Publications by authors named "Sadegh Jafarnejad"

32 Publications

Quercetin as an anticancer agent: Focus on esophageal cancer.

J Food Biochem 2020 09 19;44(9):e13374. Epub 2020 Jul 19.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Esophageal cancer (EC) is regarded as the sixth highest contributor to all cancer-related mortality, worldwide. In spite of advances in the treatment of EC, currently used methods remain ineffective. Quercetin, as a dietary antioxidant, is a plant flavonol from the flavonoid group of polyphenols, and can be found in numerous vegetables, fruits, and herbs. Quercetin can affect the processes of cancer-related diseases via cell proliferation inhibitory effects, potential apoptosis effects, and antioxidant properties. Of the various types of cancer, the use of quercetin has now become prominent in the treatment of EC. In this review, we discuss how quercetin may be an important supplement for the prevention, treatment, and management of EC, owing to its natural origin, and low-cost relative to synthetic cancer drugs. However, most findings cited in the current study are based on in vitro and in vivo studies, and thus, further human-based research is necessitated. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: In spite of advances in the treatment of esophageal cancer, currently used methods remain ineffective, therefore, an alternative or complementary therapy is required. Quercetin, as a dietary antioxidant, can affect the processes of cancer-related diseases via cell proliferation inhibitory effects, potential proapoptotic functions, and antioxidant properties. Quercetin may be an important supplement for the prevention, treatment, and management of EC, owing to its natural origin. The low cost of quercetin as supplement or dietary intake, relative to synthetic cancer drugs, is an advantage of the compound which should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jfbc.13374DOI Listing
September 2020

RANKL/RANK/OPG Pathway: A Mechanism Involved in Exercise-Induced Bone Remodeling.

Biomed Res Int 2020 19;2020:6910312. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Bones as an alive organ consist of about 70% mineral and 30% organic component. About 200 million people are suffering from osteopenia and osteoporosis around the world. There are multiple ways of protecting bone from endogenous and exogenous risk factors. Planned physical activity is another useful way for protecting bone health. It has been investigated that arranged exercise would effectively regulate bone metabolism. Until now, a number of systems have discovered how exercise could help bone health. Previous studies reported different mechanisms of the effect of exercise on bone health by modulation of bone remodeling. However, the regulation of RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway in exercise and physical performance as one of the most important remodeling systems is not considered comprehensive in previous evidence. Therefore, the aim of this review is to clarify exercise influence on bone modeling and remodeling, with a concentration on its role in regulating RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/6910312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7053481PMC
October 2020

The hypotensive effect of salt substitutes in stage 2 hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2020 02 27;20(1):98. Epub 2020 Feb 27.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan, University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR, Iran.

Background: Hypertension (HTN) is a ubiquitous risk factor for numerous non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease and stroke. There are currently no wholly effective pharmacological therapies for subjects with HTN. However, salt substitutes have emerged as a potential therapy for the treatment of HTN. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of salt substitutes on reducing systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP), following a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Methods: Studies were found via systematic searches of the Pubmed/Medline, Scopus, Ovid, Google Scholar and Cochrane library. Ten studies, comprised of 11 trials and 1119 participants, were included in the meta-analysis.

Results: Pooled weighted mean differences showed significant reductions of SBP (WMD - 8.87 mmHg; 95% CI - 11.19, - 6.55, p < 0.001) and DBP (WMD - 4.04 mmHg; 95% CI - 5.70, - 2.39) with no statistically significant heterogeneity between the 11 included comparisons of SBPs and DBPs. The stratified analysis of trials based on the mean age of participants showed a significant reduction in the mean difference of SBP in both adults (< 65 years old) and elderly (≥65 years old). However, the DBP-lowering effect of salt substitutes was only observed in adult patients (WMD - 4.22 mmHg; 95% CI - 7.85, - 0.58), but not in the elderly subjects.

Conclusions: These findings suggest that salt-substitution strategies could be used for lowering SBP and DBP in patients with stage 2 HTN; providing a nutritional platform for the treatment, amelioration, and prevention of HTN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-020-01347-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7047420PMC
February 2020

The effect of psyllium supplementation on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Korean J Intern Med 2020 11 19;35(6):1385-1399. Epub 2020 Feb 19.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Background/aims: Global incidence of hypertension is estimated to be, in excess of, one billion people, and given the efficacy of soluble dietary fibers, in particular, Psyllium, to positively impact blood pressure in patients with hypertension, it is of clinical importance that consensus on its supplementation be established. Therefore, the aim of the study was systematically review and meta-analyze the effect of psyllium supplementation on blood pressure of hypertensive patients in randomized controlled trials.

Methods: We searched six universal databases including; Pubmed/Medline, Ovid, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, Embase, and Scopus until November 2018. Both combined and stratified analyzes were conducted. A fixed-effects or random- effects model was used to assess the mean effect sizes.

Results: An eventual 11 trials with 592 participants were considered as eligible for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. The meta-analysis revealed a significant reduction of 2.04 mmHg in systolic blood pressure (weighted mean difference, -2.04; 95% confidence interval, -2.82 to -1.63; p < 0.001). Whilst meta-regression highlighted that the hypotensive effect of psyllium was stronger in subjects with higher baseline blood pressure.

