Publications by authors named "Saeeda O Ahmed"

9 Publications

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PD-L1 Protein Expression in Middle Eastern Breast Cancer Predicts Favorable Outcome in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer.

Cells 2021 Jan 25;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, P.O. Box 3354, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Programmed cell-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) has been shown to induce potent T-cell mediated anti-tumoral immunity. The significance of PD-L1 expression in the prognosis of breast cancer (BC) remains controversial and its prevalence and prognostic value in breast cancer from Middle Eastern ethnicity is lacking. A total of 1003 unselected Middle Eastern breast cancers were analyzed for PD-L1 expression using immunohistochemistry. PD-L1 expression, seen in 32.8% (329/1003) of cases, was significantly associated with poor prognostic indicators such as younger patients, high-grade tumors, estrogen-receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone-receptor (PR)-negative, and triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) as well as high Ki-67 index. We also found a significant association between PD-L1 expression and deficient mismatch repair protein expression. No association was found between PD-L1 expression and clinical outcome. However, on further subgroup analysis, PD-L1 expression was found to be an independent marker for favorable overall survival and recurrence-free survival in TNBC. In conclusion, we demonstrated strong association between PD-L1 and mismatch repair deficiency in Middle Eastern BC patients and that PD-L1 overexpression in tumor cells was an independent prognostic marker in TNBCs from Middle Eastern ethnicity. Overall, these findings might help in the development of more appropriate treatment strategies for BC in Middle Eastern population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cells10020229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7910988PMC
January 2021

Clonal Evolution and Timing of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Oct 12;12(10). Epub 2020 Oct 12.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Riyadh 11211, Saudi Arabia.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide, where ~50% of patients develop metastasis, despite current improved management. Genomic characterisation of metastatic CRC, and elucidating the effects of therapy on the metastatic process, are essential to help guide precision medicine. Multi-region whole-exome sequencing was performed on 191 sampled tumour regions of patient-matched therapy-naïve and treated CRC primary tumours ( = 92 tumour regions) and metastases ( = 99 tumour regions), in 30 patients. Somatic variants were analysed to define the origin, composition, and timing of seeding in the metastatic progression of therapy-naïve and treated metastatic CRC. High concordance, with few genomic differences, was observed between primary CRC and metastases. Most cases supported a late dissemination model, via either monoclonal or polyclonal seeding. Polyclonal seeding appeared more common in therapy-naïve metastases than in treated metastases. Whereby, treatment prompted for the selection of distinct resistant clones, through monoclonal seeding to distant metastatic sites. Overall, this study reinforces the importance of early clinical detection and surgical excision of the CRC tumour, whilst further highlighting the clinical challenges for metastatic CRC with increased intratumour heterogeneity (either due to early dissemination or polyclonal metastatic spread) and the underlying risk of future therapeutic resistance in treated patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12102938DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7601934PMC
October 2020

POLE and POLD1 germline exonuclease domain pathogenic variants, a rare event in colorectal cancer from the Middle East.

Mol Genet Genomic Med 2020 08 22;8(8):e1368. Epub 2020 Jun 22.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, Research Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, iyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality related to cancer. Only ~5% of all CRCs occur as a result of pathogenic variants in well-defined CRC predisposing genes. The frequency and effect of exonuclease domain pathogenic variants of POLE and POLD1 genes in Middle Eastern CRCs is still unknown.

Methods: Targeted capture sequencing and Sanger sequencing technologies were employed to investigate the germline exonuclease domain pathogenic variants of POLE and POLD1 in Middle Eastern CRCs. Immunohistochemical analysis of POLE and POLD1 was performed to look for associations between protein expression and clinico-pathological characteristics.

Results: Five damaging or possibly damaging variants (0.44%) were detected in 1,135 CRC cases, four in POLE gene (0.35%, 4/1,135) and one (0.1%, 1/1,135) in POLD1 gene. Furthermore, low POLE protein expression was identified in 38.9% (417/1071) cases and a significant association with lymph node involvement (p = .0184) and grade 3 tumors (p = .0139) was observed. Whereas, low POLD1 expression was observed in 51.9% (555/1069) of cases and was significantly associated with adenocarcinoma histology (p = .0164), larger tumor size (T3 and T4 tumors; p = .0012), and stage III tumors (p = .0341).

Conclusion: POLE and POLD1 exonuclease domain pathogenic variants frequency in CRC cases was very low and these exonuclease domain pathogenic variants might be rare causative events of CRC in the Middle East. POLE and POLD1 can be included in multi-gene panels to screen CRC patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mgg3.1368DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7434734PMC
August 2020

High prevalence of mTOR complex activity can be targeted using Torin2 in papillary thyroid carcinoma.

