial traumatic bone fracture requiring surgery is uncommon if patients have no systemic disease or specific blood dyscrasias preoperatively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ams.ams_165_19DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7433981PMC
June 2020

Marginal bone resorption of posterior mandible dental implants with different insertion methods.

BMC Oral Health 2020 01 31;20(1):31. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Background: To evaluated the marginal bone loss around dental implants by two insertion methods.

Methods: Eligible patients were divided into two groups; manual and mechanized groups. Peri-apical x-ray using a customized device to standardize the radiographs designed and used to take three periodical radiographs; after surgery, three months, and six months follow up. An independent t-test was used to compare the two groups regarding the average level of marginal bone loss (p < 0.05).

Results: After excluding dropouts, a total of 273 patients (120 males and 153 females, aged between 25 and 67 years old) were included in the study. The average marginal bone loss in the manual insertion method was 0.44 ± 0.84 mm, and 0.59 ± 0.20 mm, and for the mechanized method was 0.51 ± 0.20 mm and 0.67 ± 0.19 mm after three and six months, respectively. There was a significant difference in marginal bone loss after six months between the two groups(p < 0.001). However, no differences were observed after three months (p = 0.24).

Conclusions: Under the condition of this study, both techniques were safe and resulted in an acceptable amount of bone resorption; however, in the manual method, the less marginal bone loss occurred after six months.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12903-020-1019-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6995238PMC
January 2020

Oro-Antral Fistula Repair With Different Surgical Methods: a Retrospective Analysis of 147 Cases.

J Dent (Shiraz) 2019 Jun;20(2):107-112

Postgraduate Student, Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Statement Of The Problem: An oro-antral fistula (OAF) creates a passage for oral microbes into maxillary sinus with numerous possible complications.

Purpose: This retrospective study evaluates the success of three different surgical techniques of OAF repair.

Materials And Method: Records of patients that were treated for OAF repair were retrieved and reviewed. Data recorded were patients' age, gender, etiology, size, location, duration, and method of repair. According to the surgical technique used to repair the OAF, patients were divided into three groups including buccal flap, palatal flap, and buccal fat pad. All of the patients were locally anesthetized with 2% lidocaine and 1/100000 or 1/80000 epinephrine. Then the edges of the fistula were excised and fistula wall was dissected in a stitched layer by three surgical methods. The three groups were compared concerning the success or failure of surgical technique based on complete closure of OAF after three months postoperatively.

Results: 147 patients (116 males and 31 females) with adequate records were included in the study. The surgical methods used in patients were, buccal flap in 59 (40.1%), buccal fat pad in 42 (40.8%), and palatal flap in 28 (19%) individuals. Success rates of these techniques were significantly different. Buccal fat pad was the most successful flap (98.3%), followed by buccal flap (89.8%), and palatal flap (85.7%). The most common cause of OAF in this group of patients was dental extraction.

Conclusion: Buccal fat pad flap seems to be one of the best treatments for the closure of OAF lager than 5 mm.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6538900PMC
June 2019

Shaping Ability of ProTaper Universal, ProTaper NEXT and WaveOne Primary in Severely Curved Resin Blocks.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2019 Mar 1;20(3):363-369. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Central Interdisciplinary Ambulance in the School of Dentistry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Aim: Complex anatomy of roots requires endodontic rotary instruments that respect and follow that anatomy. The purpose of this study was to compare the shaping ability of three engine-driven nickel-titanium instruments in severely curved simulated canals.

Materials And Methods: Forty-eight severely curved simulated canals in resin blocks were prepared to an apical size of 25 using the following systems (n = 16 per group): ProTaper Universal (PTU), ProTaper NEXT (PTN), and WaveOne Primary (WO) (all Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Composite images were made from the superimposition of pre- and post-instrumentation images. The amount of resin removed by each system was measured by using a digital template and image analysis software. Shaping ability of each system was compared using different parameters: total resin removal, centering ability, canal transportation in the apical, middle and coronal third of canal. Preparation times were also recorded. The data were statistically analyzed by using analysis of variance, paired t-test, and Tukey's post hoc test.

Results: Canals prepared with PTN were better centered in the apical part than those prepared with WO and PTU ( < 0.05). WO removed significantly more resin at the outer aspect of the maximum point of curvature. WO and PTU caused similar canal transportations at 7 points out of 11 measuring points. At measuring points 3, 4, and 5 WO caused more canal straightening than PTU. Instrumentation with PTU required more time than with the two other instruments ( <0.05). No preparation error or instrument separation occurred.