Conclusion: Given the overarching benefits and lack of reported side effects, particularly for hypertensive patients, health care providers and clinicians should consider the use of psyllium supplementation for the treatment or abatement of hypertension, or hypertensive symptoms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3904/kjim.2019.049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7652639PMC
November 2020

Effect of Lactobacillusplantarum containing probiotics on blood pressure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Pharmacol Res 2020 03 24;153:104663. Epub 2020 Jan 24.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran. Electronic address:

Previous studies have recommended that probiotics may have blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects. However, they examined all probiotic strains (multi/single probiotics) simultaneously. In respect to strain specificity properties of probiotic, the aim of the present study was to systematically investigate the role of Lactobacillus plantarum as an anti-hypertensive agent by performing a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar were used from inception until October 2018 to identify eligible trials. We used random-effects model as the preferable method to assess the combined treatment effect. We further conducted sensitivity analysis and stratified analysis. Seven studies with 653 participants were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled weighted mean difference (WMD) with the random effects model showed a significant effects of Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation on improvement of SBP with no statistically significant heterogeneity (WMD: -1.58 mmHg, 95 % CI: -3.05 to 0.11) (heterogeneity P = 0.14; I² = 36 %). The overall effect in the DBP showed significant pooled estimates (WMD: -0.92 mmHg, 95 % CI: -1.49 to -0.35) with a complete homogeneity between the studies (heterogeneity P = 0.46; I² = 0 %). The findings of the present meta-analysis study support the use of Lactobacillus plantarum supplementation for lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The clinical significance of blood pressure-lowering effect of Lactobacillus Plantarum supplementation is not considerable; however, given the overarching benefits evident and concurrent lack of specific side effects, further trials are warranted to clarify the effects of Lactobacillus Plantarum probiotics particularly for hypertensive patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2020.104663DOI Listing
March 2020

Cocoa Consumption and Blood Pressure in Middle-Aged and Elderly Subjects: a Meta-Analysis.

Curr Hypertens Rep 2020 01 6;22(1). Epub 2020 Jan 6.

Centre for Sport, Exercise, and Life Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry, UK.

Purpose Of Review: The effect of cocoa consumption on blood pressure (BP) has been investigated in previous studies; however, to date, no meta-analysis has been conducted specific to middle-aged and elderly subjects. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of cocoa consumption on indices of blood pressure, in middle-aged and elderly subjects.

Recent Findings: Pubmed/Medline™, Cochrane Library™, Google Scholar™, and Scopus™ were searched until March 2019. The quantitative Jadad scale was used as the systematic assessment of bias in the included trials. We used a random effects model to estimate the pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We further conducted sensitivity analysis and stratified analysis by baseline blood pressure, follow-up duration, and mean age. Thirteen studies with 758 total participants were included in the present meta-analysis. A significant reduction in SBP by 2.77 (95% CI - 5.28, - 0.27, P = 0.03, I = 89%) and DBP by 1.47 mm/Hg (- 95% CI - 2.40, - 0.55, P = 0.001, I = 45%) were observed after cocoa consumption. Stratified analyses showed BP-lowering effects of cocoa consumption in longer-term duration and hypertensive subgroups. Our meta-analysis showed a significant inverse association between cocoa consumption and SBP/DBP. However, the analysis could not conclude any beneficial effect of cocoa consumption on blood pressure in normotensive/elevated blood pressure subjects. Therefore, further studies are warranted to affirm the efficacy of cocoa consumption for the improvement of blood pressure in elderly subjects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11906-019-1005-0DOI Listing
January 2020

Retraction Note: Effect of L-citrulline supplementation on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Hum Hypertens 2019 Nov 5. Epub 2019 Nov 5.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-019-0280-1DOI Listing
November 2019

Retraction Note: Elevated blood pressure reduction after α-lipoic acid supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Hum Hypertens 2019 Nov 4. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-019-0283-yDOI Listing
November 2019

fatty acids as preventive and therapeutic agents in attenuating PCOS complications.

EXCLI J 2019 25;18:558-575. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran.

To our knowledge, in spite of several trials exploring the beneficial effect of -3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), no comprehensive evidence has investigated the effects of -3 PUFA consumption on PCOS complications. Therefore, our aim was to conduct a review to investigate the possible effect and related mechanisms. A comprehensive systematic search was conducted in Embase, MEDLINE/PubMed, Google Scholar, and SCOPUS, to identify studies investigating -3 fatty acids as a preventative or therapeutic agent for the attenuation of PCOS complications. Subsequently, the impact of omega-3 on PCOS, omega-3 and inflammation, omega-3 and insulin resistance, omega-3 and adipokines, omega-3 and lipid metabolism, omega-3 and endothelial function and omega-3 and hormonal factors were discussed. There are multiple mechanisms by which -3 PUFAs may exert their beneficial effects on PCOS, including anti-obesity, glycemic and hormonal hemostasis, anti-inflammatory, regulation of adipokine production and enhancement of endothelial function-3 PUFAs are a promising agent in relieving complications associated with PCOS. Although most of the studies in patients with PCOS reported an improvement in most complications after administration of omega-3 supplements, there is a distinct dearth of studies investigating the dietary intake of these types of fatty acids. Moreover, favorable effects regarding the improvement of dyslipidemia, regulation of adipokines, regulation of hormonal factors and enhancement of endothelial function are limited. Therefore, more trials are warranted to investigate palatable mechanisms for clarifying the metabolic and hormonal effects of these agents in PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17179/excli2019-1534DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6785778PMC
July 2019

A comparison between the effects of flaxseed oil and fish oil supplementation on cardiovascular health in type 2 diabetic patients with coronary heart disease: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial.

