Publications by authors named "Sadahisa Ogasawara"

83 Publications

Acquisition of mesenchymal-like phenotypes and overproduction of angiogenic factors in lenvatinib-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 Apr 3;549:171-178. Epub 2021 Mar 3.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Lenvatinib is one of the first-line drugs for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and widely used around the world. However, the mechanisms underlying resistance to lenvatinib remain unclear. In this study, we conducted characteristic analyses of lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells. Lenvatinib-resistant HCC cell lines were established by exposure to serially escalated doses of lenvatinib over 2 months. The biological characteristics of these cells were examined by in vitro assays. To investigate the cytokine profile of lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells, the supernatant derived from lenvatinib-resistant Huh7 cells was subjected to nitrocellulose membrane-based sandwich immunoassay. Both activation of the MAPK/MEK/ERK signaling pathway and upregulation of epithelial mesenchymal transition markers were observed in lenvatinib-resistant cells. Concordant with these findings, proliferation and invasion abilities were enhanced in these cells compared with control cells. Screening of a cytokine array spotted with 105 different antibodies to human cytokines enabled us to identify 16 upregulated cytokines in lenvatinib-resistant cells. Among them, 3 angiogenic cytokines: vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor-AA (PDGF-AA), and angiogenin, were increased significantly. Conditioned medium from lenvatinib-resistant cells accelerated tube formation of human umbilical vein cells. In conclusion, lenvatinib-resistant HCC cells were characterized by enhanced proliferation and invasion abilities. These findings might contribute to the establishment of new combination therapies with lenvatinib.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.02.097DOI Listing
April 2021

The impact of FGF19/FGFR4 signaling inhibition in antitumor activity of multi-kinase inhibitors in hepatocellular carcinoma.

Sci Rep 2021 Mar 5;11(1):5303. Epub 2021 Mar 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

FGF19/FGFR4 autocrine signaling is one of the main targets for multi-kinase inhibitors (MKIs). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying FGF19/FGFR4 signaling in the antitumor effects to MKIs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unclear. In this study, the impact of FGFR4/ERK signaling inhibition on HCC following MKI treatment was analyzed in vitro and in vivo assays. Serum FGF19 in HCC patients treated using MKIs, such as sorafenib (n = 173) and lenvatinib (n = 40), was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Lenvatinib strongly inhibited the phosphorylation of FRS2 and ERK, the downstream signaling molecules of FGFR4, compared with sorafenib and regorafenib. Additional use of a selective FGFR4 inhibitor with sorafenib further suppressed FGFR4/ERK signaling and synergistically inhibited HCC cell growth in culture and xenograft subcutaneous tumors. Although serum FGF19 (n = 68) patients treated using sorafenib exhibited a significantly shorter progression-free survival and overall survival than FGF19 (n = 105) patients, there were no significant differences between FGF19 (n = 21) and FGF19 (n = 19) patients treated using lenvatinib. In conclusion, robust inhibition of FGF19/FGFR4 is of importance for the exertion of antitumor effects of MKIs. Serum FGF19 levels may function as a predictive marker for drug response and survival in HCC patients treated using sorafenib.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84117-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7935880PMC
March 2021

Propofol midazolam for sedation during radiofrequency ablation in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

JGH Open 2021 Feb 22;5(2):273-279. Epub 2020 Dec 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine Chiba University Chiba Japan.

Background And Aim: Standardization of the sedation protocol during radiofrequency ablation (RFA) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is needed. This randomized, single-blind, investigator-initiated trial compared clinical outcomes during and after RFA using propofol and midazolam, respectively, in patients with HCC.

Methods: Few- and small-nodule HCC patients (≤3 nodules and ≤3 cm) were randomly assigned to either propofol or midazolam. Patient satisfaction was assessed using a 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS) (1 mm = not at all satisfied, 100 mm = completely satisfied). Sedation recovery rates 1, 2, 3, and 4 h after RFA were evaluated based on Modified Observer's Assessment of Alertness/Sedation (MOAA/S) scores; full recovery was defined as a MOAA/S score of 5.

Results: Between July 2013 and September 2017, 143 patients with HCC were enrolled, and 135 patients were randomly assigned to the treatment group. Compared with midazolam, propofol exhibited similar median procedural satisfaction (propofol: 73.1 mm, midazolam: 76.9 mm, = 0.574). Recovery rates 1 and 2 h after RFA were higher in the propofol group than in the midazolam group. Meanwhile, recovery rates observed 3 and 4 h after RFA were similar in the two groups. The safety profiles during and after RFA were almost identical in the two groups.

Conclusion: Patient satisfaction was almost identical in patients receiving propofol and midazolam sedation during RFA. Propofol sedation resulted in reduced recovery time compared with midazolam sedation in patients with HCC. The safety profiles of both propofol and midazolam sedation during and after RFA were acceptable.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jgh3.12483DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7857294PMC
February 2021

Health-related quality-of-life impact of pembrolizumab versus best supportive care in previously systemically treated patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: KEYNOTE-240.

Cancer 2021 Mar 24;127(6):865-874. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Kindai University School of Medicine, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is an important outcome measure and prognostic indicator in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). KEYNOTE-240 (NCT02702401) assessed the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab plus best supportive care (BSC) versus placebo plus BSC in patients with HCC who previously received sorafenib. This study presents the results of a prespecified exploratory analysis of patient-reported outcomes.

Methods: Patients completed the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Core Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) and its HCC supplement (EORTC QLQ-HCC18) electronically at baseline; at weeks 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 12, and 18; and then every 9 weeks until 1 year or end of treatment, and at the 30-day safety follow-up visit.

