Publications by authors named "Saeid Ahmadzadeh"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Electro-Fenton approach in oxidative degradation of dimethyl phthalate - The treatment of aqueous leachate from landfills.

Sci Total Environ 2021 Jun 4;772:145323. Epub 2021 Feb 4.

Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran; Pharmaceutical Sciences and Cosmetic Products Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran. Electronic address:

Herein, the dimethyl phthalate (DMP) contamination, as an emerging pollutant, has been cost-effectively removed from landfill leachate through an advanced oxidation process, that is the electro-Fenton (EF) process. For this purpose, a quadratic polynomial model was developed via response surface methodology (RSM). Furthermore, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed for evaluating the significance of the proposed assumptions. The actual removal rate of 99.1% was obtained with optimal values of 4 mg L of initial DMP concentration, 50 mM NaSO, 600 μL L HO, 8-minute electrolytic time, solution pH 3 and 6 mA cm current density for the process variables and was consistent with the expected 99.6% removal rate. Satisfactory correlation coefficients were obtained, and a non-significant value of 0.0618 for model mismatch confirmed that the proposed model is extremely important and can successfully predict the effectiveness of DMP removal. The kinetics of the process and the effect of the presence of some radical scavengers were studied to understand the exact mechanism of DMP degradation. Therefore, it was observed that the reaction of hydroxyl radicals with DMPs followed the first-order kinetics model. Moreover, it was established that the optimal ratio of HO/Fe mole was 1.6 and the electricity consumption was 0.157 kWh m. The elaborated treatment model used to remove DMP from landfill leachate showed that DMP contamination was effectively removed with a 95.6% removal efficiency in the investigating process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.145323DOI Listing
June 2021

Adsorption of tetracycline antibiotic onto modified zeolite: Experimental investigation and modeling.

MethodsX 2020 18;7:100885. Epub 2020 Apr 18.

Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) model and Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) were used to estimate and predict the removal efficiency of tetracycline (TC) using the adsorption process from aqueous solutions. The obtained results demonstrated that the optimum condition for removal efficiency of TC were 1.5 g L modified zeolite (MZ), pH of 8.0, initial TC concentration of 10.0 mg L, and reaction time of 60 min. Among the different back-propagation algorithms, the Marquardt-Levenberg learning algorithm was selected for ANN Model. The log sigmoid transfer function (log sig) at the hidden layer with ten neurons in the first layer and a linear transfer function were used for prediction of the removal efficiency. Accordingly, a correlation coefficient, mean square error, and absolute error percentage of 0.9331, 0.0017, and 0.56% were obtained for the total dataset, respectively. The results revealed that the ANN has great performance in predicting the removal efficiency of TC.•ANNs used to estimate and predict tetracycline antibiotic removal using the adsorption process from aqueous solutions.•The model's predictive performance evaluated by MSE, MAPE, and R.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mex.2020.100885DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7184631PMC
April 2020

Potentiometric sensor for iron (III) quantitative determination: experimental and computational approaches.

BMC Chem 2019 Dec 18;13(1):131. Epub 2019 Nov 18.

7Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.

The current work deals with fabrication and validation of a new highly Fe selective sensor based on benzo-18-crown-6 (b-18C6) using the potentiometric method. The proposed sensor revealed satisfactory performance for quantitative evaluation of Fe trace amount in environmental samples. The ratio of membrane ingredients optimized and the membrane with the composition of 4:30:65.5:0.5 mg of b-18C6:PVC:o-NPOE:KTpClPB exhibited the desirable Nernstian slope of 19.51 ± 0.10 (mV per decade of activity) over the pH range from 2.5 to 5.7 with an acceptable dynamic concentration range of 1.0 × 10 M to 1.0 × 10 M and lower detection limit of 8.0 × 10 M. The proposed sensor demonstrated an appropriate reproducibility with a rapid response time of 12 s and the suitable lifetime of 10 weeks. To validate the accurate response of the proposed sensor, AAS technique applied for the determination of Fe in real aqueous mediums such as drinking tap water and hospital wastewater sample after treatment by electrocoagulation process. Theoretical studies carried out using DFT/B3LYP computational level with 6-311G basis set to optimize the adsorption sites of Fe cationic species by b-18C6. The obtained adsorption energy with large negative value confirmed the formation of a stable complex.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13065-019-0648-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6859631PMC
December 2019

A rapid and efficient removal approach for degradation of metformin in pharmaceutical wastewater using electro-Fenton process; optimization by response surface methodology.