Phytother Res 2019 Jul 13;33(7):1943-1951. Epub 2019 Jun 13.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

This study compared the effects of flaxseed and fish oil supplementation on cardiovascular risk parameters in diabetic patients with coronary heart disease. Participants were randomly allocated into three intervention groups to receive either 1,000 mg of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil or 1,000 mg of omega-3 fatty acids from flaxseed oil or placebo (n = 30 each group) twice a day for 12 weeks. A significant reduction in insulin levels (.04) was observed following flaxseed oil and fish oil supplementation compared with the placebo. In addition, a significant reduction in high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (.02) was seen after flaxseed oil supplementation compared with the placebo and a significant increase in total nitrite (.001) was seen after flaxseed oil and fish oil intake compared with placebo. Additionally, a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity (p < .001) after consuming flaxseed oil and fish oil compared with placebo and glutathione levels (.001) after consuming fish oil compared with flaxseed oil and placebo was observed. Overall, our study revealed the beneficial effects of flaxseed oil and fish oil supplementation on few metabolic profiles. This study suggests that the effect of flaxseed oil in reducing insulin and increasing total nitrite and total antioxidant capacity is similar to fish oil.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6393DOI Listing
July 2019

Royal jelly does not improve markers of glycemia: A systematic review and meta-analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

Complement Ther Med 2019 Jun 24;44:235-241. Epub 2019 Apr 24.

Department of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Sciences, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. Electronic address:

Bee products including propolis, bee wax, pollen and royal jelly (RJ) have been used as medicine from ancient times. A vast number of in-vivo and in-vitro studies as well as clinical trials have been conducted to investigate potential health related properties of RJ. A growing number of clinical trials have been performed to assess effects of RJ ingestion on different metabolic markers including glycemia, with diverse results. In the current meataanalysis, we aimed to evaluate effects of RJ ingestion on glycemic markers compared with placebo and set directions for future research. Electronic databases including Scopus, Pubmed, Scholar, Cochrane, Proquest, SID and Magiran were searched and 5 eligible studies were included in the quantitative analysis. Review Manager Software was used for statistical analysis and random effects model was used for pooling data. A total of 205 participants for FPG and 130 participants for HbA1c were included. The overall analysis revealed that RJ consumption reduced FPG by 0.95 mg/dl (95% CI: -5.83 to 3.87; p = 0.69; I2 = 0%; Tau = 0.00) and HbA1c by 0.32 (95% CI: -0.87 to 0.23; p = 0.25; I2 = 69 %; Tau = 0.16) which were not statistically significant. Funnel plot demonstrated no publication bias. In conclusion, RJ supplementation did not beneficially affect markers of glycemia. However, due to methodology issues and potential confounders like diet as well as diverse populations, we recommend future studies well designed and well controlled for major confounders so we can update these data to more precise results and more accurate conclusion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2019.04.017DOI Listing
June 2019

Probiotics and bone disorders: the role of RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway.

Aging Clin Exp Res 2020 Mar 22;32(3):363-371. Epub 2019 May 22.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran.

The skeleton is the framework and in charge of body configuration preservation. As a living tissue, bones are constantly being formed and absorbed. Osteoblasts and osteoclasts are the main bone cells and balance between their activities indicates bone health. Several mechanisms influence the bone turnover and RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway is one of them. This system, whose components are part of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, exists in many organs and could play a role in bone modeling and remodeling. RANKL/RANK pathway controls osteoclasts activity and formation. In addition, they are identified as key factors on bone turnover in different pathological situations. At the same time, OPG (RANKL's decoy receptor) plays role as a bone-protective factor by binding to RANKL and prevention of extra resorption. The lack of balance between RANKL and OPG could result in excessive bone resorption. Probiotics, the beneficial microorganisms for human health, entail bones in their advantages. Recent studies suggest that probiotics could reduce inflammatory factors (for example TNF-α and IL-1β) and increase bone OPG expression. In addition, probiotics have shown to maintain bones in various ways. Although current evidence is not enough for definitive approval of probiotics' efficacy on RANKL/RANK/OPG, its positive responses from conducted studies are significant. Understanding of the probiotics' effects on RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway will help focus future studies, and assist in developing efficient treatment strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40520-019-01223-5DOI Listing
March 2020

A meta-analysis of the effect of chromium supplementation on anthropometric indices of subjects with overweight or obesity.