Results: The HRQoL population included 271 and 127 patients randomly assigned to pembrolizumab and placebo, respectively. From baseline to week 12, changes in both scores were similar between pembrolizumab and placebo; global health status/QoL scores were stable. The proportions of patients who improved, remained stable, or deteriorated across all functional domain and symptom scores were generally similar between pembrolizumab and placebo. Time to deterioration was similar between the 2 arms based on the prespecified analysis of EORTC QLQ-HCC18 domains of abdominal swelling, fatigue, and pain.

Conclusion: Pembrolizumab preserved HRQoL during treatment for advanced HCC. Combined with efficacy and safety results from KEYNOTE-240, these findings support a positive benefit/risk profile for pembrolizumab in a second-line treatment setting for patients with HCC who previously received sorafenib.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.33317DOI Listing
March 2021

Analyses of Intermediate-Stage Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patients Receiving Transarterial Chemoembolization prior to Designing Clinical Trials.

Liver Cancer 2020 Sep 22;9(5):596-612. Epub 2020 Jul 22.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Intermediate-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high frequency of recurrence and progression to advanced stage after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), particularly in patients with high tumor burden. Promising new results from immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) and ICI-based therapies are expected to replace TACE, especially in HCC patients with high tumor burden.

Aims: The present study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of TACE with a view to design clinical trials comparing TACE and ICIs.

Methods: We retrospectively identified intermediate-stage HCC patients undergoing TACE from our database and subdivided patients into low- and high-burden groups based on three subclassification models using the diameter of the maximum tumor and the number of tumors. Clinical outcomes were compared between low- and high-burden intermediate-stage HCC.

Results: Of 1,161 newly diagnosed HCC patients, 316 were diagnosed with intermediate-stage disease and underwent TACE. The median overall survival from high-burden intermediate-stage disease was not significantly different by clinical course, reaching high tumor burden in all subclassification models. The prognosis of high-burden patients after initial TACE was poor compared with low-burden patients for two models (except for the up-to-seven criteria). In all three models, high-burden patients showed a poor durable response rate (DRR) both ≥3 months and ≥6 months and poor prognosis after TACE. Moreover, patients with confirmed durable response ≥3 months and ≥6 months showed better survival outcomes for high-burden intermediate-stage HCC.

Conclusions: Our results demonstrate the basis for selecting a population that would not benefit from TACE and setting DRR ≥3 months or ≥6 months as alternative endpoints when designing clinical trials comparing TACE and ICIs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508809DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548915PMC
September 2020

Hepatic Arterial Infusion Chemotherapy versus Sorafenib in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Liver Cancer 2020 Sep 24;9(5):583-595. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

Yamanashi Prefectural Central Hospital, Kofu, Japan.

Background: Prior to the approval of sorafenib, hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (HAIC) was offered to patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in East Asia, particularly Japan. According to the Japanese guidelines, HAIC is recommended as one of the treatment options in patients without extrahepatic metastasis (EHM).

Methods: The present cohort study compared the use of HAIC and sorafenib on outcomes of patients with advanced HCC. Consecutive patients with advanced HCC who received HAIC or sorafenib as a first-line systemic therapy were enrolled from 10 Japanese institutions. The primary outcomes were overall survival (OS) in patients with macrovascular invasion (MVI), but without EHM, and OS in patients without both MVI and EHM.

Results: Between 2009 and 2016, 2,006 patients were enrolled (541 HAIC patients, 1,465 sorafenib patients). After propensity score matching, the OS of patients with MVI but without EHM was significantly longer in the HAIC group compared with the sorafenib group (10.1 vs. 9.1 months for the HAIC and sorafenib groups, respectively; = 170 for each group; hazard ratio [HR] 0.668; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.475-0.935; = 0.018). There was no significant difference in OS between patients without both MVI and EHM (12.2 vs. 15.4 months for the HAIC and sorafenib groups, respectively; = 76 in each cohort after propensity score matching; HR 1.227; 95% CI 0.699-2.155; = 0.475).

Conclusion: HAIC is a potential front-line treatment choice in a subpopulation of patients with advanced HCC with MVI but without EHM.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000508724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7548914PMC
September 2020

Potential of Lenvatinib for an Expanded Indication from the REFLECT Trial in Patients with Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

Liver Cancer 2020 Aug 5;9(4):382-396. Epub 2020 May 5.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: The present study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of lenvatinib and verify the possibility of lenvatinib for the expanded indication from the REFLECT trial in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in real-world practice, primarily focusing on the population that was excluded in the REFLECT trial.

Methods: We retrospectively collected data on patients with advanced HCC who were administered lenvatinib in 7 institutions in Japan.

Results: Of 152 advanced HCC patients, 95 and 57 patients received lenvatinib in first-line and second- or later-line systemic therapies, respectively. The median progression-free survival in Child-Pugh class A patients was nearly equal between first- and second- or later-line therapies (5.2 months; 95% CI 3.7-6.9 for first line, 4.8 months; 95% CI 3.8-5.9 for second or later line, = 0.933). According to the modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, the objective response rate of 27 patients (18%) who showed a high burden of intrahepatic lesions (i.e., main portal vein and/or bile duct invasion or 50% or higher liver occupation) at baseline radiological assessment was 41% and similar with that of other population. The present study included 20 patients (13%) with Child-Pugh class B. These patients observed high frequency rates of liver function-related adverse events due to lenvatinib. The 8-week dose intensity of lenvatinib had a strong correlation with liver function according to both the Child-Pugh and albumin - bilirubin scores.

Conclusion: Lenvatinib had potential benefits for patients with advanced HCC with second- or later-line therapies and a high burden of intrahepatic lesions. Dose modification should be paid increased attention among patients with poor liver function, such as Child-Pugh class B patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000507022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7506220PMC
August 2020

Diverse transitions in diabetes status during the clinical course of patients with resectable pancreatic cancer.