Conclusion: In the apical part of the canals PTN obtained the best results with regard to canal transportation.

Clinical Significance: All of the rotary instruments were safe in preparing severely curved canals and PTN showed better preparation of apical part of the canal.
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March 2019

Tapia's Syndrome after Cosmetic Malar Augmentation: a Case Report.

J Dent (Shiraz) 2019 Mar;20(1):66-69

Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Tapia's syndrome is an infrequent complication of airway manipulation. It is usually due to an extra-cranial ipsilateral injury to the hypoglossal nerve and the recurrent laryngeal branch of the vagal nerve, which can happen after any surgery. It is usually characterized by unilateral paralysis of the muscle of the tongue and vocal cords although it can also occur bilaterally. We present a patient with postoperative unilateral hypoglossal and recurrent laryngeal nerves palsy that occurred after cosmetic malar augmentation for esthetic correction of the left cheek flatness with an uncomplicated transnasal intubation. We report the first case of Tapia's syndrome after porous polyethylene implantation for cosmetic cheek reconstruction. The patient was treated immediately after the diagnosis with 0.5mg dexamethasone for two weeks. After three months, the movements of the vocal cord and tongue movement started to improve and the patient's hoarseness fully recovered after six months.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6421320PMC
March 2019

Improvement of Esthetic, Functional, and Social Well-Being After Orthognathic Surgical Intervention: A Sampling of Postsurgical Patients Over a 10-Year Period From 2007 to 2017.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2018 11 9;76(11):2398-2403. Epub 2018 May 9.

Associate Professor of Anesthesiology, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Dentistry, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Purpose: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of orthognathic surgery on the long-term quality of life of patients who received this treatment and to delineate the common reasons for dissatisfaction.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, patients who underwent orthognathic surgery were studied. One hundred thirty-two patients who had undergone orthognathic surgery from 2007 to 2017 in the oral and maxillofacial surgery department participated in this study. They were divided based on their dentofacial deformity into those with Class II malocclusion and those with Class III malocclusion. Each participant completed a modified questionnaire used to assess the patient's esthetic, social, and functional abilities after orthognathic surgery.

Results: The rate of esthetic improvement in orthognathic surgery patients was 91.7%. No significant difference between male and female patients was found regarding the changes in social, esthetic, and functional aspects before and after orthognathic surgery. Both genders recommended orthognathic surgery for patients with similar problems. One in four patients was dissatisfied with the nasal appearance after the surgical procedure (25.8%).

Conclusions: In this study the patients' satisfaction from the orthognathic surgical procedure was mostly a result of improvements in facial esthetics, followed by psychological well-being and then functional abilities. Most dissatisfaction after the orthognathic surgical procedure was related to nasal appearance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2018.04.034DOI Listing
November 2018

Effect of CO laser power intensity on the surface morphology and friction behavior of alumina ceramic brackets.

Microsc Res Tech 2017 Aug 3;80(8):923-929. Epub 2017 May 3.

Social Determinants of Health Research Center, University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Objective: This study aims at reducing frictional resistance of the ceramic brackets by using CO laser irradiation.

Methods: Forty-two polycrystalline Al O ceramic brackets were randomly divided into six groups of seven samples: a control group B0 (not subjected to laser irradiation) and five groups subjected to irradiation with intensities of 10 (B10), 30 (B30), 70 (B70), 90 (B90), and 110 (B110) J/cm . After irradiation, two samples from each group were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), while the remaining five samples were tested for frictional resistance. The sliding friction of stainless steel wires (SS-wires) in the brackets was measured using a universal testing machine.

Results: Samples from the first set (groups B0, B10, and B30) were significantly more resistant to wire sliding than the samples from the second set (groups B70, B90, and B110). The SEM analysis shows different degrees of blister formation on the bracket surfaces subjected to laser irradiation and no changes in their grain sizes. The AFM results indicate more consistent blister formation for groups B70, B90, and B110 than for other groups.

Conclusion: Different CO laser power intensities significantly affect frictional resistances of SS-wires in Al O ceramic brackets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jemt.22883DOI Listing
August 2017

Comparison of Apical Extrusion of Debris by Using Single-File, Full-Sequence Rotary and Reciprocating Systems.