Clin Obes 2019 Aug 21;9(4):e12313. Epub 2019 May 21.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The role of chromium as a weight loss agent remains questionable, and although previous meta-analyses findings have reported small reductions in body weight in individuals with overweight/obesity following chromium supplementation, there have been significant limitations with these findings. The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the current evidence for the efficacy of oral chromium supplementation in individuals with overweight/obesity from randomized controlled trials. Studies were identified by a search of electronic databases from inception to November 2018 and combined and stratified analyses were used. Twenty-one trials from 19 studies were identified which met all inclusion criteria which were suitable for statistical pooling, and data from 1316 participants were included. Pooled analysis showed significant reductions in anthropometric indices associated with body composition; for weight loss (weighted mean difference [WMD]: -0.75 kg, 95% confidence interval [CI], -1.04, -0.45, P < 0.001), body mass index (WMD: -0.40, 95% CI, -0.66, -0.13, P = 0.003 and body fat percentage (WMD: -0.68%, 95% CI, -1.32, -0.03, P = 0.04) in individuals with overweight/obesity. No changes were detected in controls. Subgroup analysis showed significant improvements in weight loss and body fat percentage, particularly for study durations ≤12 weeks and doses ≤400 μg/d. Chromium supplementation was associated with some improvements in body composition in subjects with obesity/overweight. The effect size was medium and the clinical relevance of chromium as a weight loss aid remains uncertain. Further investigation from larger and well-designed randomized controlled studies, especially in patients with diabetes, is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cob.12313DOI Listing
August 2019

Meta-Analysis: Effects of Zinc Supplementation Alone or with Multi-Nutrients, on Glucose Control and Lipid Levels in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

Prev Nutr Food Sci 2019 Mar 31;24(1):8-23. Epub 2019 Mar 31.

Faculty of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Science, Kermanshah 67158-47141, Iran.

The present study aims to assess the effects of zinc supplementation on metabolic parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus up to March 2018. Twenty randomized controlled trials met the predefined inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for net changes in glycemic indices including fasting blood glucose (FBG) and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and in lipid markers including total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c). Subgroup analyses were performed based on intervention and study quality. Compared to controls, zinc supplementation significantly reduced the concentrations of both FBG and HbA1c (FBG WMD: -19.66 mg/dL, 95% CI: -33.71, -5.62; HbA1c WMD: -0.43 mg/dL, 95% CI: -0.80, -0.07). The pooled estimate showed a significant decrease in serum TC and LDL-c, and increase in serum HDL-c levels in treatment group compared with the control group (TC WMD: -18.51 mg/dL, 95% CI: -21.36, -15.66; LDL-c WMD: -4.80 mg/dL, 95% CI: -6.07, -3.53; HDL-c WMD: 1.45 mg/dL, 95% CI: 1.40, 1.51). Subgroup analysis of "no co-supplement" intervention demonstrated significant differences for mean changes in HDL-c and FBG levels, whereas subgroup analysis of high quality studies showed significant differences for mean changes of LDL-c, HDL-c, and FBG levels. Results suggested that zinc supplementation reduces FBG, HbA1c and LDL-c levels and increases HDL-C levels; however, these changes were related to intervention and quality of studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3746/pnf.2019.24.1.8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6456233PMC
March 2019

Retraction Note to: Effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) supplementation on positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2019 05;75(5):741

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The authors have retracted this article [1] because there are fundamental errors in the data presented that undermine the conclusions drawn. All authors agree with this retraction. The authors are re-analysing their data and intend to submit a new manuscript for peer review in due course.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-019-02676-3DOI Listing
May 2019

Efficacy of ω-3 supplementation in patients with psoriasis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Clin Rheumatol 2019 Apr 18;38(4):977-988. Epub 2019 Feb 18.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Several studies have been conducted with the aim of investigating the effect of Omega(ω)-3 on different psoriasis indices including Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) score, erythema, scaling, itching, area involved, and infiltration. Nevertheless, a pooled analysis of trials that evaluated these variables has not been conducted. Therefore, the aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the efficacy of ω-3 fatty acids in treating patients with psoriasis. We searched through different electronic, references of retrieved articles, and previous related reviews databases up to November 2018. Both combined and stratified analyzes were conducted. A fixed-effects or random effects model was used to assess the mean effect sizes. An eventual 10 studies involving 560 participants were considered as eligible for inclusion in the present meta-analysis. The meta-analysis indicated a significant reduction in PASI score by - 1.58 (95% confidence interval (CI), - 2.24, - 0.92; P < 0.001) in favor of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) group. The random effects model showed a statistically significant beneficial effect of ω-3 PUFA supplementation on reducing erythema by - 1.66 unit and reducing scaling (weighted mean difference (WMD), - 0.69; 95% CI, - 1.26, - 0.13; P = 0.02). Significant improvements in erythema, itching, and scale were observed in the trials which used the higher dosage of ω-3 supplementation. The results of current meta-analysis study support the use of ω-3 PUFA supplementation for the improvement of the evaluated parameters in psoriatic patients. However, well-controlled and randomized studies are needed to confirm the veracity of non-significant and/or equivocal findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10067-019-04456-xDOI Listing
April 2019

RETRACTED ARTICLE: Elevated blood pressure reduction after α-lipoic acid supplementation: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Hum Hypertens 2019 Feb 11. Epub 2019 Feb 11.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-019-0174-2DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum) supplementation on serum C-reactive protein concentrations: A meta-analysis and systematic review.