Jpn J Clin Oncol 2020 Dec;50(12):1403-1411

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Objective: Pancreatic cancer and diabetes status have complex bilateral interactions; therefore, understanding their clinical features is essential for the clinical management of pancreatic cancer patients. We aimed to evaluate the diabetes status before diagnosis, after resection and until the time of recurrence in patients with resectable pancreatic cancer and to clarify the correlations among the clinical course of pancreatic cancer, operative procedure and diabetes status.

Methods: Between 2011 and 2016, we retrospectively identified 189 pancreatic cancer patients who underwent pancreatoduodenectomy or distal pancreatectomy at our institution. The entire clinical course of each patient was retrieved from the medical records, and the diabetes status in the longest possible duration was assessed.

Results: Among 115 pancreatic cancer patients who had normal glucose tolerance at the time of resection, 22 (19.1%) developed type 2 diabetes after resection. In a multivariate analysis, distal pancreatectomy was strongly associated with the development of postoperative diabetes. On the other hand, 74 pancreatic cancer patients had already been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at the time of resection. During the follow-up period, 15 patients were noted to have diabetes resolution after resection; interestingly, the majority of these patients had newly diagnosed diabetes, which was defined as the diagnosis of diabetes within 3 months before resection. Moreover, newly diagnosed diabetes was an independent factor for diabetes resolution after resection.

Conclusions: In pancreatic cancer patients who underwent pancreatectomy, distal pancreatectomy was correlated with postoperative diabetes, and newly diagnosed diabetes had a high probability of resolution after resection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jjco/hyaa136DOI Listing
December 2020

Weight-based dosing of lenvatinib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

Hepatobiliary Surg Nutr 2020 Apr;9(2):253-254

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/hbsn.2019.09.21DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7188523PMC
April 2020

Long-term administration of Tolvaptan to patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

Int J Med Sci 2020 15;17(7):874-880. Epub 2020 Mar 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

: Tolvaptan, an oral vasopressin-2 antagonist, sometimes improves hepatic edema including ascites in patients with decompensated cirrhosis. In this study, we examined the effectiveness and survival advantage in patients with the long-term administration of tolvaptan. : A total of 115 patients with refractory ascites who were treated with tolvaptan were retrospectively analyzed based on their clinical records. Patients with a decrease in body weight of ≥1.5 kg from the baseline on day 7 were determined as responders. Re-exacerbation was defined as a return to the baseline BW, dose escalation of conventional diuretics, or abdominal drainage. : Of the 115 patients, 84 were included in this analysis. Response to tolvaptan treatment was observed in 55 out of the 84 patients (65.5%), with a mean weight reduction of 2.52 kg. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that body mass index (≥24) and urinary specific gravity (≥1.018) were significant predictors of the response to tolvaptan. However, cumulative re-exacerbation rates in responders at 6 and 12 months were 42.4 and 60.1%, respectively. Child-Pugh (classification C), HCC complication, and serum sodium levels (≥133 mEq/L) were determined as independent prognostic factors impacting overall survival (OS). Although there were no significant differences in OS between tolvaptan responders and non-responders, the responders without re-exacerbation within 3 months showed significantly longer OS than those with re-exacerbation within 3 months. : A persistent therapeutic response, but not early response to tolvaptan, was associated with favorable survival of decompensated cirrhotic patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.41454DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7163362PMC
February 2021

Switching to systemic therapy after locoregional treatment failure: Definition and best timing.

Clin Mol Hepatol 2020 04 15;26(2):155-162. Epub 2020 Jan 15.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

In patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) without both macrovascular invasion and extrahepatic metastasis, the initial treatment choice recommended is transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Before sorafenib came into wide use, TACE had been pointlessly carried out repeatedly. It was in the early 2010s that the concept of TACE refractory was advocated. Two retrospective studies from Japan indicated that conversion from TACE to sorafenib the day after patients were deemed as TACE refractory improved overall survival compared with continued TACE, according to the definition by the Japan Society of Hepatology. Nowadays, phase 3 trials have shown clinical benefits of several novel molecular target agents. Compared with the era of sorafenib, sequential treatments with these molecular target agents have gradually prolonged patients' survival and have become major strategies in patients with HCC. Taking these together, conversion from TACE to systemic therapies at the time of TACE refractory, compared with before, may have a greater impact on survival and may be considered deeper in the decisions-making process in patients with unresectable HCC who are candidate for TACE. Up-to-date information on the concept of TACE refractory is summarized in this review. We believe that the survival of patients with unresectable HCC without both macrovascular invasion and extrahepatic metastasis may be dramatically improved by optimal timing of TACE refractory and switching to systemic therapies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3350/cmh.2019.0021nDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7160341PMC
April 2020

Incidence and hemodynamic feature of risky esophageal varices with lower hepatic venous pressure gradient.

Int J Med Sci 2019 9;16(12):1614-1620. Epub 2019 Nov 9.

Department of Gastroenterology, Juntendo University, 2-1-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8421, Japan.