J Dent (Tehran) 2016 Nov;13(6):394-399

Assistant Professor, Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ardabil University of Medical Sciences, Ardabil, Iran.

Objectives: During root canal preparation, apical extrusion of debris can cause inflammation, flare-ups, and delayed healing. Therefore, instrumentation techniques that cause the least extrusion of debris are desirable. This study aimed to compare apical extrusion of debris by five single-file, full-sequence rotary and reciprocating systems.

Materials And Methods: One hundred twenty human mandibular premolars with similar root lengths, apical diameters, and canal curvatures were selected and randomly assigned to six groups (n=20): Reciproc R25 (25, 0.08), WaveOne Primary (25, 0.08), OneShape (25, 0.06), F360 (25, 0.04), Neoniti A1 (25, 0.08), and ProTaper Universal. Instrumentation of the root canals was performed in accordance with the manufacturers' instructions. Each tooth's debris was collected in a pre-weighed vial. After drying the debris in an incubator, the mass was measured three times consecutively; the mean was then calculated. The preparation time by each system was also measured. For data analysis, one-way ANOVA and Games-Howell post hoc test were used.

Results: The mean masses (±standard deviation) of the apical debris were as follows: 2.071±1.38mg (ProTaper Universal), 1.702±1.306mg (Neoniti A1), 1.295±0.839mg (OneShape), 1.109±0.676mg (WaveOne), 0.976±0.478mg (Reciproc) and 0.797±0.531mg (F360). Compared to ProTaper Universal, F360 generated significantly less debris (P=0.02). The ProTaper system required the longest preparation time (mean=88.6 seconds); the Reciproc (P=0.008), OneShape (P=0.006), and F360 (P=0.001) required significantly less time (P<0.05).

Conclusions: All instruments caused extrusion of debris through the apex. The F360 produced significantly less debris than did the ProTaper Universal.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5318495PMC
November 2016

Evaluation of Antibacterial Effects of Silver-Coated Stainless Steel Orthodontic Brackets.

J Dent (Tehran) 2016 Jan;13(1):49-54

General Dental Practitioner, Private Practice, Shiraz, Iran.

Objectives: White spots and enamel demineralization around orthodontic brackets are among the most important complications resulting from orthodontic treatments. Since the antibacterial properties of metals and metallic particles have been well documented, the aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial effect of stainless steel orthodontic brackets coated with silver (Ag) particles.

Materials And Methods: In this study, 40 standard metal brackets were divided into two groups of 20 cases and 20 controls. The brackets in the case group were coated with Ag particles using an electroplating method. Atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to assess the adequacy of the coating process. In addition, antibacterial tests, i.e., disk diffusion and direct contact tests were performed at three, six, 24, and 48 hours, and 15 and 30 days using a Streptococcus mutans strain. The results were analyzed using Student's t-test and repeated measures ANOVA.

Results: Analyses via SEM and AFM confirmed that excellent coatings were obtained by using an electroplating method. The groups exhibited similar behavior when subjected to the disk diffusion test in the agar medium. However, the bacterial counts of the Ag-coated brackets were, in general, significantly lower (P<0.001) than those of their non-coated counterparts.

Conclusions: Brackets coated with Ag, via an electroplating method, exhibited antibacterial properties when placed in direct contact with Streptococcus mutans. This antibacterial effect persisted for 30 days after contact with the bacteria.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4983565PMC
January 2016

The Effects of Functional Appliances on Female Patients with Skeletal Class II Malocclusion 6 Months after Menarche.

J Contemp Dent Pract 2016 Apr 1;17(4):286-93. Epub 2016 Apr 1.

Department of Orthodontics, Dental Material Research Center, School of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Mazandaran, Islamic Republic of Iran.

Aim: To investigate the skeletal, dental, and soft tissue changes in girls with class II division 1 malocclusion after growth spurt peak under the effect of activator appliance.

Materials And Methods: In this clinical trial study, 15 female patients, with skeletal class II and mandibular growth deficiency and at least 5 mm overjet, were randomly selected 6 months after their menarche. The mean of their ages at the beginning was 12.33 ± 0.81 years, and in the end it was 13.73 ± 0.79 years; the mean duration of treatment was 12.2 ± 3.18 months. Lateral, cephalometric radiographs were taken from all the patients before and after the treatment. Data were analyzed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) 20 using paired t-test.