Complement Ther Med 2019 Feb 7;42:271-278. Epub 2018 Dec 7.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R., Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: The effect of cinnamon (Cinnamomum Zeylanicum) on serum C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase protein commonly used as a marker of inflammation, is uncertain. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of cinnamon to determine the effect on levels of serum CRP, relative to controls.

Design: Studies were identified by a search of electronic databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar and Scopus before August 2018. Combined and stratified analyses were used. Weighted mean differences (WMD) and its 95% confidence interval were estimated for net change in serum CRP by using random-effects model. The heterogeneity of meta-analysis was assessed by χ and I test.

Results: Six studies were identified, and data from 285 participants were included. Pooled analysis showed significant reductions in serum CRP (WMD: -0.81 mg/L, 95% CI: -1.36 to -0.26, p = 0.004), with significant heterogeneity between selected studies. Improvements in sub-group analysis were observed when baseline CRP levels were greater than 3 mg/dL, and in trials of >12 weeks duration. Doses <1500 mg/day and ≥1500 mg/day were effective in lowering serum CRP (WMD: -0.56 mg/dL, 95% CI: -1.01 to -0.10, p = 0.02 and WMD: -2.13 mg/dL, 95% CI: -4.08 to -0.19, p = 0.03), respectively, with significantly reduced heterogeneity in trials with lower doses of cinnamon <1500 mg/day (test for heterogeneity: P = 0.22 and I2 = 33%). No changes were found in controls.

Conclusion: Cinnamon supplementation improves levels of serum CRP, particularly in chronic conditions, where basal CRP levels are raised. Further well-designed studies are warranted to confirm or not the above-mentioned findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2018.12.005DOI Listing
February 2019

Effects of Prebiotic and Synbiotic Supplementation on Glycaemia and Lipid Profile in Type 2 Diabetes: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

Adv Pharm Bull 2018 Nov 29;8(4):565-574. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) as a chronic disease, is on rise in parallel with other non-communicable diseases. Several studies have shown that probiotics and prebiotics might exert beneficial effects in chronic diseases including diabetes. Because of controversial results from different trials, the present study aims to assess the effects of prebiotic/synbiotic consumption on metabolic parameters in patients with type2 diabetes. A systematic literature search was performed on randomized controlled trial published in PubMed/Medline, SciVerse Scopus, Google scholar, SID and Magiran up to March 2018. Of a total number of 255 studies found in initial literature search, ten randomized controlled trials were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled mean net change were calculated in fasting blood-glucose [FBG], Hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c] and lipid markers (total cholesterol [TC], triglyceride [TG], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], high density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C]). The meta-analyses was conducted using Revman Software (v5.3). The pooled estimate indicated a significant difference for the mean change in FBG, HbA1c and HDL in treatment group in comparison with control group. Subgroup analysis by intervention showed a significant difference in TG, LDL and HDL (synbiotic group) and in TG, TC, FBG, HDL and HbA1c (prebiotic group) compared with placebo. In another subgroup analysis, high quality studies showed significant reductions in TG, TC, FBG and HbA1c in intervention group compared with placebo group. In summary, diets supplemented with either prebiotics or synbiotics can result in improvements in lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis in type 2 diabetic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15171/apb.2018.065DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6311648PMC
November 2018

Effect of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) supplementation on positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

Eur J Clin Pharmacol 2019 Mar 16;75(3):289-301. Epub 2018 Nov 16.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Objective: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published randomised controlled trials on the efficacy of NAC supplementation on positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenia.

Methods: A meta-analysis was conducted, and studies were identified by a search of electronic databases from inception to May 2018. Combined and stratified analyses were used.

Results: Seven trials were identified, and data from n = 447 participants were included. Pooled analysis showed improvement of positive and negative syndrome scale following NAC treatment compared with placebo, for total (SMB = - 0.96) [95% CI - 1.69, - 0.24; P = 0.009], general (SMB = - 1.04) [95% CI - 1.80, - 0.27; P = 0.008] and negative (SMB = - 0.73) [95% CI - 1.29, - 0.17; P = 0.01] scores, respectively. Significant heterogeneity was found, and subgroup analysis showed significant reductions in studies with a treatment duration of ≤ 24 weeks, with a considerable effect size on total, general, and negative scores (Total SMD = - 0.83; General SMD = - 0.67; Negative SMD = - 1.09) following NAC.