Water Sci Technol 2019 Aug;80(4):685-694

Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran and Food, Drug and Cosmetics Safety Research Center, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran E-mail:

Presence of emerging contaminants such as pharmaceutical products in aquatic environments has received high concern due to their undesirable effect on wildlife and human health. Current work deals with developing a treatment model based on the electro- Fenton (EF) process for efficient removal of metformin (MET) from an aqueous medium. The obtained experimental results revealed that over the reaction time of 10 min and solution pH of 3, the maximum removal efficiency of 98.57% is achieved where the value of MET initial concentration, current density, and HO dosage is set at 10 mg.L, 6 mA.cm, and 250 μL.L, respectively, which is in satisfactory agreement with the predicted removal efficiency of 98.6% with the desirability of 0.99. The presence of radical scavengers throughout the mineralization of MET under the EF process revealed that the generation of OH radicals, as the main oxidative species, controlled the degradation mechanism. The obtained kinetics data best fitted to the first order kinetic model with the rate constant of 0.4224 min (R = 0.9940). The developed treatment process under response surface methodology (RSM) was employed for modeling the obtained experimental data and successfully applied for efficient removal of the MET contaminant from pharmaceutical wastewater as an adequate and cost-effective approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2166/wst.2019.312DOI Listing
August 2019

Delayed death following paraquat poisoning: three case reports and a literature review.

Toxicol Res (Camb) 2018 Sep 12;7(5):745-753. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

Pharmaceutics Research Center , Institute of Neuropharmacology , Kerman University of Medical Sciences , Kerman , Iran . Email: ; Email:

Paraquat (PQ) poisoning is principally reported in developing countries. However, most fatalities occur elsewhere due to the induction of multi-organ failure. PQ poisoning can hardly be managed by clinical practice, and no specific antidote has come into existence yet. Here three cases, including 17-, 20-, and 23-year-old men, who were poisoned with PQ, have been reported. Furthermore, the literature regarding biological mechanisms, clinical manifestation, and treatment of PQ-induced toxicity was reviewed. Patients who, either intentionally or accidentally, ingested PQ earlier were initially found to be stable at the emergency department (ED). Therefore, they were discharged from the hospital under a follow-up. However, after several days, the patients were referred to the hospital for the second time and despite cardiovascular resuscitation (CPR) efforts, they suddenly expired. The delayed death following exposure to PQ was reported for inducing gradual progressive pulmonary fibrosis, metabolic acidosis, neurotoxicity, renal failure, and liver injury in poisoned patients. Therefore, PQ-intoxicated patients should be supervised for up to several weeks, and kept in the hospital for a longer period of time. Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings are beneficial markers that act as useful predictors of PQ poisoning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c8tx00120kDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6116805PMC
September 2018

Electrochemical treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater through electrosynthesis of iron hydroxides for practical removal of metronidazole.

Chemosphere 2018 Dec 22;212:533-539. Epub 2018 Aug 22.

Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

Antibiotics as the severe contaminants of aqueous environments were received growing attention during the last decades. The current work is the first report on investigating the potency and efficiency of electrocoagulation process in the successful removal of metronidazole (MNZ) from pharmaceutical wastewater using response surface methodology based on central composite design. The applied method by optimizing the independent and combined effects of significant variables which affecting the EC process enhanced the removal efficiency of MNZ. Analysis of variance was applied to verify the significance of independent variables solely and their interactions. The best removal efficiency of 100% found under the optimal operating condition of initial MNZ concentration 21.6 mg L, pH 8.2, current density 6.0 mA cm, inter-electrode distance 3 cm, and reaction time of 14.6 min. Isotherm investigations revealed that the Langmuir model with the R of 0.994 best fitted to the obtained experimental equilibrium results. The fast adsorption of MNZ on the surface of Fe(OH) and [Fe(OH)] with the equilibrium time of 15 min confirmed that the kinetics of the electrocoagulation process follow the pseudo-second-order model (R = 0.962). The electrocoagulation process under the optimal operating condition revealed that the electrical energy consumption per each m of treated pharmaceutical wastewater, per each g of MNZ, removed, and per each kg of Fe electrode consumed, were found to be 0.516 kWh m, 0.0234 kWh g, and 0.0436 kWh kg, respectively.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.08.107DOI Listing
December 2018

In situ generation of hydroxyl radical for efficient degradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol from aqueous solutions.

Environ Monit Assess 2018 May 10;190(6):340. Epub 2018 May 10.

Student Research Committee, Kerman University of Medical Sciences, Kerman, Iran.

Since 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) as a priority pollutant is used in numerous industrial processes, its removal from the aqueous environment is of utmost importance and desire. Herein, the authors describe an electrochemical treatment process for efficient removal of 2,4-DCP from aqueous solutions using electro-Fenton (EF) process. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the operating parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) confirmed the significance of the predicted model. The effect of independent variables on the removal of 2,4-DCP was investigated and the best removal efficiency of 98.28% achieved under the optimal experimental condition including initial pH of 3, HO dosage of 80 μL, initial 2,4-DCP concentration of 3.25 mg L, current density of 3.32 mA cm, and inter-electrode distance of 5.04 cm. The predicted removal efficiency was in satisfactory agreement with the obtained experimental removal efficiency of 99.21%. According to the obtained polynomial model, HO dosage revealed the most significant effect on degradation process. The kinetic investigation revealed that the first-order model with the correlation coefficient of 0.9907 and rate constant (K) of 0.831 min best fitted with the experimental results. Generation of the hydroxyl radicals throughout the EF process controlled the degradation process.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6697-0DOI Listing
May 2018

Microniosomes for concurrent doxorubicin and iron oxide nanoparticles loading; preparation, characterization and cytotoxicity studies.

Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 2018 Feb 4;46(1):118-125. Epub 2017 Apr 4.

a Pharmaceutics Research Center, Institute of Neuropharmacology, Kerman University of Medical Sciences , Kerman , Iran.

The current work deals with developing a suitable drug delivery system of doxorubicin (DOX) for intraperitoneal chemotherapy using niosomes through formulating non-ionic surfactants consisting of Brij™ 52, span™ 60 and Solulan™ C24. Entrapping the magnetite nanoparticles in the hydrophilic parts of niosomes was accompanied with high-efficient DOX loading by the current novel remote-loading method. Cytotoxicity of the prepared formulations was evaluated in vitro against A549 and PC-12 cell lines using the colorimetric WST-1 assay test. The obtained results revealed that, the cytotoxicity of DOX increased up to 22% especially on A549 cells by the current delivery system.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21691401.2017.1296850DOI Listing
February 2018

Titanium (III) cation selective electrode based on synthesized tris(2pyridyl) methylamine ionophore and its application in water samples.

Sci Rep 2014 Apr 11;4:4664. Epub 2014 Apr 11.

Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, University Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The introduction of low detection limit ion selective electrodes (ISEs) may well pave the way for the determination of trace targets of cationic compounds. This research focuses on the detection of titanium (III) cation using a new PVC-membrane sensor based on synthesized tris(2pyridyl) methylamine (tpm) ionophore. The application and validation of the proposed sensor was done using potentiometric titration, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The membrane sensor exhibited a Nernstian response to the titanium (III) cation over a concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-6)-1.0 × 10(-2) M and pH range from 1-2.5. The Nernstian slope, the lower of detection (LOD), and the response time (t95%) of the proposed sensor were 29.17 ± 0.24 mV/dec, 7.9 × 10-7 M, and 20 s, respectively. The direct determination of 4-39 μg/ml of titanium (III) standard solution showed an average recovery of 94.60 and a mean relative standard deviation of 1.8 at 100.0 μg/ml. Finally, the utilization of the electrodes as end-point indicators for potentiometric titration with EDTA solutions for titanium (III) sensor was successfully carried out.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep04664DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3983601PMC
April 2014

Immobilization of ionophore and surface characterization studies of the titanium(III) ion in a PVC-membrane sensor.