Carcinogenesis 2014 Jul 28;35(7):1564-72. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, Department of Life Science, College of Science and College of Medicine, Al-Faisal University, Riyadh 11533, Saudi Arabia

The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling cascade is a key regulatory pathway controlling initiation of messenger RNA in mammalian cells. Although dysregulation of mTOR signaling has been reported earlier in cancers, there is paucity of data about mTOR expression in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Therefore, in this study, we investigated the presence of mTORC2 and mTORC1 complexes in a large cohort of >500 PTC samples. Our clinical data showed the presence of active mTORC1 and mTORC2 in 81 and 39% of PTC samples, respectively. Interestingly, coexpression of mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity was seen in a 32.5% (164/504) of the PTC studied and this association was statistically significant (P = 0.0244). mTOR signaling complex was also found to be associated with activated AKT and 4E-BP1. In vitro, using Torin2, a second-generation mTOR inhibitor or gene silencing of mTOR expression prevented mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity leading to inactivation of P70S6, 4E-BP1, AKT and Bad. Inhibition of mTOR activity led to downregulation of cyclin D1, a gene regulated by messenger RNA translation via phosphorylation of 4E-BP1. Torin2 treatment also inhibited cell viability and induced caspase-dependent apoptosis via activation of mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in PTC cells. Finally, Torin2 treatment induces anticancer effect on PTC xenograft tumor growth in nude mice via inhibition of mTORC1 and mTORC2 and its associated pathways. Our results suggest that coexpression of mTORC1 and mTORC2 is seen frequently in the clinical PTC samples and dual targeting of mTORC1 and mTORC2 activity may be an attractive therapeutic target for treatment of PTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgu051DOI Listing
July 2014

Cross-talk between NFkB and the PI3-kinase/AKT pathway can be targeted in primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) cell lines for efficient apoptosis.

PLoS One 2012 29;7(6):e39945. Epub 2012 Jun 29.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: A number of constitutively activated signaling pathways play critical roles in the survival and growth of primary effusion lymphoma cells (PELs) including NFkB and PI3/AKT kinase cascades. NFkBis constitutively activated in a number of malignancies, including multiple myeloma, Burkitt's lymphoma and diffuse large cell B-cell lymphoma. However, its role in primary effusion lymphoma has not been fully explored.

Methodology/principal Findings: We used pharmacological inhibition and gene silencing to define the role of NFkB in growth and survival of PEL cells. Inhibition of NFkB activity by Bay11-7085 resulted in decreased expression of p65 in the nuclear compartment as detected by EMSA assays. In addition, Bay11-7085 treatment caused de-phosphorylation of AKT and its downstream targets suggesting a cross-talk between NFkB and the PI3-kinase/AKT pathway. Importantly, treatment of PEL cells with Bay11-7085 led to inhibition of cell viability and induced apoptosis in a dose dependent manner. Similar apoptotic effects were found when p65 was knocked down using specific small interference RNA. Finally, co-treatment of PEL cells with suboptimal doses of Bay11-7085 and LY294002 led to synergistic apoptotic responses in PEL cells.

Conclusion/significance: These data support a strong biological-link between NFkB and the PI3-kinase/AKT pathway in the modulation of anti-apoptotic effects in PEL cells. Synergistic targeting of these pathways using NFKB- and PI3-kinase/AKT-inhibitors may have a therapeutic potential for the treatment of PEL and possibly other malignancies with constitutive activation of these pathways.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0039945PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3386924PMC
November 2012

Resveratrol suppresses constitutive activation of AKT via generation of ROS and induces apoptosis in diffuse large B cell lymphoma cell lines.

PLoS One 2011 12;6(9):e24703. Epub 2011 Sep 12.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Background: We have recently shown that deregulation PI3-kinase/AKT survival pathway plays an important role in pathogenesis of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). In an attempt to identify newer therapeutic agents, we investigated the role of Resveratrol (trans-3,4', 5-trihydroxystilbene), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound on a panel of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells in causing inhibition of cell viability and inducing apoptosis.

Methodology/principal Findings: We investigated the action of Resveratrol on DLBCL cells and found that Resveratrol inhibited cell viability and induced apoptosis by inhibition of constitutively activated AKT and its downstream targets via generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Simultaneously, Resveratrol treatment of DLBCL cell lines also caused ROS dependent upregulation of DR5; and interestingly, co-treatment of DLBCL with sub-toxic doses of TRAIL and Resveratrol synergistically induced apoptosis via utilizing DR5, on the other hand, gene silencing of DR5 abolished this effect.