To examine the incidence of cirrhosis patients with high-risk esophageal varices (EV) who show hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) < 10 mmHg and to identify their hemodynamic features. This prospective study consisted of 110 cirrhosis patients with EV, all with the candidate for primary or secondary prophylaxis. Sixty-one patients had red sign, and 49 patients were bleeders. All patients underwent both Doppler ultrasound and HVPG measurement. There were 18 patients (16.4%) with HVPG < 10 mmHg. The presence of venous-venous communication (VVC) was more frequent in patients with HVPG < 10 mmHg (10/18) than in those with HVPG ≥ 10 mmHg (19/92; p = 0.0021). The flow volume in the left gastric vein (LGV) and the incidence of red sign were higher in the former (251.9 ± 150.6 mL/min; 16/18) than in the latter (181 ± 100.5 mL/min, p = 0.02; 45/92; p = 0.0018). The patients with red sign had lower HVPG (13.3 ± 4.5) but advanced LGV hemodynamics (velocity 13.2 ± 3.8 cm/s; flow volume 217.5 ± 126.6 mL/min), whereas those without red sign had higher HVPG (16.2 ± 4.6, p = 0.001) but poorer LGV hemodynamics (10.9 ± 2.3, p = 0.002; 160.1 ± 83.1, p = 0.02). Patients with high-risk EV with HVPG < 10 mmHg showed 16.4% incidence. Although low HVPG may be underestimated by the presence of VVC, the increased LGV hemodynamics compensates for the severity of portal hypertension, which may contribute to the development of red sign.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7150/ijms.37040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6909812PMC
April 2020

Objective Response by mRECIST Is an Independent Prognostic Factor for Overall Survival in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Treated with Sorafenib in the SILIUS Trial.

Liver Cancer 2019 Nov 8;8(6):505-519. Epub 2019 Oct 8.

National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Objective: In SILIUS (NCT01214343), combination of sorafenib and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy did not significantly improve overall survival (OS) in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) compared with sorafenib alone. In this study, we explored the relationship between objective response by mRECIST and OS in the sorafenib group, in the combination group, and in all patients in the SILIUS trial.

Methods: Association between objective response and OS in patients treated with sorafenib ( = 103) or combination ( = 102) and all patients ( = 205) were analyzed. The median OS of responders was compared with that of non-responders. Landmark analyses were performed according to objective response at several fixed time points, as sensitivity analyses, and the effect on OS was evaluated by Cox regression analysis with objective response as a time-dependent covariate, with other prognostic factors.

Results: In the sorafenib group, OS of responders ( = 18) was significantly better than that of non-responders ( = 78) ( < 0.0001), where median OS was 27.2 (95% CI, 16.0-not reached) months for responders and 8.9 (95% CI, 6.5-12.6) months for non-responders. HRs from landmark analyses at 4, 6, and 8 months were 0.45 ( = 0.0330), 0.37 ( = 0.0053), and 0.36 ( = 0.0083), respectively. Objective response was an independent predictor of OS based on unstratified Cox regression analyses. In the all patients and the combination group, similar results were obtained.

Conclusions: In the SILIUS trial, objective response by sorafenib assessed by mRECIST is an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with HCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000503032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6883462PMC
November 2019

Pembrolizumab As Second-Line Therapy in Patients With Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in KEYNOTE-240: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Phase III Trial.

J Clin Oncol 2020 01 2;38(3):193-202. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

National Taiwan University Hospital and National Taiwan University Cancer Center, Taipei, Taiwan.

Purpose: Pembrolizumab demonstrated antitumor activity and safety in the phase II KEYNOTE-224 trial in previously treated patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). KEYNOTE-240 evaluated the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab in this population.

Patients And Methods: This randomized, double-blind, phase III study was conducted at 119 medical centers in 27 countries. Eligible patients with advanced HCC, previously treated with sorafenib, were randomly assigned at a two-to-one ratio to receive pembrolizumab plus best supportive care (BSC) or placebo plus BSC. Primary end points were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS; one-sided significance thresholds, = .0174 [final analysis] and = .002 [first interim analysis], respectively). Safety was assessed in all patients who received ≥ 1 dose of study drug.

Results: Between May 31, 2016, and November 23, 2017, 413 patients were randomly assigned. As of January 2, 2019, median follow-up was 13.8 months for pembrolizumab and 10.6 months for placebo. Median OS was 13.9 months (95% CI, 11.6 to 16.0 months) for pembrolizumab versus 10.6 months (95% CI, 8.3 to 13.5 months) for placebo (hazard ratio [HR], 0.781; 95% CI, 0.611 to 0.998; = .0238). Median PFS for pembrolizumab was 3.0 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 4.1 months) versus 2.8 months (95% CI, 2.5 to 4.1 months) for placebo at the first interim analysis (HR, 0.775; 95% CI, 0.609 to 0.987; = .0186) and 3.0 months (95% CI, 2.8 to 4.1 months) versus 2.8 months (95% CI, 1.6 to 3.0 months) at final analysis (HR, 0.718; 95% CI, 0.570 to 0.904; = .0022). Grade 3 or higher adverse events occurred in 147 (52.7%) and 62 patients (46.3%) for pembrolizumab versus placebo; those that were treatment related occurred in 52 (18.6%) and 10 patients (7.5%), respectively. No hepatitis C or B flares were identified.

Conclusion: In this study, OS and PFS did not reach statistical significance per specified criteria. The results are consistent with those of KEYNOTE-224, supporting a favorable risk-to-benefit ratio for pembrolizumab in this population.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.19.01307DOI Listing
January 2020

Serum fibroblast growth factor 19 serves as a potential novel biomarker for hepatocellular carcinoma.

BMC Cancer 2019 Nov 12;19(1):1088. Epub 2019 Nov 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Background: Abnormal autocrine fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) production has been observed in several types of cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we investigated the potential of serum FGF19 as a novel tumor marker of HCC based on a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).

Methods: The serum FGF19 levels of 304 patients with HCC was measured by ELISA. The serum levels of existing markers, including alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) were determined by chemiluminescence enzyme immunoassay. Both diagnostic value of FGF19 and its changes after curative ablation therapy was further examined.