Sensors (Basel) 2012 27;12(7):8806-14. Epub 2012 Jun 27.

School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor D.E., Malaysia.

Novel ionophores comprising various hydroxide and amine structures were immobilized onto poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) matrices, and these were examined to determine Ti(III) selectivity. To predict the selectivity of Ti(III), a PVC membrane was used to investigate the binding of Ti(III) to c-methylcalix[4]resorcinarene (CMCR). The study showed that the chelating ligand, CMCR, was coordinated selectively to Ti(III) at eight coordination sites involving the oxygen atoms at the interface of the membrane/solution. The membrane was prepared, based on CMCR as an ionophore, sodium tetrakis(4-fluorophenyl) borate (NaTFPB) as a lipophilic ionic additive, and dioctylphthalate (DOP) as a plasticizer. The immobilization of the ionophore and surface characterization studies revealed that the performance of CMCR-immobilized PVC was equivalent to that of mobile ionophores in supported liquid membranes (SLMs). The strengths of the ion-ionophore (CMCR-Ti(OH)(OH(2))(5) (2+)) interactions and the role of ionophores on membranes were studied via UV-Vis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and and X-ray diffraction (XRD).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/s120708806DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3444076PMC
February 2013

Immobilization of tris(2 pyridyl) methylamine in a PVC-Membrane Sensor and Characterization of the Membrane Properties.

Chem Cent J 2012 May 7;6(1):40. Epub 2012 May 7.

School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor DE, 43600, Malaysia.

Background: Due to the increasing industrial use of titanium compounds, its determination is the subject of considerable efforts. The ionophore or membrane active recognition is the most important component of any polymeric membrane sensor. The sensor's response depends on the ionophore and bonding between the ionophore and the target ion. Ionophores with molecule-sized dimensions containing cavities or semi-cavities can surround the target ion. The bond between the ionophore and target ion gives different selectivity and sensitivity toward the other ions. Therefore, ionophores with different binding strengths can be used in the sensor.

Results: In the present work, poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) based membrane incorporating tris (2 pyridyl) methylamine (tpm) as an ionophore has been prepared and explored as a titanium(III) selective sensor.

Conclusions: The strengths of the ion-ionophore (Ti(OH)2+-tpm) interactions and the role of ionophore on membrane were tested by various techniques such as elemental analysis, UV-vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). All data approved the successful incorporation of organic group via covalent bond.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1752-153X-6-40DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3403891PMC
May 2012

Thermodynamic study of the complexation of p-isopropylcalix[6]arene with Cs+ cation in dimethylsulfoxide-acetonitrile binary media.

Molecules 2011 Sep 22;16(9):8130-42. Epub 2011 Sep 22.

Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

The complexation reactions between the macrocyclic ionophore, p-isopropylcalix[6]arene and Cs+ cation were studied in dimethylsulfoxide-acetonitrile (DMSO-AN) binary non-aqueous solvents at different temperatures using a conductometry method. The conductance data show that the stoichiometry of the (p-isopropylcalix[6]-arene·Cs)+ complex in all binary mixed solvents is 1:1. The stability of the complexes is affected by the composition of the binary solvent media and a non-linear behavior was observed for changes of log K(f) of the complex versus the composition of the binary mixed solvents. The thermodynamic parameters (DH°(c) and DS°(c)) for formation of (p-isopropyl-calix[6]arene·Cs)+ complex were obtained from temperature dependence of the stability constant and the obtained results show that the (p-isopropylcalix[6]arene·Cs)+ complex is enthalpy destabilized, but entropy stabilized, and the values of the mentioned parameters are affected strongly by the nature and composition of the binary mixed solvents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules16098130DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6264241PMC
September 2011