Conclusions: NAC improved all aspects of positive and negative syndrome scale in schizophrenic populations and may be more efficacious with treatment durations up to 24 weeks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00228-018-2595-1DOI Listing
March 2019

The effects of curcumin-containing supplements on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Phytother Res 2019 Feb 7;33(2):253-262. Epub 2018 Nov 7.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Besides other benefits, curcumin is getting more recognized for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, highlighting the importance of curcumin application for chronic disease prevention. This systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to assess the influence of curcumin-containing supplements on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched till January 2018 for eligible studies. The selected studies were evaluated for their quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and relevant data were extracted from included studies. Data were pooled using the inverse variance method and expressed as standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Fifteen RCTs were included in the final analysis. The meta-analysis indicated that curcumin supplementation significantly decreased interleukin 6 (IL-6) (SMD -2.08; 95% CI [-3.90, -0.25]; p = 0.02), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (SMD -0.65; 95% CI [-1.20, -0.10], p = 0.02), and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations (SMD -3.14; 95% CI [-4.76, -1.53], p < 0.001). Though, curcumin supplementation had no significant effect on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (SMD -1.62; 95% CI [-3.60, 0.36]; p = 0.10) and superoxide dismutase levels (SMD 0.34; 95% CI [-1.06, 1.74], p = 0.63). Overall, this meta-analysis suggests that taking curcumin-containing supplements may exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties through a significant reduction in IL-6, hs-CRP, and MDA levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6226DOI Listing
February 2019

Effect of garlic supplementation on serum C-reactive protein level: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Phytother Res 2019 Feb 29;33(2):243-252. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The present study was designed to systematically review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that report on the effects of garlic supplementation on serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. We conducted a literature search of Scopus, PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar up to January 2018. Weighted mean differences (WMD) were estimated for net change in serum CRP. Subgroup analyses were also performed by duration of study, dose of supplementation, baseline CRP level, and the quality of studies. From 438 articles found and screened in our initial search, nine RCTs with the sum of total sample size of 363 were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with the controls, garlic intake significantly reduced the concentrations of serum CRP by 0.8 mg/L (95% CI [-1.5, -0.1], p = 0.02) with the evidence of heterogeneity among studies. Subgroup analyses showed that garlic significantly lowered CRP by 0.82 mg/L (95% CI [-1.02, -0.62], p < 0.001) among studies with a daily garlic dose ≥1,200 mg/day and by 2.44 mg/L (95% CI [-4.02, -0.87], p = 0.002) among studies with baseline CRP ≥2 mg/L. Current data confirmed that garlic supplementation would reduce serum CRP levels. However, the changes were related to the supplemental doses and baseline levels of serum CRP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ptr.6225DOI Listing
February 2019

A Meta-analysis of Randomized Control Trials: The Impact of Vitamin C Supplementation on Serum CRP and Serum hs-CRP Concentrations.

Curr Pharm Des 2018 ;24(30):3520-3528

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

Objective: The present meta-analysis was designed to assess the effects of vitamin C supplementation on serum C-reactive Protein (CRP) levels.

Methods: We conducted a comprehensive systematic search of the literature in Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar until May 2018. The pooled Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) and its 95% Confidence Interval (CI) in baseline and at the end of the trial were calculated to assess the net change in serum CRP by using random-effects model. The heterogeneity was assessed by I2 test. Combined and stratified analyses were used in the metaanalysis.

Results: From 306 articles found and screened in our initial search, 12 studies were included with 446 participants in supplementation groups and 447 in control groups. The pooled effect size analysis showed a significant reducing effect of vitamin C supplementation on circulating CRP level (-0.23 mg/L, 95% CI, -0.44, -0.03, p=0.02), with a significant heterogeneity effect across the studies involved. Subgroup analyses showed that vitamin C supplementation significantly lowered CRP among trials. The most significant effect was found 1) on hs- CRP as the representative inflammatory marker (-0.43 mg/L, 95% CI -0.76, -0.1) 2) in subjects with a baseline CRP≥3 (-1.48 mg/L, 95% CI -2.84, -0.11) 3) in subjects under <60 years old of age (-0.23 mg/L, 95% CI -0.44,- 0.01) 4) or using intravenous administration of vitamin C (-0.89 mg/L, 95% CI -1.49,-0.3).

Conclusion: The present meta-analysis shows that vitamin C supplementation reduces serum CRP level, particularly in younger subjects, with higher CRP baseline level, at a lower dosage and intravenous administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/1381612824666181017101810DOI Listing
November 2019

Effect of L-citrulline supplementation on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

J Hum Hypertens 2019 01 11;33(1):10-21. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Iran.

The objective of this study was to systematically investigate the efficacy of oral L-citrulline supplementation on systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Studies were identified by a search of electronic databases from inception to April 2018, and combined and stratified analyses were used. Fifteen trials were identified, and data from 424 participants were included. Pooled analysis showed significant reductions in systolic blood pressure by -7.54 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): -9.44, -5.63; P < 0.001, I = 14%) and diastolic blood pressure by -3.77 mmHg (95% CI: -5.67, -1.86, P < 0.001, I = 42%) following oral supplementation of L-citrulline or a watermelon extract. No changes were detected in controls. Significant heterogeneity (I = 42%, P = 0.04) was found for diastolic blood pressure, and subgroup analysis showed significant improvements in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, particularly for study durations: ≥6 weeks, lower doses: ≤4 g/day, and in participants with higher baseline values: ≥130/85 mmHg. In conclusion, L-citrulline improves systolic and diastolic blood pressure and may be more efficacious in pre-hypertensive and hypertensive populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41371-018-0108-4DOI Listing
January 2019

The influences of vitamin D and omega-3 co-supplementation on clinical, metabolic and genetic parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

J Affect Disord 2018 10 26;238:32-38. Epub 2018 May 26.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, IR, Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the co-administration of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid on clinical, metabolic and genetic parameters in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Methods: This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted on 60 subjects, aged 18-40 years old with PCOS. Subjects were randomly allocated to take either 50,000 IU vitamin D every 2 weeks plus 2000 mg/day omega-3 fatty acid from fish oil (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 12 weeks. Gene expression analysis of inflammatory cytokines was conducted on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of PCOS women using RT-PCR method.

