Publications by authors named "Saeed Hosseini Teshnizi"

49 Publications

Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Microb Pathog 2021 Mar 1;152:104721. Epub 2021 Feb 1.

Vector-borne Disease Research Center, North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, Bojnurd, Iran. Electronic address:

Cutaneous leishmaniasis as a public health concern that attracts many attentions in endemic area. There is no exact estimation of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran. This study aimed to assess the exact prevalence of disease and carried out in databases including: Pub Med, Google Scholar, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Magiran, Iran doc, Barakatkns and Scientific Information Database (SID) from 2000 to 2019. Totally 84 studies were eligible to be included in this systematic review and Meta-analysis study. Based on a random effect model the pooled prevalence of leishmaniasis was estimated 45% (95% CI: 39%-51%; I^2 = 99.8%P < 0.001). The highest prevalence of CL was related to Isfahan 66% (53%-78%), Golestan 64% (62%-65%) and Fars province 63% (38%-84%) and the lowest prevalence was estimated in Kermanshah province 4% (4%-5%), Hormozgan 10% (8%-11%), Bushehr 12% (1%-35%) and Kerman 15% (9%-22%) provinces respectively. The lowest prevalence was associated with L. trapica spices 23% (11%-38%) and the highest was associated with L. major spices 32% (21%-45%). The prevalence with both L. trapica and L. major spices was achieved 60% (48%-71%). It is essential for health authorities to take steps to control and prevent the epidemic by rapid treatment of patients, destroying gerbils and promotion of general and health education for the local population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2020.104721DOI Listing
March 2021

Evaluation of MASP1, CMPF and U.A serum levels in pre-diabetic subjects in comparison to Normal individuals for early diagnosis of subjects with pre-diabetes, a case-control study.

J Diabetes Metab Disord 2020 Dec 21;19(2):1593-1598. Epub 2020 Nov 21.

Department of Biochemistry, School of Medicine, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.

Background: The present study designed to evaluate the Serum levels of CMPF, MASP1 and UA in pre-diabetic subjects was compared to normal subjects

Methods: This research is a case-control study. We studied 44 pre-diabetics with 44 normal subjects and were evaluated serum concentration of CMPF, Masp1 and U.Ain both groups andfurthermore serum concentration FPG, BUN, Cr, Cho, TG, HDLc, LDLc, AST, ALT, ALP, HbA1c was examined and correlation between of CMPF, Masp1 and U.Aand other parameters was statistically analyzed.

Results: Serum levels of MASP1, CMPF, fasting plasma glucose ( < 0.001)and uric acid ( < 0.002) were significantly increased in pre-diabetic subjects. In this study, a significant difference was found between MASP1 and CMPF in pre-diabetic subjects compared to normal subjects (P=0.005, r=0.291). There was also a significant difference between serum levels of MASP1 with HbA1C (P=0.01, r=0.269).

Conclusion: Serum levels of CMPF, MASP1 and uric acid were increased in pre-diabetic subjects. These parameters can be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis of pre-diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40200-020-00697-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7843784PMC
December 2020

What are the intervention goals of women's hookah cessation? A systematic, evidence-based and participatory study.

J Ethn Subst Abuse 2021 Jan 8:1-17. Epub 2021 Jan 8.

Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

This Study was designed to answer the question: what are the intervention goals of women for ceasing to smoke. The present research was part of a larger study and was a pioneering systematic research conducted between September 23, 2018 and September 26, 2019 through an intervention mapping in southern Iran among professional hookah Smoking (HS) women. In order to know more about the HS among women, the behavioral and environmental correlates of HS/cessation and the determiners or fundamental causes of these factors were extracted via a systematic review and a local qualitative study. As the results revealed, the expected outcomes of the educational program concerning hookah cessation were achieved. As the realization of these outcomes requires certain changes to the behavioral and environmental dimensions, in the next step, the intervention goals of hookah cessation were identified. As the results showed, four behavioral factors involved in the unhealthy HS behavior were individual HS, Being in the Company of hookah smokers, Visiting tempting and contaminated places and Physical and mental dependence on HS (habit), In addition, four effective environmental factors were found at different interpersonal, organizational, community and policy levels. These include, respectively: recommendation and motivation for cessation by influential figures, care providers' poor inadequate knowledge and skill, Easy acceptance of hookah in society, and the lack of effective rules. Knowledge, awareness, social norms, Motivation to comply, skill and self-efficacy, habit, were among the determining factors of hookah cessation. Employment of a systematic is based on evidence and cooperation and is guided by a assessing the needs of the target population. Such a method can suggest more purposive and relevant intervention goals so as to cease HS. The aim would be to intervene in the purposes of the above-mentioned change, as compared in predetermined interventions, and increase the chances of HS cessation among women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15332640.2020.1864538DOI Listing
January 2021

Status of spp. infection in domestic ruminants from Iran: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

Parasite Epidemiol Control 2020 Nov 13;11:e00173. Epub 2020 Aug 13.

Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Islamic Azad University, Tonekabon Branch, Tonekabon, Iran.

species are tick-borne pathogens that are obligatory intracellular of ruminants and other mammalians. In this investigation, we systematically reviewed the distribution of anaplasmosis among domestic ruminants in Iran. Five and four English and Persian databases were studied, respectively, based on keywords and throughout 17 years (2001-2017). Thirty-eight articles were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. Totally, 5093 cattle, 1958 sheep, and 1232 goats corresponding to prevalence of infection from different areas of Iran were examined. The total prevalence of infection was estimated to be 34% (95% CI 27%, 41%) in domestic ruminants. Based on our data, Khozestan (54%) and Khorasan Razavi (46%) provinces were the most prevalent areas in Iran and Kerman (3%) and Hamedan (1%) provinces are the lowest. The highest prevalence of spp. infection was belonged to (44%) and the lowest to (1%) with a significant difference among them ( < .001). In addition, the most common diagnostic tests were PCR (54%), microscopy (35%) and ELISA (7%) assays. The high prevalence of ovine and bovine anaplasmosis in Iran, confirms the stability situations of animal anaplasmosis in the studied regions particularly northeastern and southwestern parts of the country. Our data offer valuable and encouraging information as regards the current situation of anaplasmosis in domestic livestock in Iran, which might be useful for active and passive surveillance and preventing plans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2020.e00173DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7452112PMC
November 2020

Pediculosis capitis among school-age students worldwide as an emerging public health concern: a systematic review and meta-analysis of past five decades.