Results: On an average, the ANB angle, the angle of the upper incisors with the S-N, facial convexity, and overjet decreased by 2.6° ± 0.9, 5.4° ± 0.8, 3.8° ± 3.4, and 5.6 ± 1.8 mm respectively. The SNB angle, the angle of the lower incisors with the N-B, the labiomental angle, the total length of the mandible, the lower anterior facial height, the lower lip distance, the first molar of the mandible, and the soft tissue pogonion to the vertical line from the S point increased by 2.8° ± 1.8, 3.4° ± 3, 14.7 ± 15, 3.7 ± 2.6, 2.1 ± 1.6, 6.3 ± 2.5, 4.4 ± 2.4, and 6 ± 3.3 mm respectively. All these figures were statistically significant (p = 0.000).

Conclusion: The functional appliance improved the dental-skeletal relations and the soft tissue profile of patients after the growth spurt peak of puberty in a group of Iranian girls, whereas dental changes were more than skeletal ones.

Clinical Significance: Functional appliances can be used for correction of skeletal class II malocclusion 6 months after menarche in girls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1843DOI Listing
April 2016

Fracture resistance of upper central incisors restored with different posts and cores.

Restor Dent Endod 2015 Aug 24;40(3):229-35. Epub 2015 Jul 24.

Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Objectives: To determine and compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors restored with different posts and cores.

Materials And Methods: Forty-eight upper central incisors were randomly divided into four groups: cast post and core (group 1), fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) post and composite core (group 2), composite post and core (group 3), and controls (group 4). Mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions at 7 and 14 mm from the apex were compared to ensure standardization among the groups. Twelve teeth were prepared for crown restoration (group 4). Teeth in other groups were endodontically treated, decoronated at 14 mm from the apex, and prepared for posts and cores. Resin-based materials were used for cementation in groups 1 and 2. In group 3, composite was used directly to fill the post space and for core build-up. All samples were restored by standard metal crowns using glass ionomer cement, mounted at 135° vertical angle, subjected to thermomechanical aging, and then fractured using a universal testing machine. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data.

Results: Fracture resistance of the groups was as follows: Control (group 4) > cast post and core (group 1) > fiber post and composite core (group 2) > composite post and core (group 3). All samples in groups 2 and 3 fractured in restorable patterns, whereas most (58%) in group 1 were non-restorable.

Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, FRC posts showed acceptable fracture resistance with favorable fracture patterns for reconstruction of upper central incisors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5395/rde.2015.40.3.229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4534728PMC
August 2015

Effect of Different Instrumentation Techniques on Vertical Root Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Teeth.

J Dent (Shiraz) 2015 Mar;16(1 Suppl):50-5

Dept. of Restorative Dentistry, Ajman University of Science and Technology, Ajman, United Arab Emirates;

Statement Of The Problem: Vertical root fractures are catastrophic events that often result in tooth extraction. Many contributing factor are associated with increasing incidence of vertical root fracture. Root canal preparation is one of the predisposing factors which can increase the root susceptibility to vertical fracture.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effects of three different instrumentation techniques on vertical root fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

Materials And Methods: In this study, 120 freshly extracted mandibular premolar teeth of similar dimensions were decoronated and randomly divided into control (n=30), nickel-titanium hand K-file (HF, n=30), BioRaCe rotary file (BR, n=30), and WaveOne reciprocating single-file (WO, n=30) groups. After cleaning and shaping the root canals, AH26 was used as canal sealer, and obturation was completed using the continuous wave technique. The root canals were embedded vertically in standardised autopolymerising acrylic resin blocks, and subjected to a vertical load to cause vertical root fracture. The forces required to induce fractures were measured using a universal testing machine. ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test were used to analyse the data.

Results: All experimental groups showed statistically significant reductions in fracture resistance as compared with the control group. There was a statistically significant difference between the HF and BR groups. The WO group did not differ significantly from the HF group or the BR group.

Conclusion: All three instrumentation techniques caused weakening of the structure of the roots, and rendered them susceptible to fracture under lesser load than unprepared roots. The fracture resistance of roots prepared with the single-file reciprocating technique was similar to that of those prepared with NiTi hand and rotary instrumentation techniques.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4476116PMC
March 2015

The effects of silver coating on friction coefficient and shear bond strength of steel orthodontic brackets.

Scanning 2015 Jul-Aug;37(4):294-9. Epub 2015 May 21.