Results: The median FGF19 levels in controls, chronic liver disease patients, and primary HCC patients, were 78.8 pg/mL, 100.1 pg/mL, and 214.5 pg/mL, respectively. The subsequent receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) successfully determined an optimal cut-off value of 200.0 pg/mL. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of FGF19 for HCC detection was comparable to those of AFP and DCP. Of importance, FGF19 showed higher sensitivity for the detection of small HCC (solitary cancer with diameter < 20 mm) than those of existing markers. In addition, 43 out of 79 cases (54.4%) with normal AFP and DCP (so-called "double negative HCC") exhibited serum FGF19 level ≥ 200 pg/mL. In 45 HCC patients treated with curative ablation therapy, serum FGF19 levels changed from 257.4 pg/mL to 112.0 pg/mL after the treatment.

Conclusion: Our findings reveal that FGF19 can be a potential novel biomarker for HCC. Although FGF19 is not necessarily a substitute for existing markers, it may help improve the prognosis in HCC patients owing to its resourceful use in various aspects of HCC management and treatment.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-6322-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849282PMC
November 2019

Liver function changes after transarterial chemoembolization in US hepatocellular carcinoma patients: the LiverT study.

BMC Cancer 2019 Aug 13;19(1):795. Epub 2019 Aug 13.

Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, University of Bologna General and University Hospital S.Orsola-Malpighi, Bologna, Italy.

Background: The real-world incidence of chronic liver damage after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is unclear. LiverT, a retrospective, observational study, assessed liver function deterioration after a single TACE in real-world hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients in US practice.

Methods: Eligible HCC patients identified from Optum's integrated database using standard codes as having had an index TACE between 2010 and 2016 with no additional oncologic therapy in the subsequent 3 months. At least one laboratory value (bilirubin, albumin, aspartate transaminase [AST], alanine transaminase [ALT], international normalized ratio [INR]) was required at baseline and the acute (≤29 days after TACE) and chronic (30-90 days after TACE) periods. Due to lack of universally accepted liver function deterioration criteria, clinically meaningful changes in laboratory parameters were pre-defined by authors (FP, RM, and SO).

Results: Of the 3963 TACE patients, 572 were eligible for analyses. Deterioration of liver function from baseline occurred in the acute period and persisted in the chronic period (bilirubin 30 and 23%, albumin 52 and 31%, AST 44 and 25%, ALT 43 and 25%, INR 25 and 15%, respectively). In a subgroup analysis, a higher proportion of patients with diabetes had deterioration in AST and ALT.

Conclusions: A clinically meaningful proportion of real-world HCC patients had deterioration of liver function-related laboratory values 30-90 days after a single TACE in modern US practice. Future electronic health record research may help determine causality. The present findings highlight the need for the careful selection of patients for TACE, which is important to help optimize the benefit of the overall HCC treatment course.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12885-019-5989-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693268PMC
August 2019

Sequential therapy with sorafenib and regorafenib for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a multicenter retrospective study in Japan.

Invest New Drugs 2020 02 6;38(1):172-180. Epub 2019 Jun 6.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, 1-8-1 Inohana, Chuo-ku, Chiba, 260-8670, Japan.

Background Conversion from sorafenib to regorafenib is primarily an evidence-based treatment strategy in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of sequential therapy with sorafenib and regorafenib in patients with advanced HCC by analysis of outcomes in clinical practice with the aim to complement phase III findings. Methods The medical records of patients with advanced HCC receiving regorafenib were retrieved to collect data on sorafenib administration at seven Japanese institutions. Radiological responses and adverse events were evaluated using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 and the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0, respectively. Results Before March 2018, 44 patients were administered regorafenib for advanced HCC. The median sorafenib treatment duration was 8.4 months. The most common adverse events were similar to those reported by the RESORCE trial. The median overall survival (OS) was 17.3 months (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.4-22.9), and 17 of 37 patients (45.9%) discontinued regorafenib and received sequential systemic therapy after regorafenib. These patients had significantly longer OS than those who were treated by the best supportive care or sub-optimal therapy (not reached versus 8.7 months [95% CI 5.8-11.7]; P < 0.001). Conclusion The results based on Japanese clinical practices verified the tolerability of regorafenib in advanced HCC. Major regorafenib-associated adverse events were similar to those related to sorafenib. OS was significantly longer than expected, which might be associated with the sequential systemic therapies after regorafenib, mainly lenvatinib.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10637-019-00801-8DOI Listing
February 2020

Genome-Wide Mapping of Bivalent Histone Modifications in Hepatic Stem/Progenitor Cells.

Stem Cells Int 2019 1;2019:9789240. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

The "bivalent domain," a distinctive histone modification signature, is characterized by repressive trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and active trimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) marks. Maintenance and dynamic resolution of these histone marks play important roles in regulating differentiation processes in various stem cell systems. However, little is known regarding their roles in hepatic stem/progenitor cells. In the present study, we conducted the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay followed by high-throughput DNA sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses in purified delta-like 1 protein (Dlk) hepatic stem/progenitor cells and successfully identified 562 genes exhibiting bivalent domains within 2 kb of the transcription start site. Gene ontology analysis revealed that these genes were enriched in developmental functions and differentiation processes. Microarray analyses indicated that many of these genes exhibited derepression after differentiation toward hepatocyte and cholangiocyte lineages. Among these, 72 genes, including and , were significantly upregulated after differentiation toward hepatocyte or cholangiocyte lineages. Knockdown of in Dlk cells suppressed colony propagation and resulted in increased numbers of albumin/cytokeratin 7 progenitor cells in colonies. These findings implicate that derepression of expression is required to induce normal differentiation processes. In conclusion, combined ChIP-seq and microarray analyses successfully identified bivalent genes. Functional analyses of these genes will help elucidate the epigenetic machinery underlying the terminal differentiation of hepatic stem/progenitor cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/9789240DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6466853PMC
April 2019

[Regorafenib in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma;current status and future perspective].

Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi 2019;116(1):28-35

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11405/nisshoshi.116.28DOI Listing
May 2019

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of primary sclerosing cholangitis and ulcerative colitis in Japanese patients.