Parasitol Res 2020 Oct 15;119(10):3125-3143. Epub 2020 Aug 15.

Department of Veterinary Medicine, Università degli Studi di Bari, Valenzano, Bari, Italy.

Pediculosis by Pediculus humanus capitis is still an important health issue in school-age students worldwide. Although pediculicidal agents effectively kill head lice, the re-infestation rate is still high. This study was conducted to provide a summary of evidence about the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among school-age students worldwide. Different databases including MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science were searched for publications related to pediculosis capitis in school-age students from 1977 to 2020. All peer-reviewed original research articles describing pediculosis capitis among school-age students were included. Statistical heterogeneity of the different years among studies was assessed using the standard chi squared and I tests. Due to the significant heterogeneity, a random effect model was adopted to estimate the pooled, continent, and gender-specific prevalence of pediculosis. Two hundred and one papers met the inclusion criteria of this review and entered into the meta-analysis including 1,218,351 individuals. Through a random effect model, the prevalence of pediculosis capitis among school students was estimated as 19% (CI 95% = 0.18-0.20%, I = 99.89%). The prevalence of pediculosis capitis among boys was 7% (CI 95% = 0.05-0.10) compared to 19% (CI 95% = 0.15-0.24) in girls. The highest prevalence was in Central and South America (33%, CI 95% = 0.22-0.44, I = 99.81%) and the lowest was in Europe (5%, CI 95% = 4-6, I = 99.28%). Relatively high pediculosis capitis prevalence among school-age students observed in this study emphasizes the need for implementing screening and prophylaxis tailored to the local context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-020-06847-5DOI Listing
October 2020

Death certificate errors in three teaching hospitals of Zahedan, southeast of Iran.

Death Stud 2020 Aug 6:1-9. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Health Information Technology Department, Torbat Heydarieh University of Medical Sciences, Khorasan Razavi, Iran.

Accurate completion of death certificates is of critical importance for public health policy and statistical purposes. In assessing 936 available death certificates, most contained one or more errors. Minor errors (e.g. absence of time intervals) were more common than major errors (e.g. the use of general terms instead of specific conditions). Providing education, complying with standards established by the World Health Organization, applying quality control of death certificates, and correcting deficient death certificates in the hospitals seem necessary to inform the effectiveness of public health programs, future health policies, quality health planning, and prioritization of health and medical research programs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1801893DOI Listing
August 2020

Heavy metal concentration in classroom dust samples and its relationship with childhood asthma: a study from Islamic Republic of Iran.

East Mediterr Health J 2020 May 21;26(5):594-601. Epub 2020 May 21.

Allergy Clinic, Department of Paediatrics, Allergy Research Centre, Ali-Asghar Hospital.

Background: Classrooms are an important environment for young children as this is where they spend a large part of their time.

Aims: This study was designed to quantify the levels of heavy metals in classroom dusts in Shiraz, a city southwestern Iran. The potential association between heavy metal levels and childhood asthma was also investigated.

Methods: We selected 32 schools for collecting classroom dust samples during September-November 2016. The concentration of 10 heavy metals was measured in these dust samples by optical emission spectrometry. The diagnosis of childhood asthma was made using both the medical chart of each student and examination by an allergist. The data were analysed using SPSS, version 21.0.

Results: The concentration of heavy metals in classroom dust samples ranged from 7559 to 53 723.0 mg/kg (mean: 16 945.5 mg/kg) for Fe, 169.0 to 952.0 mg/kg (mean 288.9 mg/kg) for Mn, and 9.0 to 971.0 mg/kg (mean 258.8 mg/kg) for Pb. We found no correlation between heavy metals in classroom dust and childhood asthma.

Conclusion: In comparison with studies reported elsewhere, the maximum levels of lead in our study were greater. A potential explanation for the lack of correlation with childhood asthma is the large mass of the particles, preventing them from reaching the lower airways. Nevertheless, special attention should be paid to reducing high levels of heavy metals in classroom dust in this area.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.26719/emhj.19.072DOI Listing
May 2020

Effect of antioxidant supplements on sperm parameters in infertile male smokers: a single-blinded clinical trial.

AIMS Public Health 2020 11;7(1):92-99. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Introduction: Naturally, in human body, there is a balance between free radicals and the antioxidant system. Yet, cigarette consumption in smokers increases free radicals and decreases antioxidants. A vast body of research showed that the ROS level of seminal fluid is reduced using oral antioxidant complements through enhancing the clearing capacity of free radicals. Thus, the present research aimed to explore the effect of vitamin complement consumption on changing male infertility indices among smokers.

Methods: In the present randomized clinical trial which was single-blinded, 50 infertile oligospermic and asthenospermic men participated. They were selected in a randomized convenient sampling method. Before the study began, a semen sample was taken from all participants for analysis. Subsequently, the patients received 30 mg of Q10 coenzyme, 8 mg of zinc, 100 mg of vitamin C, 12 mg of vitamin E, 400 mg of folic acid for a whole duration of 3 months on a daily basis (once a day) and 200 mg of selenium every other day after lunch. A second sample of seminal fluid was taken from patients and semen parameters were compared between the pre- and post-test. The relevant statistical analyses were conducted in SPSS.23.

