Publications by authors named "Saddia Galani"

7 Publications

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Comparative analysis of chicken cecal microbial diversity and taxonomic composition in response to dietary variation using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing.

Mol Biol Rep 2021 Sep 24. Epub 2021 Sep 24.

The Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (KIBGE), University of Karachi, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan.

Background: Antibiotic resistance poses a grave threat to One-Health. By replacing antibiotics with non-antibiotic additives (are alternatives to antibiotics, ATAs) like phytogenic feed additives and organic acids in poultry feed. ATAs are a potential alternative as these decline the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria and strengthen gut function in broiler chickens. In this study, we use 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of the V3-V4 region to evaluate phytogenic feed additives and organic acids on the cecal microbial diversity of broiler chickens.

Methods And Results: Two hundred & forty broiler chicks were divided into five treatments comprising: a controlled basal diet (CON), antibiotic group (AB), phytogenic feed additives (PHY), organic acids (ORG), and a combination of PHY + ORG (COM). A distinctive microbial community structure was observed amongst different treatments with increased microbial diversity in AB, ORG, and COM (p < 0.05). The synergistic effects of PHY and ORG increased bacterial population of phyla: Firmicutes, Bacteroides, and Proteobacteria in the cecum. The presence of species, Akkermansia muciniphila (involved in mucin degradation) and Bacillus safensis (a probiotic bacterium) were noticed in COM and PHY, respectively. Clustering analysis revealed a higher relative abundance of similar microbial community composition between AB and ORG groups.

Conclusions: Treatments with PHY and ORG modified the relative abundance and presence/absence of specific microbiota in the chicken cecum. Hence, cecal microbiota modulation through diet is a promising strategy to reduce cross-contamination of zoonotic poultry pathogens, led to healthy and economical broiler meat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11033-021-06712-3DOI Listing
September 2021

Growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, gut microflora and ghrelin gene expression analysis of broiler by supplementing natural growth promoters: A nutrigenomics approach.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jun 13;28(6):3438-3447. Epub 2021 Mar 13.

Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.

In an epoch of escalating number of antibiotic-resistance bacteria, there is a dire need to develop efficient and novel feeding strategies for animal nutrition as alternatives to antibiotics. Here, implicating nutrigenomic approach, phytobiotics and organic acids were used to evaluate ghrelin gene expression levels, gut microflora composition, performance parameters and intestinal histomorphological changes in broiler chickens. One-day-old chicks (n = 315) were reared for 42 days and distributed randomly into five experimental groups; each with three replicates (21 birds per replicate). Experimental groups were control: basal diet only, antimicrobial growth promoter: 40 g/metric ton of basal diet (virginiamycin), organic acids: 4 kg/metric ton of basal diet, phytobiotics: 3 kg/metric ton of basal diet, combination: 7 kg/metric ton of basal diet (organic acids 4 kg and phytobiotics 3 kg metric ton of feed). Growth performance, histological and ghrelin gene expression analysis were executed on 21 and 42 days while, quantitative bacterial analysis of cecum and ileum was performed on day 42. Increased feed intake and body weight () were noticed in phytobiotics group. Addition of phytobiotics significantly improved () villus height and ratio of villus height/crypt depth in ileum, jejunum, and duodenum and down-regulated ghrelin gene expression levels. Total coliform and in cecal and ileal digesta were decreased significantly () in organic acids group. Correlation analysis revealed spp. were positively correlated to villus height/crypt depth ration in duodenum. The findings indicated the importance of gene-nutrient-microbiota interactions based on nutrigenomics approach. Hence, phytobiotics and organic acids might be suitable alternatives to antibiotics for improved performance and immunity, along with healthier meat production in poultry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.03.008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176037PMC
June 2021

Evaluating antibody response pattern in asymptomatic virus infected pregnant females: Human well-being study.

J King Saud Univ Sci 2021 Jan 2;33(1):101255. Epub 2020 Dec 2.

Department of Obstetrics, Wuhan Maternal and Children Health Hospital, Wuhan, Hubei, China.

The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic infecting millions of people globally has given rise to serious public health threats. The need for early detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in asymptomatic pregnant women is compelling to detect vertical transmission timely. Here, 11 SARS-CoV-2 asymptomatic pregnant cases from Wuhan China were investigated. All the patients were initially tested negative for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR, so a chest CT scan was performed. Also, serum antibody (IgM and IgG) titers were estimated. CT scan of patients revealed typical abnormalities related to SARS-CoV-2, indicating ground-glass opacity and infection lesions suggesting viral pneumonia. Elevated IgM and IgG antibodies levels () were also noticed in infected patients. Hence, CT imaging and serum antibody response are valuable in the early detection of SARS-CoV-2 in asymptomatic pregnant patients. These might serve as prognostic markers for healthcare professionals, in RT-PCR negative patients, to assess the effect of given treatment by chest CT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jksus.2020.101255DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7709611PMC
January 2021

Biotechnological approaches to the production of plant-derived promising anticancer agents: An update and overview.