Conclusion/significance: Altogether, these data suggest that Resveratrol acts as a suppressor of AKT/PKB pathway leading to apoptosis via generation of ROS and at the same time primes DLBCL cells via up-regulation of DR5 to TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. These data raise the possibility that Resveratrol may have a future therapeutic role in DLBCL and possibly other malignancies with constitutive activation of the AKT/PKB pathway.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0024703PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3171480PMC
February 2012

Prognostic significance of XIAP expression in DLBCL and effect of its inhibition on AKT signalling.

J Pathol 2010 Oct;222(2):180-90

Human Cancer Genomic Research, Research Center, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is essential for cell survival in lymphoma. However, the role of XIAP overexpression in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is not fully elucidated. Therefore, we analysed the expression of XIAP protein and its clinicopathological correlation in a large cohort of DLBCLs by immunohistochemistry in a tissue micro-array format. XIAP was found to be overexpressed in 55% of DLBCLs and significantly associated with poor clinical outcome (p = 0.0421). To further elucidate the role of XIAP in DLBCL and the inter-relationship with PI3-kinase/AKT signalling, we conducted several in vitro studies using a panel of DLBCL cell lines. We found that pharmacological inhibition of XIAP led to caspase-dependent apoptosis in DLBCL cells. We also detected an inter-relationship between XIAP expression and activated AKT in DLBCL cells that may explain cellular resistance to PI3-kinase/AKT inhibition-mediated apoptosis. Finally, this anti-apoptotic effect was overcome by simultaneous pharmacological inhibition of XIAP and PI3-kinase/AKT signalling leading to a more potent synergistically induced apoptosis. In summary, our data suggest that XIAP expression is a poor prognostic factor in DLBCL and the XIAP-AKT relationship should be explored further as a potential therapeutic target in DLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.2747DOI Listing
October 2010

Inhibition of fatty acid synthase suppresses c-Met receptor kinase and induces apoptosis in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

Mol Cancer Ther 2010 May 27;9(5):1244-55. Epub 2010 Apr 27.

Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Fahad National Center for Children's Cancer & Research, Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Fatty acid synthase (FASN), the enzyme responsible for de novo synthesis of fatty acids, has emerged as a potential therapeutic target for several cancers; however, its role in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the role of FASN in a large series of DLBCL tissues in a tissue microarray (TMA) format followed by in vitro studies using DLBCL cell lines. FASN was found to be expressed in 62.6% DLBCL samples and was seen in highly proliferative tumors, manifested by high Ki67 (P < 0.0001). Significant association was found between tumors expressing high FASN and c-Met tyrosine kinase (P < 0.0002), as well as p-AKT (P = 0.0309). In vitro, pharmacological FASN inhibition and small interference RNA (siRNA) targeted against FASN triggered caspase-dependent apoptosis and suppressed expression of c-Met kinase in DLBCL cell lines, which further highlighted the molecular link between FASN and c-Met kinase. Finally, simultaneous targeting of FASN and c-Met with specific chemical inhibitors induced a synergistically stimulated apoptotic response in DLBCL cell lines. These findings provide evidence that FASN, via c-Met tyrosine kinase, plays a critical role in the carcinogenesis of DLBCL and strongly suggest that targeting FASN may have therapeutic value in treatment of DLBCL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-1061DOI Listing
May 2010

Proteasome inhibitor MG-132 mediated expression of p27Kip1 via S-phase kinase protein 2 degradation induces cell cycle coupled apoptosis in primary effusion lymphoma cells.

Leuk Lymphoma 2009 Jul;50(7):1204-13

Human Cancer Genomic Research, King Fahad National Children's Cancer Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an incurable, aggressive B-cell malignancy that develops rapid resistance to conventional chemotherapy. MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor, suppresses cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in several PEL cell lines. Treatment of PEL cells with MG-132 results in downregulation of S-phase kinase protein 2 (SKP2) and accumulation of p27Kip1. Furthermore, MG-132 treatment of PEL cells causes Bax conformational changes, leading to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c to the cytosole. Such cytochrome c release results in sequential activation of caspases and apoptosis, while pretreatment of PEL cells with universal inhibitor of caspases, z-VAD-fmk prevents cell death induced by MG-132. Finally, our data demonstrated in PEL cells that MG-132 downregulates the expression of inhibitor of apoptosis proteins XIAP, cIAP1 and survivin. Altogether, these findings suggest that MG-132 is a potent inducer of apoptosis of PEL cells via downregulation of SKP2 leading to accumulation of p27Kip1, resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis and strongly suggest that targeting the proteasomal pathway may provide a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of PEL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10428190902951799DOI Listing
July 2009