Results: A comparison of pre-test and post-test results revealed that all sperm parameters including the volume, morphology, motion, count and progressive motility were significantly increased after the intervention (p ≥ 005). Moreover, a statistically significant improvement was observed in the pH and concentration of seminal fluid.

Conclusion: The present research showed that consuming vitamin complements (30 mg of Q10, mg of zinc, 100 mg of vitamin C, 12 mg of vitamin E, 400 mg of folic acid) once a day as well as 200 mg of selenium every other day can effectively improve the qualitative parameters (pH and concentration) and quantitative parameters (volume, motion, morphology, count and progressive motility) in infertile male smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/publichealth.2020009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7109539PMC
February 2020

Effect of antioxidant supplements on sperm parameters in infertile male smokers: a single-blinded clinical trial.

AIMS Public Health 2020 11;7(1):92-99. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Introduction: Naturally, in human body, there is a balance between free radicals and the antioxidant system. Yet, cigarette consumption in smokers increases free radicals and decreases antioxidants. A vast body of research showed that the ROS level of seminal fluid is reduced using oral antioxidant complements through enhancing the clearing capacity of free radicals. Thus, the present research aimed to explore the effect of vitamin complement consumption on changing male infertility indices among smokers.

Methods: In the present randomized clinical trial which was single-blinded, 50 infertile oligospermic and asthenospermic men participated. They were selected in a randomized convenient sampling method. Before the study began, a semen sample was taken from all participants for analysis. Subsequently, the patients received 30 mg of Q10 coenzyme, 8 mg of zinc, 100 mg of vitamin C, 12 mg of vitamin E, 400 mg of folic acid for a whole duration of 3 months on a daily basis (once a day) and 200 mg of selenium every other day after lunch. A second sample of seminal fluid was taken from patients and semen parameters were compared between the pre- and post-test. The relevant statistical analyses were conducted in SPSS.23.

Results: A comparison of pre-test and post-test results revealed that all sperm parameters including the volume, morphology, motion, count and progressive motility were significantly increased after the intervention (p ≥ 005). Moreover, a statistically significant improvement was observed in the pH and concentration of seminal fluid.

Conclusion: The present research showed that consuming vitamin complements (30 mg of Q10, mg of zinc, 100 mg of vitamin C, 12 mg of vitamin E, 400 mg of folic acid) once a day as well as 200 mg of selenium every other day can effectively improve the qualitative parameters (pH and concentration) and quantitative parameters (volume, motion, morphology, count and progressive motility) in infertile male smokers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3934/publichealth.2020009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7109539PMC
February 2020

Global prevalence status of avian schistosomes: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

Parasite Epidemiol Control 2020 May 18;9:e00142. Epub 2020 Feb 18.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objectives: Human cercarial dermatitis (HCD) is a water-borne zoonotic parasitic disease. Cercariae of the avian schistosomes of several genera are frequently recognized as the causative agent of HCD. Various studies have been performed regarding prevalence of bird schistosomes in different regions of the world. So far, no study has gathered and analyzed this data systematically. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis study was to determine the prevalence of avian schistosomes worldwide.

Methods: Data were extracted from six available databases for studies published from 1937 to 2017. Generally, 41 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were used for data extraction in this systematic review. Most of studies have been conducted on the family Anatidae.

Results: The overall prevalence of avian schistosomes was estimated to be 34.0% (95%CI, 28%-41%) around the world. Furthermore, results displayed that, and spp. had the highest frequency and their prevalence in the birds was 50.0% (95% CI, 3.0%-97.0%) and 32.0% (95% CI, 21.0%-0.36%), respectively. The results showed that the prevalence of avian schistosomes was 43.0% (95% CI, 29% - 56%) in the US and 38.0% (27.0% -50.0%) in Europe, which were higher than other continents, respectively.

Conclusions: The prevalence of 34% shows that the bird schistosomes are very common zoonotic worms among aquatic birds in the world. Also, this study shows the importance of avian schistosome research when facing animal and human health of the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2020.e00142DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7063171PMC
May 2020

The frequency of cross-reactivity with various avian eggs among children with hen's egg allergy using skin prick test results: fewer sensitizations with pigeon and goose egg.

Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) 2020 May - Jun;48(3):265-269. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Clinical Research Development Center of Children Hospital, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Iran.

Introduction And Objectives: A high rate of cross-reactivity has been reported between the specific proteins of hen's egg with proteins of various avian eggs by quantitative immunoelectrophoretic techniques. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical cross-reactivity of different birds eggs in children with hen's egg allergy based on skin prick test results.

Material And Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 52 infants with hen's egg allergy and 52 healthy infants with no history of food allergy from October 2018 to April 2019. Skin prick tests were performed in both patient and control groups with fresh extract of white and yolk related to pigeon, duck, goose, turkey, quail, and partridge.

Results: Fifty (96.1%) children with hen's egg allergy showed positive sensitization to at least one of the avian eggs. The most frequent positive skin tests were related to quail's white (36 = 69.2%) followed by duck's white (34 = 65.5%), and sensitization was the least frequent in pigeon's yolk (23 = 44.2%). Skin tests of the control group were negative to all the tested extracts.

Conclusion: Because of fewer sensitizations to some avian eggs, further research should clarify starting oral immunotherapy with the yolk of goose and pigeon in children with hen's egg allergy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aller.2019.10.002DOI Listing
December 2020

Factors affecting length of stay in Children Hospital in Southern Iran.

BMC Health Serv Res 2019 Dec 10;19(1):949. Epub 2019 Dec 10.

Assistant Professor of Biostatistics, Cardiovascular Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Background: One of the effective indicators for determining the efficiency and optimal use of hospital resources is the length of stay (LOS). This study aimed to determine the patients' length of stay and the factors affecting the LOS in the Children's hospital.

Method: A cross-sectional study was performed on Children Hospital medical record database including 350 records (April 2015 to Dec 2015). Records were selected by stratified random sampling with proportional allocation. Then the predetermined demographic and hospital variables were extracted through the study of patients' medical records. All statistical analysis were performed using SPSS software.