PLoS One 2018 20;13(12):e0209352. Epub 2018 Dec 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: In Western countries, most patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) have concurrent ulcerative colitis (UC). The number of patients with UC in East Asia has increased markedly over the past two decades. However, current clinical features of PSC and of PSC associated with UC (PSC-UC) have not yet been clarified in East Asia, particularly in Japan. We aimed to reveal the clinical courses and associations with UC in Japanese patients with PSC from the mutual viewpoint of PSC and UC.

Methods: We retrospectively retrieved medical records of patients with PSC (69) and UC (1242) who were diagnosed at Chiba University Hospital between June 1991 and August 2017.

Results: In the present cohort, 37 patients had PSC-UC; the cumulative risks of PSC in patients with UC and of UC in patients with PSC were 3.0% and 53.6%, respectively. We confirmed similar distinctive results by a Japanese nationwide survey, noting that younger patients with PSC had a notably high possibility of association with UC. From the viewpoint of the UC cohort, the occurrence of right-sided disease was significantly higher in patients with PSC-UC than in those with UC (16.2% vs. 4.2%, P = 0.003). Pancolitis was more commonly observed in PSC-UC, and proctits/left-sided colitis was less commonly found in patients with UC. The number of patients with young-onset PSC-UC may be increasing similar to an increase in patients with UC in Japan.

Conclusions: In our cohort, the comorbidity rate of PSC-UC was higher than that obtained in previous reports. The incidence of PSC-UC and UC may increase in the future in East Asia, particularly in Japan.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0209352PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6301618PMC
May 2019

Prediction of the very early occurrence of HCC right after DAA therapy for HCV infection.

Hepatol Int 2018 Nov 21;12(6):523-530. Epub 2018 Sep 21.

Department of Gastroenterology, Yamanashi Central Hospital, Kofu, Yamanashi, Japan.

Background: Although direct-acting antiviral (DAA) developments make most of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection curable, some HCV patients develop hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after curative treatment of HCV. There is much dispute whether the rapid clearance of the virus enhances the HCC development. In advance of the dispute, we should make clear the characteristics of the patients with very early occurrence and recurrence of HCC after DAA therapy because it was still unclear.

Methods: We prospectively followed consecutive patients with HCV who had received sofosbuvir (SOF)-based treatment at two hospitals. The baseline characteristics, laboratory data, and liver imaging findings were acquired. We evaluated the rate of HCC occurrence and recurrence within 1-year after DAA therapy and analyzed the associated factors of very early HCC occurrence and recurrence right after SOF therapy.

Results: Between July 2013 and October 2016, we studied two cohorts with HCV infection that received SOF therapy. 402 and 462 patients in Yamanashi Central Hospital and Chiba University Hospital were included in this analysis, respectively. The SVR12 rates of genotypes 1 and 2 were 98.9% (561/567) and 96.0% (285/297), respectively. 41 patients developed HCC within 1 year after SOF therapy. The cumulative HCC occurrence and recurrence rate after SOF therapy was 5.0%. The common associated factor of 1-year HCC occurrence and recurrence in all cohorts was the existence of imaging "dysplastic nodule".

Conclusions: SOF regimens for HCV also have very high rates of SVR 12 in the post-market distribution. The appearance of imaging "dysplastic nodule" was an associated factor of 1-year HCC occurrence and recurrence. To investigate existence of "dysplastic nodule" by imaging surveillance before DAA treatment is useful to detect high-risk patients of very early HCC occurrence and recurrence and it should be performed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12072-018-9895-5DOI Listing
November 2018

Correspondence.

Hepatology 2018 09;68(3):1207-1208

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.30110DOI Listing
September 2018

Pembrolizumab in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma previously treated with sorafenib (KEYNOTE-224): a non-randomised, open-label phase 2 trial.

Lancet Oncol 2018 07 3;19(7):940-952. Epub 2018 Jun 3.

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Faculty of Medicine, Kindai University, Osaka, Japan.

Background: Immune checkpoint blockade therapy has shown promising results in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab in this patient population.

Methods: KEYNOTE-224 is a non-randomised, multicentre, open-label, phase 2 trial that is set in 47 medical centres and hospitals across ten countries. Eligible patients had pathologically confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma; had previously been treated with sorafenib and were either intolerant to this treatment or showed radiographic progression of their disease after treatment; an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-1; adequate organ function, and were Child-Pugh class A. Participants received 200 mg pembrolizumab intravenously every 3 weeks for about 2 years or until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity, patient withdrawal, or investigator decision. The primary endpoint was objective response, defined as the proportion of patients with complete or partial response in all patients who received at least one dose of pembrolizumab, which was radiologically confirmed by use of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors version 1.1 by central review. Safety was also assessed in all treated patients. This trial is ongoing but closed to enrolment and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT02702414.

Findings: Between June 7, 2016, and Feb 9, 2017, we screened 169 patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma, of whom 104 eligible patients were enrolled and treated. As of data cutoff on Feb 13, 2018, 17 (16%) patients were still receiving pembrolizumab. We recorded an objective response in 18 (17%; 95% CI 11-26) of 104 patients. The best overall responses were one (1%) complete and 17 (16%) partial responses; meanwhile, 46 (44%) patients had stable disease, 34 (33%) had progressive disease, and six (6%) patients who did not have a post-baseline assessment on the cutoff date were considered not to be assessable. Treatment-related adverse events occurred in 76 (73%) of 104 patients, which were serious in 16 (15%) patients. Grade 3 treatment-related events were reported in 25 (24%) of the 104 patients; the most common were increased aspartate aminotransferase concentration in seven (7%) patients, increased alanine aminotransferase concentration in four (4%) patients, and fatigue in four (4%) patients. One (1%) grade 4 treatment-related event of hyperbilirubinaemia occurred. One death associated with ulcerative oesophagitis was attributed to treatment. Immune-mediated hepatitis occurred in three (3%) patients, but there were no reported cases of viral flares.