Results: Vitamin D and omega -3 fatty acid co-supplementation significantly decreased serum total testosterone levels (-0.2 ± 0.5 vs. + 0.1 ± 0.4 ng/mL, P = 0.02) compared with the placebo. In addition, vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid co-supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in beck depression inventory (-1.4 ± 1.6 vs. -0.5 ± 0.6, P = 0.01), general health questionnaire scores (-4.5 ± 4.3 vs. -1.9 ± 2.3, P = 0.005) and depression anxiety and stress scale scores (-5.0 ± 5.1 vs. -2.3 ± 3.5, P = 0.01) compared with the placebo. Additionally, vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid co-administration significantly decreased serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) (-1.2 ± 1.9 vs. + 0.1 ± 0.7 mg/L, P = 0.001) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels (-0.4 ± 0.4 vs. + 0.2 ± 0.6 µmol/L, P < 0.001), and significantly increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels (+ 114.6 ± 122.2 vs. -2.4 ± 168.2 mmol/L, P = 0.003) compared with the placebo. Results of RT-PCR demonstrated that vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid co-supplementation significantly downregulated gene expression of interleukin-1 (IL-1) (P = 0.03), and upregulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) (P = 0.004) in PBMCs of subjects with PCOS, when compared with placebo.

Conclusions: Overall, the co-administration of vitamin D and omega-3 fatty acid for 12 weeks had beneficial effects on mental health parameters, serum total testosterone, hs-CRP, plasma TAC and MDA levels, and gene expression of IL-1 and VEGF among women with PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.05.027DOI Listing
October 2018

The Effect of Omega-3 Fatty Acids, EPA, and/or DHA on Male Infertility: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

J Diet Suppl 2019 16;16(2):245-256. Epub 2018 Feb 16.

d Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases , Kashan University of Medical Sciences , Kashan , IR , Iran.

The objective was to evaluate the effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on sperm parameters including total sperm concentration, sperm motility, sperm DHA, and seminal plasma DHA concentration in infertile men. The literature search was conducted in PubMed, Google Scholar, and Scopus from January 1, 1990 to December 20, 2017. The systematic review and meta-analysis were based on randomized controlled trials in infertile men with DHA or EPA treatments, either alone or in combination with other micronutrients. Three studies met the inclusion criteria: 147 patients in the intervention group and 143 patients in the control group. The analysis showed that omega-3 treatments significantly increased the sperm motility (RR 5.82, 95% CI [2.91, 8.72], p <. 0001, I = 76%) and seminal DHA concentration (RR 1.61, 95% CI [0.15, 3.07], p =. 03, I = 98%). Compared with the controls, the interventions did not affect the sperm concentration (RR 0.31, 95% CI [-8.13, 8.76], p =. 94, I = 95%) or sperm DHA (RR 0.50, 95% CI [-4.17, 5.16], p =. 83, I = 99%). The observed heterogeneity may be due to administration period and dosage of omega-3 fatty acids across the studies. Funnel plot shows no evidence of publication bias. This meta-analysis indicates that supplementing infertile men with omega-3 fatty acids resulted in a significant improvement in sperm motility and concentration of DHA in seminal plasma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19390211.2018.1431753DOI Listing
June 2019

The effects of omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation on parameters of mental health and gene expression related to insulin and inflammation in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome.

J Affect Disord 2018 03 28;229:41-47. Epub 2017 Dec 28.

Research Center for Biochemistry and Nutrition in Metabolic Diseases, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran. Electronic address:

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation on parameters of mental health and gene expression related to insulin and inflammation in subjects with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).

Methods: Forty PCOS women were allocated into two groups and treated with 1000mg omega-3 fatty acids plus 400 IU vitamin E supplements (n = 20) or placebo (n = 20) per day for 12 weeks. Parameters of mental health were recorded at baseline and after the 12-week intervention. Gene expression related to insulin and inflammation were measured in blood samples of PCOS women.

Results: After the 12-week intervention, compared with the placebo, omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation led to significant improvements in beck depression inventory total score (- 2.2 ± 2.0 vs. - 0.2 ± 1.3, P = 0.001), general health questionnaire scores (- 5.5 ± 4.6 vs. - 1.0 ± 2.3, P < 0.001) and depression anxiety and stress scale scores (- 7.2 ± 5.2 vs. - 1.3 ± 1.3, P < 0.001). Compared with the placebo, omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation could up-regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) expression (P = 0.04) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of PCOS women. In addition, compared with the placebo, omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation down-regulated interleukin-8 (IL-8) (P = 0.003) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) expression (P = 0.001) in PBMC of PCOS women. There were no significant difference between-group changes in glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), IL-6 and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) in PBMC of PCOS women.