Results: The overall median of the LOS in the studied hospital was 3 days (IQR =3). The results showed that in this hospital the LOS has a significant relationship with the variables of time of admission, the place of residence, type of admission, and the degree of attending physician. Also, with the increasing number of visits, ultrasonography, counseling and laboratory test, LOS was increased.

Conclusion: Improving processes related to diagnostic procedures, providing adequate staffing for specialized services in all hours of the day, preventing unnecessary and non-emergency admissions in the evening and night, will be effective in optimizing patient LOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-4799-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6905070PMC
December 2019

Geo-climatic factors in a newly emerging focus of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis in rural areas of north-eastern Iran.

Transbound Emerg Dis 2020 Mar 1;67(2):914-923. Epub 2019 Dec 1.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Centre, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the fatal form of leishmaniasis. A newly emerging focus of zoonotic VL (ZVL) including 13 villages has been reported from Maraveh Tappeh County, Golestan province, north-eastern Iran. We investigated the effect of climatic and environmental factors on the occurrence of disease in this focus by geographical information systems (GIS) approaches and logistic regression models. The incidence rate of ZVL in human and dog population was estimated 1.2% and 27.3%, respectively, in the studied areas. Rock soil type (OR = 11.7), rainfall (OR = 1.04) and elevation (OR = 0.99) were found as determinants of ZVL. Also, almost all infected villages were in close proximity of rivers. Cavities of rock soil around rivers are assumed as suitable areas for sandfly resting and growth by providing shadow and moisture. Rainfall also provides appropriate moisture in semi-arid regions for survival of sandflies. The negative effect of higher altitude can be explained by some sandfly life-limiting conditions like freezing weather. Accordingly, regions with lower altitude and higher rainfall, covered by rock and in close proximity of rivers, are the hazard zones for ZVL in the Maraveh Tappeh. Air humidity, temperature, land cover type and slope were not predictors of disease in the current study. Further investigations on human population movement, probable reservoirs and vectors of disease can provide valuable data for modelling the future distribution of ZVL in the Iranian province.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/tbed.13416DOI Listing
March 2020

Epidemiologic features and risk factors of sepsis in ischemic stroke patients admitted to intensive care: A prospective cohort study.

J Clin Neurosci 2019 Nov 18;69:245-249. Epub 2019 Sep 18.

Anesthesiology and Critical Care Research Center, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Background/objective: Stroke is the second leading cause of death globally that predisposed to sepsis. Therefore, this study was aimed to assess the risk factors and epidemiologic features of sepsis in ischemic stroke patients admitted to ICUs.

Methods: Throughout this prospective study, we investigated all severe ischemic stroke patients admitted to ICUs of Namazi and Ali-Ashghar Hospitals in Shiraz. After ICU admission and diagnosing stroke by a neurologist according to NIHSS (National Institute of Health Stroke Scale) criteria, sepsis work-up was performed in all patients suspected to have sepsis. Then the incidence of sepsis and its risk factors in ICU admitted stroke patients were determined.

Results: A total of 149 patients were screened in this study. The mean age of the participants was 65.37 ± 15.40 years old and 57.4% of them were male. Hypertension was the most common coexistent disease (74.6%) in stroke patients. Seventy-six patients (62.3%) were diagnosed with sepsis and pneumonia was the most common infection leading to sepsis in stroke patients. Our data showed significant differences between two groups in terms of APACHE-IV score (P < 0.001), NIHSS and APS (P < 0.001) before ICU admission (P < 0.001) and NIHSS at admission (P < 0.001); however, age (P = 0.07) and sex (P = 0.17) were not significantly different between the groups. Logistic regression analysis displayed that severe stroke (NIHSS = 21-42, OR = 49.09) and severe loss of consciousness (GCS < 8, OR = 27.95) at admission were the most essential predictive factors for sepsis after ischemic stroke.

Conclusions: This study showed that ICU patients with severe ischemic stroke were more susceptible to sepsis during the hospital course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocn.2019.07.031DOI Listing
November 2019

Is the cat an important reservoir host for visceral leishmaniasis? A systematic review with meta-analysis.

J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis 2019 10;25:e20190012. Epub 2019 Jun 10.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

In recent years feline leishmanial infections (FLI) have been studied more than ever before in various parts of the world. However, evidence-based knowledge on FLI has remained unavailable. The main objectives of this study were to investigate the status of felines infected by spp. worldwide. Data were extracted from 10 available databases over the period of 1982 to 2017. Overall, 78 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were used for data extraction in this systematic review. The overall FLI prevalence by both serological and molecular methods was estimated at 10% (95% CI: 8%-14%). In Italy, both the seroprevalence (24 %) and PCR prevalence (21 %) were found to be higher than in other countries. The most common diagnostic test used was the indirect fluorescent antibody test (38.5%). Studies on mixed-breed felines were more common than those on other breeds, while the most common parasite species was (63%). Our findings suggest that cats act as primary and/or secondary reservoir hosts in the transmission of the spp. to humans and also to dogs, by sandflies, at least in endemic foci. Moreover, available data confirm the enzootic stability situation of FLI in several countries including some in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-9199-JVATITD-2019-0012DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6583674PMC
June 2019

Status of infection in livestock: A systematic review with meta-analysis in Iran.

Parasite Epidemiol Control 2019 Nov 19;7:e00111. Epub 2019 May 19.

Toxoplasmosis Research Center, Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objectives: The present systematic review attempted to determine the prevalence of () infection among Iranian livestock. The known as tongue worm belongs to the phylum pentastomida and lives in upper respiratory system and nasal airways of carnivores. Herbivores and other ruminants are intermediate hosts.