Interpretation: Pembrolizumab was effective and tolerable in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma who had previously been treated with sorafenib. These results indicate that pembrolizumab might be a treatment option for these patients. This drug is undergoing further assessment in two phase 3, randomised trials as a second-line treatment in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

Funding: Merck & Co, Inc.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30351-6DOI Listing
July 2018

Left gastric vein-based noninvasive test for esophageal varices: a same-day comparison of portal hemodynamic assessment with endoscopic appearance.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2018 05 25;9(5):154. Epub 2018 May 25.

Department of Gastroenterology, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 1-8-1, Inohana, Chuo-ku, 260-8670, Japan.

Objective: To examine the effect of hemodynamic assessment of the left gastric vein (LGV) as a noninvasive test to diagnose esophageal varices (EV) in cirrhosis patients.

Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 229 cirrhosis patients (62.7 ± 11.8 years; Child-Pugh score 5-14). One hundred fifty-four patients had EV (67.2%; small, 53; medium, 71; large, 30). All patients underwent a blood test and Doppler ultrasound followed by upper gastrointestinal endoscopy on the same day. The diagnostic ability for EV was compared between LGV-related findings and the platelet count/spleen diameter ratio (Plt/Spl).

Results: The detectability of the LGV was higher in patients with EV (129/144, 89.6%) than in those without (35/75, 46.7%; p < 0.0001), and was higher in those with large EV (30/30, 100%) than in those without (134/199, 67.3%; p = 0.0002). The positive detection of the LGV showed 100% sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) to identify large EV in the whole cohort and compensated group (n = 127). The best cutoff value in the LGV diameter was 5.35 mm to identify large EV, showing 0.753 area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) with 90% sensitivity and 96.5% NPV. The Plt/Spl showed 62.1% sensitivity and 87.1% NPV, and the best cutoff value was 442.9 to identify large EV with 0.658 AUROC, which was comparable to LGV-based assessment (p = 0.162).

Conclusions: This same-day comparison study demonstrated the value of LGV-based noninvasive test to identify large EV with high sensitivity and NPV in cirrhosis patients at a lower cost.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41424-018-0021-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5968022PMC
May 2018

Transarterial chemoembolization as a substitute to radiofrequency ablation for treating Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage 0/A hepatocellular carcinoma.

Oncotarget 2018 Apr 20;9(30):21560-21568. Epub 2018 Apr 20.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background And Aim: Transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the standard procedure for treating Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) stage B hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, it is often carried out in the treatment of BCLC stage 0/A HCC for various reasons. This study aimed to elucidate the prognosis for BCLC stage 0/A HCC patients treated with TACE or with radiofrequency ablation (RFA).

Materials And Methods: The prognosis of 242 BCLC stage 0/A HCC patients within Milan criteria who underwent initially TACE or RFA were retrospectively analyzed using propensity score matching analysis.

Results: The analyses of baseline patient characteristics revealed that the maximum tumor size and the proportion of BCLC stage A patients were significantly higher in patients treated with TACE than in those treated with RFA (<0.001 and 0.047, respectively). After adjusting these factors using propensity score matching (1:3 matching), patients treated with TACE (n=32) and those treated with RFA (n=96) were further analyzed. The local recurrence rate was significantly higher in the TACE group than in the RFA group (<0.001). However, the overall survival (OS) in HCC patients treated with TACE was comparable to that in HCC patients treated with RFA (1 year, 93.5 vs. 95.8%; 3 years, 75.4 vs. 85.8%; 5 years, 61.8 vs. 70.7%; =0.196). Multivariate analyses followed by univariate analyses revealed that serum bilirubin level (=0.032), serum albumin level (=0.008), HBV-DNA (=0.013), and tumor number (=0.021) were independent predictors of OS.

Conclusion: TACE can substitute RFA at least in some patients with BCLC 0/A HCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.25108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5940395PMC
April 2018

Hepatocellular carcinoma after direct-acting antiviral agents: Can liver stiffness kinetics help identify patients at lower risk?

Dig Liver Dis 2018 06 28;50(6):580-582. Epub 2018 Mar 28.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dld.2018.03.025DOI Listing
June 2018

Patient Selection for Transarterial Chemoembolization in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Importance of Benefit/Risk Assessment.

Liver Cancer 2018 Mar 12;7(1):104-119. Epub 2018 Jan 12.

Department of Gastroenterology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba, Japan.

Background: Liver cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) accounting for most primary liver cancers and most commonly arising from a history of advanced chronic liver disease. Among the available therapies, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) is the most widely utilized and is considered the first-line treatment recommended for patients staged as intermediate HCC (Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage B). If applied correctly, TACE can produce survival benefits without adversely affecting hepatic functional reserve.

Summary: The aim of this nonsystematic review is to evaluate the evidence supporting TACE, with a special interest in intermediate HCC, for which this treatment is recommended in first line. However, intermediate HCC represents a broad and heterogeneous group of patients, not all of whom will benefit from TACE. This review highlights the importance of appropriate patient selection for initial TACE and for retreatment. It also evaluates evidence for the treatment of patients who become refractory to TACE. Some patients may, in fact, benefit from early switch (i.e., after 1 or 2 TACE treatments) to systemic therapies rather than continuing retreatments with TACE in order to preserve liver function, thus allowing sequential first- and second-line drug therapies.

Key Messages: Careful assessment of an individual patient's benefit/risk ratio is recommended before any TACE session is considered to ensure optimal long-term outcomes in intermediate HCC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000485471DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5892363PMC
March 2018

Successful retreatment with grazoprevir and elbasvir for patients infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1b, who discontinued prior treatment with NS5A inhibitor-including regimens due to adverse events.