Conclusion: Omega-3 and vitamin E co-supplementation was effective in improving parameters of mental health, and gene expression of PPAR-γ, IL-8 and TNF-α of women with PCOS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2017.12.049DOI Listing
March 2018

Questionnaire-based Prevalence of Food Insecurity in Iran: A Review Article.

Iran J Public Health 2017 Nov;46(11):1454-1464

Dept. of Clinical Nutrition, School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetics, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.

Background: Data on the questionnaire-based prevalence of food insecurity are needed to develop food and nutrition security studies and policies. The present study aimed to assess the questionnaire-based prevalence of food insecurity in Iran.

Methods: A systematic search of cross-sectional studies were conducted on databases including PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Magiran, Iranmedex, SID and Medlib up to 29 Oct 2015. Estimation of food insecurity prevalence was according to the instruments including 9-items-HFIAS, 18 and 6-items USDA (US-HFSSM) and Radimer/Cernel food security questionnaires. Pooled effect was estimated using random-effect model and heterogeneity was assessed by Cochran's Q and 2 tests.

Results: Thirteen articles included in the study based on screening and assessment of eligibility. The questionnaire-based prevalence of food insecurity was 49.2% (CI95%: 43.8-54.6). The according to sub-groups analysis, the food insecurity without and with hunger was 29.6% (CI95%: 25.7-33.6) and 19.2% (CI95%: 16-22.3), respectively.

Conclusion: The about half of the population were food insecure. The food insecurity without hunger was more than the food insecurity with hunger. An ongoing food insecurity assessment system is needed to support evidence-informed policy and to plan interventions to increase the food security in different areas.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5696684PMC
November 2017

Effects of a Multispecies Probiotic Supplement on Bone Health in Osteopenic Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized, Double-blind, Controlled Trial.

J Am Coll Nutr 2017 Sep-Oct;36(7):497-506. Epub 2017 Jun 19.

a Department of Clinical Nutrition , School of Nutritional Sciences and Dietetic, Tehran University of Medical Sciences , Tehran , Iran.

Objective: The development of alternative approaches to prevent and/or treat osteoporosis, as a chronic progressive bone disease, is being considered currently. Among dietary supplements, probiotics may have favorable effects on bone metabolism. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a multispecies probiotic supplementation on bone biomarkers and bone density in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

Methods: This randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial was performed on 50 patients with osteopenia aged 50-72 years. Participants were randomly assigned to take either a multispecies probiotic supplement (GeriLact; n = 25) or placebo (n = 25) for 6 months. GeriLact contains 7 probiotic bacteria species. Participants received 500 mg Ca plus 200 IU vitamin D daily. Bone mineral density (BMD) of lumbar spine and total hip and blood biomarkers including bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC), collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide (CTX), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), parathyroid hormone (PTH), 25-OH vitamin D, and serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α and interleukin [IL]-1β) were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study.

Results: The multispecies probiotic significantly decreased BALP (p = 0.03) and CTX (p = 0.04) levels in comparison with the control group but had no effect on BMD of the spine and total hip. Moreover, there was a statistically significant decrease in serum PTH (p = 0.01) and TNF-α (p = 0.02) in the intervention group compared to the placebo group.

Conclusions: These results may suggest the favorable effects of the multispecies probiotic supplementation for 6 months on bone health in postmenopausal women due to slowing down the rate of bone turnover.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/07315724.2017.1318724DOI Listing
May 2018

Effects of a Multispecies Probiotic Mixture on Glycemic Control and Inflammatory Status in Women with Gestational Diabetes: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial.

J Nutr Metab 2016 26;2016:5190846. Epub 2016 Jun 26.

Department of Community Nutrition, School of Nutrition and Food Science, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.

Objective. This trial aims to examine the effects of a Probiotic Mixture (VSL#3) on glycemic status and inflammatory markers, in women with GDM. Materials and Methods. Over a period of 8 weeks, 82 women with gestational diabetes were randomly assigned to either an intervention group (n = 41) which were given VSL#3 capsule or to a control group which were given placebo capsule (n = 41). Fasting plasma glucose, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance, glycosylated hemoglobin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, Interferon gamma, and interleukin-10 were measured before and after the intervention. Results. After 8 wk of supplementation FPG, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, and insulin levels remained unchanged in the probiotic and placebo groups. The comparison between the two groups showed no significant differences with FPG and HbA1c, but there were significant differences in insulin levels and HOMA-IR (16.6 ± 5.9; 3.7 ± 1.5, resp.). Unlike the levels of IFN-g (19.21 ± 16.6), there was a significant decrease in levels of IL-6 (3.81 ± 0.7), TNF-α (3.10 ± 1.1), and hs-CRP (4927.4 ± 924.6). No significant increase was observed in IL-10 (3.11 ± 5.7) in the intervention group as compared with the control group. Conclusions. In women with GDM, supplementation with probiotics (VSL#3) may help to modulate some inflammatory markers and may have benefits on glycemic control.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5190846DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4939193PMC
July 2016