Methods: MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library were searched from Nov 1996 to 22 Apr 2019 by searching terms including "", "linguatulosis", "pentastomida", "bovine", "cattle", "cow", "buffalo", "sheep", "ovine", "goat", "camel", "Iran", and "prevalence" alone or in combination. The search was conducted in Persian databases of Magiran, Iran doc, Barakatkns (Iran medex) and Scientific Information Database (SID) with the same keywords. After reviewing the full texts of 133 published studies, 50 studies had the eligibility criteria to enter our review.

Results: By random effects model analysis, the pooled prevalence of linguatulosis was 25% (95%CI: 18.0-33.0,  = 98.67 % , P < 0.001) in goats; 15.0% (95%CI: 10.0-20.0,  = 97.95 % , P < 0.001) in sheep; 12.0% (95%CI: 7.0-18.0,  = 98.05 % , P < 0.001) in cattle; 7% (95%CI: 2.0-16.0,  = 97.52%) in buffalos and 11.0% (95%CI: 6.0-16.0%,  = 96.26 % , P < 0.001) in camels. The overall prevalence in livestock was estimated to be 25%. The highest infection rate was recorded in West Azerbaijan Province (68%) and the lowest rate was in Khuzestan Province (0.23%) (P < 0.05).

Conclusions: We concluded that the high prevalence of infection in livestock (mainly ovine linguatulosis) show the endemic status of linguatulosis in several parts of Iran and will pose a risk for inhabitants. Control strategies to reduce the parasite burden among these animals are needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parepi.2019.e00111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6582392PMC
November 2019

An overview of diarrheagenic in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Res Med Sci 2019 25;24:23. Epub 2019 Mar 25.

Molecular Microbiology Research Group, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman, Kerman, Iran.

Background: Diarrheagenic (DEC) is a common enteric pathogen that causes a wide spectrum of gastrointestinal infections, particularly in developing countries. This is a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the prevalence of DEC in various geographical regions in Iran.

Materials And Methods: English (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar) and Persian (IranMedex, SID, Magiran, and Iran Doc) databases were comprehensively searched from January 1990 to April 2017. Study selection and data extraction were performed by two independent reviewers. After assessing heterogeneity among studies, a random effects model was applied to estimate pooled prevalence. Data analyses were done with the Stata software (version 12.0). This meta-analysis was registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017070411.

Results: A total of 73 studies with 18068 isolates were eligible for inclusion within the meta-analysis. The results of random effects model showed that the most prevalent DEC pathotypes were enterotoxigenic (ETEC) (16%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 11%-23%), enteroaggregative (11%; 95% CI: 8%-15%), atypical enteropathogenic (EPEC) (11%; 95% CI: 8%-14%), Shiga toxin-producing (9%; 95% CI: 6%-13%), diffuse adherent (6%; 95% CI: 6%-12%), enteroinvasive (4%; 95% CI: 2%-6%), and typical EPEC (3%; 95% CI: 1%-5%).

Conclusion: This study showed that DEC infections in the Iranian population have low frequency. Our data suggest that the ETEC pathotype can be regarded as one of the most important etiological agents of diarrhea in this country. However, the prevalence of DEC pathotypes is diverse in different regions of Iran.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jrms.JRMS_256_18DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6450139PMC
March 2019

Comparison of expression optimization of new derivative of staphylokinase (SAK-2RGD-TTI) with the rSAK.

Biotechnol Prog 2019 07 25;35(4):e2819. Epub 2019 Apr 25.

Biotechnology Research Center, Pharmaceutical Technology Institute, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.

Staphylokinase (SAK) is a promising thrombolytic agent for the treatment of patients suffering from blood-clotting disorders. To increase the potency of SAK and to minimize vessel reocclusion, a new construct bearing SAK motif fused to tsetse thrombin inhibitor (TTI) via a 20-amino acid linker with 2 RGD (2 × arginine-glycine-aspartic acid inhibiting platelet aggregation via attachment to integrin receptors of platelet) was codon optimized and expressed comparatively in Pichia pastoris GS115 as a Mut strain and KM71H as a Mut strain. Fusion protein was optimized in terms of best expression condition and fibrinolytic activity and compared with the rSAK. Expression level of the designed construct reached up to 175 mg/L of the culture medium after 72-hr stimulation with 2.5% methanol and remained steady for 3-4 days. The highest expression was obtained at the range of 2-3% methanol. The SAK-2RGD-TT (relative activity >82%) was more active at 25-37 °C than rSAK (relative activity of 93%). Further, it showed relative activity >80% at pH ranges of 7-9. Western blot analysis showed two bands of nearly 27 and 24 kDa at ratio of 5 to 3, respectively. The specific fibrinolytic activity of the SAK-2RGD-TTI was measured as 8,269 U/mg, and 19,616 U/mg for the nonpurified and purified proteins, respectively. Deglycosylation by using tunicamycin in culture medium resulted in higher fibrinolytic activity of SAK-2RGD-TTI (2.2 fold). Consequently, compared to the rSAK, at the same equimolar proportion, addition of RGD and TTI fragments could increase fibrinolytic activity. Also, P. pastoris can be considered as an efficient host for overexpression of the soluble SAK-2RGD-TTI with high activity without requiring a complicated purification procedure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/btpr.2819DOI Listing
July 2019

Relationship between Religious Orientation, Anxiety, and Depression among College Students: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Iran J Public Health 2019 Jan;48(1):43-52

Isfahan Health Center, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Background: Religious obligation helps people to develop mental health by creating internal commitment to special rules. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the relationship between religious orientation and anxiety among college students.

Methods: Major scientific databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct, EBSCO, ProQuest and PsycINFO were searched for original research articles published 1987-2016. A random effect model was used to combine Correlation coefficient. All analyses were performed using Stata MP.

Results: After screening of 7235 documents, 13 articles including 5620 participants met inclusion criteria in this meta-analysis. Correlation coefficient was -0.08 (95% CI= -0.19, -0.03) which indicated with increasing religious orientation, anxiety and depression reduced (<0.001). Characteristics such as sex, geographic region, and type of religions were potential sources of heterogeneity. Based on fill-and-trim method the adjusted pooled r was obtained, -0.06 (95% CI= -0.16, -0.04).