Oncotarget 2018 Mar 23;9(22):16263-16270. Epub 2018 Mar 23.

Department of Gastroenterology, Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, Chuo-ku, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

Background: Sustained virologic response (SVR) by interferon and interferon-free treatment can results in the reduction of advanced liver fibrosis and the occurrence of hepatocellular carcinoma in patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). Recent interferon-free treatment for HCV shortens the duration of treatment and leads to higher SVR rates, without any serious adverse events. However, it is important to retreat patients who have had treatment-failure with HCV non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitor-including regimens. Combination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir only leads to approximately 100% SVR rates in HCV genotype (GT1b), NS5A inhibitor-naïve patients in Japan. This combination is not an indication for severe renal disease or heart disease, and these patients should be treated or retreated with a different regimen.

Case Summary: Retreatment with HCV non-structural protein 3/4A inhibitor, grazoprevir, and HCV NS5A inhibitor, elbasvir, successfully eradicated HCV RNA in three patients with HCV genotype 1b infection who discontinued prior interferon-free treatments including HCV NS5A inhibitors due to adverse events within 2 weeks.

Conclusion: Retreatment with the 12-week combination regimen of grazoprevir and elbasvir is effective for HCV GT1b patients who discontinue the HCV NS5A inhibitor-including regimens within 2 weeks. The treatment response may be related to the short duration of initial treatment, which did not produce treatment-emergent RASs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.24620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5882333PMC
March 2018

Sorafenib plus low-dose cisplatin and fluorouracil hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy versus sorafenib alone in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (SILIUS): a randomised, open label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 06 7;3(6):424-432. Epub 2018 Apr 7.

National Cancer Center Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.

Background: Hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy plus sorafenib in phase 2 trials has shown favourable tumour control and a manageable safety profile in patients with advanced, unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma. However, no randomised phase 3 trial has tested the combination of sorafenib with continuous arterial infusion chemotherapy. We aimed to compare continuous hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy plus sorafenib with sorafenib alone in patients with advanced, unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma.

Methods: We did an open-label, randomised, phase 3 trial (SILIUS) at 31 sites in Japan. Eligible patients were aged 20 years or older, with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma not suitable for resection, local ablation, or transarterial chemoembolisation; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status 0-1; Child-Pugh score 7 or lower; and adequate bone marrow, liver, and renal function. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) via an interactive web response system with a computer-generated sequence to receive 400 mg sorafenib orally twice daily or 400 mg sorafenib orally twice daily plus hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (cisplatin 20 mg/m on days 1 and 8 and fluorouracil 330 mg/m continuously on days 1-5 and 8-12 of every 28-day cycle via an implanted catheter system). The primary endpoint was overall survival. The primary efficacy analysis comprised all randomised patients (the intention-to-treat population), and the safety analysis comprised all randomised patients who received at least one dose of study treatment. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01214343.

Findings: Between Nov 4, 2010, and June 10, 2014, 206 patients were randomly assigned (103 to the sorafenib group, 103 to the sorafenib plus hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy group). One patient in the sorafenib plus hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy group withdrew after randomisation. Median overall survival was similar in the sorafenib plus hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy (n=102) and sorafenib monotherapy (n=103) groups (11·8 months [95% CI 9·1-14·5] vs 11·5 months [8·2-14·8]; hazard ratio 1·009 [95% CI 0·743-1·371]; p=0·955). Grade 3-4 adverse events that were more frequent in the sorafenib plus hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy group than in the sorafenib monotherapy group included anaemia (15 [17%] of 88 vs six [6%] of 102), neutropenia (15 [17%] vs one [1%]), thrombocytopenia (30 [34%] vs 12 [12%]), and anorexia (12 [14%] vs six [6%]).

Interpretation: Addition of hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy to sorafenib did not significantly improve overall survival in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma.

Funding: Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(18)30078-5DOI Listing
June 2018

Interferon-free treatment for patients with chronic hepatitis C and autoimmune liver disease: higher SVR rates with special precautions for deterioration of autoimmune hepatitis.

Oncotarget 2018 Feb 3;9(14):11631-11637. Epub 2018 Feb 3.

Department of Gastroenterology, Chiba University, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba 260-8670, Japan.

Background: Interferon-free treatment can achieve higher sustained virological response (SVR) rates, even in patients in whom hepatitis C virus (HCV) could not be eradicated in the interferon treatment era. Immune restoration in the liver is occasionally associated with HCV infection. We examined the safety and effects of interferon-free regimens on HCV patients with autoimmune liver diseases.

Results: All 7 HCV patients with autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) completed treatment and achieved SVR. Three patients took prednisolone (PSL) at baseline, and 3 did not take PSL during interferon-free treatment. In one HCV patient with AIH and cirrhosis, PSL were not administered at baseline, but she needed to take 40 mg/day PSL at week 8 for liver dysfunction. She also complained back pain and was diagnosed with vasospastic angina by coronary angiography at week 11. However, she completed interferon-free treatment. All 5 HCV patients with primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) completed treatment and achieved SVR. Three of these HCV patients with PBC were treated with UDCA during interferon-free treatment.

Conclusions: Interferon-free regimens could result in higher SVR rates in HCV patients with autoimmune liver diseases. As interferon-free treatment for HCV may have an effect on hepatic immunity and activity of the autoimmune liver diseases, careful attention should be paid to unexpected adverse events in their treatments.

Methods: Total 12 patients with HCV and autoimmune liver diseases [7 AIH and PBC], who were treated with interferon-free regimens, were retrospectively analyzed.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.24391DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5837765PMC
February 2018