Biomed Pharmacother 2020 Dec 1;132:110918. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Human Anatomy, Medical College of Qinghai University, Xining, 810000,P.R China. Electronic address:

The plant kingdom is a rich source of bioactive compounds, many of which have been used since pre-history for their therapeutic properties to treat a range of illnesses. These metabolites have recently attracted attention to their antineoplastic activities to treat various cancers relying on different mechanisms. Some of these molecules are glycosides, which have proven useful as anti-cancer agents, namely podophyllotoxin (PPT) anaryltetralin lignan or alkaloids. There are three primary forms of alkaloids, such as indole alkaloids (vincristine and vinblastine from Catharanthus roseus), quinoline alkaloid (camptothecin from Camptotheca acuminata), and diterpenoid alkaloid (taxol and it's analogous from Taxus and Corylus species). This review considers various plant biotechnology approaches used to enhance the production of these anticancer molecules in different species. In this regard, many in vitro culture techniques such as stimulation of suspension culture and hairy roots are being used to investigate the effects of plant growth regulators and elicitors on various explants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2020.110918DOI Listing
December 2020

Enhanced modulation of gut microbial dynamics affecting body weight in birds triggered by natural growth promoters administered in conventional feed.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2020 Oct 24;27(10):2747-2755. Epub 2020 Jun 24.

Karachi Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

This study explored the effects of natural growth promoters (phytogenic feed additives and organic acids) on animal performance, carcass characteristics, blood parameters, gut microflora composition, and microbe-host interactions in broiler chickens over a 42-day feeding period. Two-hundred-fifty-day-old chicks were randomly assigned to one of five treatments: (i) control diets (CON); (ii) control diets + 40 g/tons antibiotic growth promoter (AB); (iii) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids (ORG); (iv) control diets + 3 kg/tons phytogenic feed additives (PHY); (v) control diets + 3 kg/tons organic acids + phytogenic feed additive combination (COM). A non-significant differences ( > ) were observed in broiler performance among treatments at 21 days of age; however, a gradually increasing body weight gain and reduced feed conversion ratio were observed at 42 days in treatments versus control group. Biochemical indices were non-significant ( > ) except for decreased cholesterol ( < ) and increased A/G ratio ( < ) recorded in the treatment groups. The addition of PHY and ORG improved total counts of spp. and spp. ( < ) as well as reduced caecal and ileal spp. and ( < ). Correlation analysis elucidated beneficial bacteria ( spp. and spp.) were positively and pathogenic bacteria ( spp. and ) were negatively correlated ( < ) with host weight gain. The findings indicated that dietary supplementation of PHY and ORG sustained balanced gut microflora, which in turn improved body weight. This study broadens the significance of using PHY and ORG as safe alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters for achieving healthier and economical broiler production.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.06.027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7499368PMC
October 2020

In vivo antiviral potential of Glycyrrhiza glabra extract against Newcastle disease virus.

Pak J Pharm Sci 2017 Mar;30(2(Suppl.)):567-572

Department of Eastern Medicine, Directorate of Medical Sciences, Government College University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Newcastle disease is highly infectious viral disease causing huge economic losses worldwide. These losses can be prevented by control of viral diseases. Medicinal plants have been traditionally used for treatment of different diseases since long. In this study the effect of extracts from Glycyrrhiza glabra leaves are investigated against Newcastle disease virus (NDV) by an in-vivo assay. Seven groups of nine-day-old embryonated chicken eggs were inoculated with various treatments of different plant extracts. All the groups except uninoculated negative control group were inoculated with velogenic NDV strain; five groups received different concentrations of the three extracts. Daily observe the rate of embryo survival. Allantoic fluid from treated eggs was collected for hem agglutination test. Results showed that embryo survival rate was higher 300µg/mL treated group as all the extracts showed antiviral activity. Similarly, the plant extracts effectively control virus as no viruses were identified in the allantoic fluids of all groups treated with low doses of plant. The current results have clearly verified that all the extracts especially that of methanol 300µg/mL from leaves of Glycyrrhiza glabra have strong antiviral activity against NDV in vivo.
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March 2017

Tissue-specific expression and functional role of dehydrins in heat tolerance of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum).

Protoplasma 2013 Apr 11;250(2):577-83. Epub 2012 Aug 11.

Khan Institute of Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, University of Karachi, Karachi, Pakistan.

Studies on the functional roles of dehydrins (DHNs) in heat tolerance of plants are scarce. This study was conducted to immunohistolocalize DHNs in leaves of heat-tolerant (CP-4333) and heat-sensitive (HSF-240) sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) clones at three phenological stages in order to elucidate their putative roles under heat stress. CP-4333 indicated greater amounts of heat-stable proteins than HSF-240 under heat stress. Western blotting revealed the expression of three DHNs in CP-4333 (13- and 15-kDa peptides at 48 h and an additional 18-kDa band at 72 h) and two (13 and 15 kDa at 48 h) in HSF-240 at formative stage; two DHNs in CP-4333 (20 and 25 kDa) and one in HSF-240 (20 kDa) at grand growth stage, while two DHNs in CP-4333 (20 and 22 kDa) and one in HSF-240 (20 kDa) at maturity stage. Tissue-specific immunohistolocalization showed that DHNs were expressed in stele particularly the phloem and the cells intervening bundle sheath and vascular bundles. Furthermore, DHNs were also found scattered along the epidermal and parenchymatous cells. Recovery of sugarcane from heat stress manifested a gradual disappearance of DHNs in both the clones, being quicker in sensitive clone (HSF-240). Results suggested specific implications for DHNs synthesis. Their synthesis in epidermis appears to protect the mesophyll tissues from heat injury. When associated to vascular tissue, they tend to ensure the normal photoassimilate loading into the sieve element-companion cell complex. DHNs diminution during recovery suggested that their expression was transitory. However, prolonged retention of DHNs by tolerant clone appears to be an adaptive advantage of sugarcane to withstand heat stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00709-012-0443-1DOI Listing
April 2013
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