Conclusion: There was a weakness relationship between religious orientation and mental anxiety and depression. Therefore, it needs to improve knowledge of student about advantages of religious orientation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6401585PMC
January 2019

Influence of forkhead box protein 3 polymorphisms (rs2232365, rs3761548) with the outcome of pregnancy: A meta-analysis.

J Cell Physiol 2019 Feb 19. Epub 2019 Feb 19.

Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Dysfunction of regulatory T cells (Tregs) may contribute to certain immune-related pregnancy complications. Forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3) is the key transcription factor of Treg. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the possible association between FOXP3 polymorphisms -924A/G (rs2232365) and -3279C/A (rs3761548) and immune-related pregnancy complications. After reviewing 78 fully published studies, 10 studies fulfilled previously defined eligibility criteria and were used for meta-analysis. Two single nucleotide polymorphisms showed a significant correlation with increased or reduced risk for immune-related pregnancy complications. For rs3761548, women with allele A were significantly at a higher risk than women carrying allele C (odds ratio = 1.29, 95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.38; p = 0.001). For rs2232365, women with GG or AG genotype were at a higher risk than women with genotype AA, thereby, allele G was significantly associated with a higher risk than allele A. Our meta-analysis supports the notion that immune-related pregnancy complications might be linked to genetic variations in the FOXP3 gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.28328DOI Listing
February 2019

Repurposing azole antifungals into antileishmanials: Novel 3-triazolylflavanones with promising in vitro antileishmanial activity against Leishmania major.

Parasitol Int 2019 Apr 21;69:103-109. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

Infectious and Tropical Diseases Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Previously, we have described a series of azole antifungals namely 3-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)flavanones (TFs) containing an N-(phenethyl)azole framework required for sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) inhibitory activity. Similar mechanism of action of azoles in fungi and protozoan parasites prompted us to investigate the potential effects of TFs against promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania major (L. major), as well as their toxicity against macrophages, apoptosis induction and in silico interactions with the target enzyme. All compounds showed more potent anti-parasitic activity against L. major in comparison with reference azole drug fluconazole and standard antileishmanial agent glucantime. Among the tested compounds, the 4-chloro derivative (TF-2) was found to be the most potent one, being about 13 times more potent than fluconazole against promastigotes. TF-2 decreased both mean infection rate of macrophages (MIR) and mean number of amastigotes per macrophages (MNAPM), significantly more than fluconazole (P < .001). Furthermore, the cytotoxicity assay against J774.A.1 macrophages revealed that this compound displays high selectivity against amastigotes over macrophages (SI = 30.21). The in silico study showed that TF-2 can properly accommodated in the active site of parasitic CYP51 and coordinated to the heme. The SAR analysis showed that the introduction of 4-chloro on 2-phenyl moiety results in the best profile of activity and selectivity. Accordingly, the compound TF-2 prototype can be considered as promising candidate for development of new antileishmanial agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2018.12.006DOI Listing
April 2019

Promising antileishmanial activity of novel imidazole antifungal drug luliconazole against Leishmania major: In vitro and in silico studies.

J Glob Antimicrob Resist 2018 09 21;14:260-265. Epub 2018 May 21.

Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Student Research Committee, Faculty of Pharmacy, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Objectives: Pentavalent antimonials have been used for the treatment of leishmaniasis for over 70 years, however they are limited by their toxicity. Unfortunately, the efficacy of first-line drugs for the treatment of leishmaniasis has decreased and resistance is noticeable. Luliconazole is a new azole with unique effects on fungi that has not yet been tested on Leishmania parasites.

Methods: In this study, the cytotoxicity and antileishmanial activity of luliconazole were evaluated in vitro against promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania major. The docking simulation with the target enzyme, sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) was performed using AutoDock 4.2 program.

Results: The IC (concentration of test compound required for 50% inhibition) against promastigotes revealed that luliconazole (IC=0.19μM) has greater potency than ketoconazole (KET), meglumine antimoniate (MA) and amphotericin B (AmB) (IC values of 135, 538 and 2.52μM, respectively). Against the amastigote stage, luliconazole at a concentration of 0.07μM decreased the mean infection rate and the mean number of amastigotes per macrophage more effectively than MA (P<0.004) and KET (P<0.043), but there was no difference compared with AmB (P>0.05). A docking study of luliconazole with the cytochrome P450 enzyme sterol 14α-demethylase (CYP51) revealed that this azole drug can properly interact with the target enzyme in Leishmania mainly via coordination with heme and multiple hydrophobic interactions.

Conclusion: These results show the potent activity of luliconazole at extremely low concentrations against L. major. It may therefore be considered as a new candidate for treatment of leishmaniasis in the near future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jgar.2018.05.007DOI Listing
September 2018

Is urine a reliable clinical sample for the diagnosis of human visceral leishmaniasis? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Parasitol Int 2018 10 19;67(5):575-583. Epub 2018 May 19.

Student Research Committee, Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Visualization of amastigotes in lymph nodes, bone marrow, and other tissues samples remains the gold standard method for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in humans. This gold standard diagnostic method uses a technically challenging microscopy procedure that is often not accessible in many places in the world where VL is endemic. Here, we report the current systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate whether urine is a reliable clinical sample for diagnosis of human VL. Data were extracted from ten available databases during the period from 2002 to 2017. Overall, 29 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were used for data extraction in this systematic review. Most studies (72.4%) using urine specimens were reported from five countries: India 6 (20.7%), Iran 5 (17.2%), Bangladesh 4 (13.8%), Japan 3 (10.3%) and Spain 3 (10.3%), respectively. The most common diagnostic tests performed on urine were Katex (62.1%), ELISA (24.1%), and the rK39 (17.2%) assays. In meta-analysis the sensitivity and specificity of the three most commonly used diagnostic assays were rK39 (97%; CI: 91-99; 98%;76-100), ELISA (91%; 82-95; 99%; CI: 94-100), and Katex (83%; 73-90; 98%; 98-100), suggesting that the rK39 assay provided the highest sensitivity and the ELISA assay provided the highest specificity for diagnosis of VL from urine samples. Our findings suggest that urine is a valuable clinical sample for the diagnosis of human VL, particularly in areas where the gold standard test for VL is not available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.parint.2018.05.008DOI Listing
October 2018

Relationship of SNP rs2645429 in Farnesyl-Diphosphate Farnesyltransferase 1 Gene Promoter with Susceptibility to Lung Cancer.