General Dental Practitioner, Private Practice, Shiraz, Iran.

Aims of the present study was to measure frictional resistance between silver coated brackets and different types of arch wires, and shear bond strength of these brackets to the tooth. In an experimental clinical research 28 orthodontic brackets (standard, 22 slots) were coated with silver ions using electroplate method. Six brackets (coated: 3, uncoated: 3) were evaluated with Scanning Electron Microscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy. The amount of friction in 15 coated brackets was measured with three different kinds of arch wires (0.019 × 0.025-in stainless steel [SS], 0.018-in stainless steel [SS], 0.018-in Nickel-Titanium [Ni-Ti]) and compared with 15 uncoated steel brackets. In addition, shear bond strength values were compared between 10 brackets with silver coating and 10 regular brackets. Universal testing machine was used to measure shear bond strength and the amount of friction between the wires and brackets. SPSS 18 was used for data analysis with t-test. SEM and AFM results showed deposition of a uniform layer of silver, measuring 8-10 μm in thickness on bracket surfaces. Silver coating led to higher frictional forces in all the three types of arch wires, which was statistically significant in 0.019 × 0.025-in SS and 0.018-in Ni-Ti, but it did not change the shear bond strength significantly. Silver coating with electroplating method did not affect the bond strength of the bracket to enamel; in addition, it was not an effective method for decreasing friction in sliding mechanics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sca.21212DOI Listing
October 2015

Shaping ability of 4 different single-file systems in simulated S-shaped canals.

J Endod 2015 Apr 6;41(4):548-52. Epub 2015 Jan 6.

Central Interdisciplinary Ambulance in the School of Dentistry, University of Münster, Münster, Germany.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the shaping ability of 4 different single-file systems in simulated S-shaped canals.

Methods: Sixty-four S-shaped canals in resin blocks were prepared to an apical size of 25 using Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany), WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), OneShape (Micro Méga, Besançon, France), and F360 (Komet Brasseler, Lemgo, Germany) (n = 16 canals/group) systems. Composite images were made from the superimposition of pre- and postinstrumentation images. The amount of resin removed by each system was measured by using a digital template and image analysis software. Canal aberrations and the preparation time were also recorded. The data were statistically analyzed by using analysis of variance, Tukey, and chi-square tests.

Results: Canals prepared with the F360 and OneShape systems were better centered compared with the Reciproc and WaveOne systems. Reciproc and WaveOne files removed significantly greater amounts of resin from the inner side of both curvatures (P < .05). Instrumentation with OneShape and Reciproc files was significantly faster compared with WaveOne and F360 files (P < .05). No instrument fractured during canal preparation.

Conclusions: Under the conditions of this study, all single-file instruments were safe to use and were able to prepare the canals efficiently. However, single-file systems that are less tapered seem to be more favorable when preparing S-shaped canals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joen.2014.11.019DOI Listing
April 2015

Influence of operator's experience level on lifespan of the WaveOne Primary file in extracted teeth.

Restor Dent Endod 2013 Nov 12;38(4):222-6. Epub 2013 Nov 12.

Department of Restorative Dentistry, Ajman University of Science and Technology, Ajman, United Arab Emirates.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of operator experience level on the lifespan of the WaveOne Primary file (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) in extracted teeth.

Materials And Methods: Moderately curved canals of extracted maxillary and mandibular molars were randomly distributed into 2 groups: experienced and inexperienced operators. Ten files were allocated to each group (n = 10). Each canal was prepared until the working length was reached, and the same file was used to prepare additional canals until it separated. The number of canals prepared before file separation was recorded. The fragment length of each file was measured, and the location of the fragment in the canal was determined. Data were statistically analysed using the independent 2-sample t-test.

Results: The 2 operators prepared a total of 324 moderately curved canals of maxillary and mandibular molars. There was no significant intergroup difference in the mean number of canals prepared (p = 0.27). The average lifespan of the WaveOne Primary file was 17.1 and 15.3 canals, and the longest lifespan was 25 and 20 canals, when used by experienced and inexperienced operators, respectively. There were no statistically significant intergroup differences in separated fragment length and location.

Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, operator experience level appears to have no effect on the lifespan of the WaveOne Primary file in preparation of moderately curved canals. Single teeth with multiple canals can be prepared safely even by a novice operator by using a single file.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5395/rde.2013.38.4.222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3843033PMC
November 2013