Int J Genomics 2018 22;2018:4863757. Epub 2018 Mar 22.

Cellular and Molecular Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.

Background And Purpose: The mevalonate pathway is one of the major metabolic pathways that use acetyl-CoA to produce sterols and isoprenoids. These compounds can be effective in the growth and development of tumors. One of the enzymes involved in the mevalonate pathway is FDFT1. Different variants of this gene are involved in the risk of suffering various diseases. The present study examined the relationship between FDFT1 rs2645429 polymorphism and the risk of nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a population from southern Iran.

Method: The genotypes of rs2645429 polymorphism of FDFT1 gene were examined in 95 samples: 34 patients with NSCLC and 61 healthy individuals by RFLP method.

Results: The results of this study indicated that C allele of this polymorphism was effectively associated with the risk of NSCLC in the Iranian population ( value = 0.023; OR = 2.71; 95% CI = 1.12-6.59) and CC genotype has significant relation with susceptibility to NSCLC ( value = 0.029; OR = 3.02; 95% CI = 1.09-8.39). This polymorphism is located in the promoter region FDFT1 gene, and CC genotype may increase the activity of this promoter. This study also found a significant relationship between C allele and metastatic status. C allele was more common in NSCLC patients. ( = 0.04).

Conclusion: C allele of FDFT1 rs2645429 polymorphism gene can be a risk factor for NSCLC, whereas T allele probably has a low protective role.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/4863757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5885393PMC
March 2018

Status of theileriosis among herbivores in Iran: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Vet World 2018 Mar 19;11(3):332-341. Epub 2018 Mar 19.

Student Research Committee, Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Aim: Theileriosis is a protozoal disease caused by spp. mostly in warm-blooded vertebrates worldwide. It is one of the common tick-borne diseases among domestic animals in tropical and sub-tropical regions, which have a variety of unlikable effects on health economy and animal welfare. In the present study, the prevalence of theileriosis among domestic farm animals in Iran was systematically evaluated.

Methods: To identify the related papers, 10 English and Persian databases, including PubMed, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Medical Subject Headings, Google Scholar, Magiran, Barakatns (formerly Iranmedex), Elm net, and Scientific Information Database, were appraised for articles published throughout 1999-2017.

Results: A total of 56 papers, providing the examination of 11,317 cattle, 9394 sheep, 2991 buffaloes, 1504 horses, 600 goats, and 212 donkeys were analyzed, matching for the prevalence of theileriosis from different parts of Iran were permitted for our allowing checklist. The overall prevalence of theileriosis among domestic herbivores was expected to be 19% (95% confidence interval: 15%, 22%). Our findings highlighted the average of the maximum prevalence in Razavi Khorasan (60.4%) and West Azerbaijan (49.1%) and the minimum in Mazandaran (1.1%) and East Azerbaijan provinces (2.2%), respectively. The high prevalence of infection in the herbivores (mainly sheep) verifies the well-known enzootic episode of theileriosis in Iran, predominantly in northeastern and western parts of the country.

Conclusion: Our results suggested updated and imperative information on the true burden of theileriosis in Iran. Moreover, it could be supporting the gaps among monitoring, prevention, and control arrangements to improve the health economy, particularly among dairy farm animals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2018.332-341DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5891849PMC
March 2018

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis in patients with cystic fibrosis and non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis.

Electron Physician 2018 Jan 25;10(1):6273-6278. Epub 2018 Jan 25.

Ph.D. Candidate in Biostatistics, Clinical Research Development Center of Children Hospital, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.

Background: Aspergillus sensitization (AS) and allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) can occur as a cause of permanent lung damage in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) and non-CF bronchiectasis.

Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of AS and ABPA in patients with CF and non-CF bronchiectasis in southwestern Iran.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 33 patients with CF and 27 patients with non-CF bronchiectasis from southwestern Iran who were referred to Namazi Hospital affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences from July 2015 to February 2016. Skin prick test to Aspergillus fumigatus, peripheral blood eosinophil count, total serum IgE, specific IgE and IgG against Aspergillus fumigatus as well as radiologic chest studies were done for each patient. Statistical analysis was done by Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher Exact test, and Kappa weighted in SPSS software version 18. Level of significance was set at p<0.05.

Results: Nine patients with CF (27.3%) and one patient with non-CF bronchiectasis (3.7%) had positive skin tests to Aspergillus. There was 81.2% agreement between positive skin test and specific IgE to Aspergillus fumigatus (p<0.001). Three patients with CF (9%) met the diagnostic criteria for ABPA, whereas ABPA was not seen in patients with non-CF bronchiectasis.

Conclusion: ABPA was low in this study, considering more frequency of AS in patients with cystic fibrosis, clinicians should keep in mind the diagnosis of ABPA for those CF patients that do not respond to usual medical therapy and have positive skin tests to Aspergillus allergens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.19082/6273DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5854004PMC
January 2018

Assessing quality of health services with the SERVQUAL model in Iran. A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Int J Qual Health Care 2018 Mar;30(2):82-89

Shahrekord University of Medical Science, Shahrekord, Iran.

Purpose: The five-dimension service quality (SERVQUAL) scale is one of the most common tools for evaluating gaps between clients' perceptions and expectations. This study aimed to assess the quality of health services in Iran through a meta-analysis of all Iranian studies which used the SERVQUAL tool.

Data Sources: A systematic literature review has been performed in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Iran Medex, Magiran and Scientific Information Database.

Study Selection: All relevant English or Persian studies published between January 2009 and April 2016 were have been selected. Papers were considered if they regarded all five dimensions of the SERVQUAL tool for assessing the quality of health care services.

Data Extraction: Two reviewer independently extracted mean and standard deviation of five dimensions and characteristics of studies. The quality of studies included in meta-analysis using STROBE checklist.

Results Of Data Synthesis: Of 315 studies initially identified, 12 were included in our meta-analysis. All analyses were performed in Stata MP v. 14. Patients' perceptions were lower than their expectations (gap = -1.64). Responsibility (-1.22) and reliability (-1.15) had the lowest gaps, and tangibility and empathy (-1.03) had the largest gaps. Except gender, other variables had no significant associations with gaps. Patients in the cities of Arak (-3.47) and Shiraz (-3.02) had the largest gaps.

Conclusions: All dimensions of service quality were negative, which implies that the quality of health services in Iran has not been satisfying to patients and needs to be improved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intqhc/mzx200DOI Listing
March 2018

Antileishmanial Activity of and Essential Oils and Nano-emulsions on (MRHO/IR/75/ER).

Iran J Parasitol 2017 Oct-Dec;12(4):622-631

Students Research Committee, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Background: The aim of present study was to evaluate antileishmanial effects of () and () medicinal plants essential oils and nano-emulsions on .

Methods: The present study was performed in Leishmaniasis Reference Lab at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Iran during 2016-2017. The IC50 values were calculated in both the promastigote and amastigote stages in J774 macrophage in comparison with meglumine antimoniate (MA) as positive control. In addition, cytotoxicity effects of essential oils and nano-emulsions prepared from both plants against macrophages were evaluated.

Results: Both essential oil and nano-emulsion of and showed anti-leishmania activity on promastigote with IC=0.11 μl/mL, IC=0.26 μl/mL, and IC=0.08 μl/mL respectively. Moreover, during amastigote assay, and essential oils and nano-emulsion were effective at least in concentration of 0.12 μl/mL and 0.06 μl/mL (=0.0001) respectively, on mean infected macrophages (MIR) and amastigotes in macrophages (=0.0001). Additionally, cytotoxicity assay against macrophage revealed no toxicity on the host cells at IC concentrations.

Conclusion: The nano-emulsions of both plants were more effective than essential oil in both MIR and amastigote. However, in comparison with MA, the essential oil is more effective in reducing MIR. nano-emulsion reduced MIR significantly more than MA in concentration of 0.25 μl/mL (<0.001). Further investigations are recommended to evaluate the effect of these medicinal plants in murine models.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5756313PMC
January 2018

Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and risk of Alzheimer disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Neurotoxicology 2018 12 24;69:242-252. Epub 2017 Dec 24.

Department of Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Institute of Health, School of Health, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

Introduction: Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) occurs in many occupations such as welders, electric utility workers, train drivers and sewing machine operators. There is some evidence suggesting ELF-MF exposure to be a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). The current study aims at systematically reviewing the literature and conducting a meta-analysis to evaluate the risk of AD amongst workers exposed to ELF-MF.

Methods: Bibliographic databases were searched including PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science in November 2017. Risk of bias was assessed in the all included studies. Pooled estimates were obtained using random-effects meta-analysis. In addition, sources of heterogeneity between studies and publication bias were explored.

Results: In total, 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. The pooled results suggest an increased risk of AD (RR: 1.63; 95% CI: 1.35, 1.96). Higher risk estimates were obtained from case-control studies (OR: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.40, 2.32) than from cohort studies (RR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.87). A moderate to high heterogeneity (I = 61.0%) and indication for publication bias (Egger test: p <  0.001) were found.

Conclusion: The results suggested that occupational exposure to ELF-MF might increase the risk of AD. However, this suggestion should be interpreted with caution given the moderate to high heterogeneity and indication for publication bias.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuro.2017.12.005DOI Listing
December 2018

Global status of visceral leishmanial infection among blood donors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Transfus Apher Sci 2017 Oct 21;56(5):748-754. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Molecular and Cell Biology Research Center, Department of Parasitology, School of Medicine, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, Iran.

Introduction: Transmission of Leishmania through transfusion has been reported from various Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) endemic areas of the world. The true burden of Leishmania infection in blood donors remains generally unknown. Thus, the present systematic review attempted to determine the global prevalence of Leishmania infection among blood donors.

Methods: Data were extracted through five English and five Persian databases during the period from 1997 to 2016. Overall, 16 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were used for data extraction in this systematic review.

Results: In total, 13,743 blood donors from different regions of world were examined. The prevalence rate of Leishmania infection according to seropositivity obtained 7% (95%CI: 5%, 8%). The lowest and the highest prevalence were related to Bangladesh 0.25% (95%CI: 0.0%, 1.0%) and Brazil, 16% (95%CI: 12%, 19%). Seroprevalence rate of leishmaniasis among females was more (4.60%) than males. Of 15 studies included in the meta-analysis, the pooled prevalence rate of molecular tests was obtained 2% (95%CI: 1%, 3%) in which Iran and Spain had the lowest and the highest prevalence, 0.05% and 7%, respectively. Our analysis showed that L. infantum was more common than L. donovani as etiological agent of VL among all donors.

Conclusion: Our data confirms the presence of asymptomatic carriers of VL in endemic areas and supplies as an attentive to the likelihood of these carriers acting as blood donors. Moreover, we conclude that molecular tests for screening in asymptomatic blood donor provide an accurate estimate of the rate of infection over serological tests.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.transci.2017.09.007DOI Listing
October 2017