Publications by authors named "Sachiko Ohori"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Long-read whole-genome sequencing identified a partial MBD5 deletion in an exome-negative patient with neurodevelopmental disorder.

J Hum Genet 2021 Jan 29. Epub 2021 Jan 29.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

Whole-exome sequencing (WES) can detect not only single-nucleotide variants in causal genes, but also pathogenic copy-number variations using several methods. However, there may be overlooked pathogenic variations in the out of target genome regions of WES analysis (e.g., promoters), leaving many patients undiagnosed. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can potentially analyze such regions. We applied long-read nanopore WGS and our recently developed analysis pipeline "dnarrange" to a patient who was undiagnosed by trio-based WES analysis, and identified a heterozygous 97-kb deletion partially involving 5'-untranslated exons of MBD5, which was outside the WES target regions. The phenotype of the patient, a 32-year-old male, was consistent with haploinsufficiency of MBD5. The transcript level of MBD5 in the patient's lymphoblastoid cells was reduced. We therefore concluded that the partial MBD5 deletion is the culprit for this patient. Furthermore, we found other rare structural variations (SVs) in this patient, i.e., a large inversion and a retrotransposon insertion, which were not seen in 33 controls. Although we considered that they are benign SVs, this finding suggests that our pipeline using long-read WGS is useful for investigating various types of potentially pathogenic SVs. In conclusion, we identified a 97-kb deletion, which causes haploinsufficiency of MBD5 in a patient with neurodevelopmental disorder, demonstrating that long-read WGS is a powerful technique to discover pathogenic SVs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-020-00893-8DOI Listing
January 2021

Efficient detection of copy-number variations using exome data: Batch- and sex-based analyses.

Hum Mutat 2021 Jan 11;42(1):50-65. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Yokohama, Japan.

Many algorithms to detect copy number variations (CNVs) using exome sequencing (ES) data have been reported and evaluated on their sensitivity and specificity, reproducibility, and precision. However, operational optimization of such algorithms for a better performance has not been fully addressed. ES of 1199 samples including 763 patients with different disease profiles was performed. ES data were analyzed to detect CNVs by both the eXome Hidden Markov Model (XHMM) and modified Nord's method. To efficiently detect rare CNVs, we aimed to decrease sequencing biases by analyzing, at the same time, the data of all unrelated samples sequenced in the same flow cell as a batch, and to eliminate sex effects of X-linked CNVs by analyzing female and male sequences separately. We also applied several filtering steps for more efficient CNV selection. The average number of CNVs detected in one sample was <5. This optimization together with targeted CNV analysis by Nord's method identified pathogenic/likely pathogenic CNVs in 34 patients (4.5%, 34/763). In particular, among 142 patients with epilepsy, the current protocol detected clinically relevant CNVs in 19 (13.4%) patients, whereas the previous protocol identified them in only 14 (9.9%) patients. Thus, this batch-based XHMM analysis efficiently selected rare pathogenic CNVs in genetic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.24129DOI Listing
January 2021

A pipeline for complete characterization of complex germline rearrangements from long DNA reads.

Genome Med 2020 07 31;12(1):67. Epub 2020 Jul 31.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, Fukuura 3-9, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

Background: Many genetic/genomic disorders are caused by genomic rearrangements. Standard methods can often characterize these variations only partly, e.g., copy number changes or breakpoints. It is important to fully understand the order and orientation of rearranged fragments, with precise breakpoints, to know the pathogenicity of the rearrangements.

Methods: We performed whole-genome-coverage nanopore sequencing of long DNA reads from four patients with chromosomal translocations. We identified rearrangements relative to a reference human genome, subtracted rearrangements shared by any of 33 control individuals, and determined the order and orientation of rearranged fragments, with our newly developed analysis pipeline.

Results: We describe the full characterization of complex chromosomal rearrangements, by filtering out genomic rearrangements seen in controls without the same disease, reducing the number of loci per patient from a few thousand to a few dozen. Breakpoint detection was very accurate; we usually see ~ 0 ± 1 base difference from Sanger sequencing-confirmed breakpoints. For one patient with two reciprocal chromosomal translocations, we find that the translocation points have complex rearrangements of multiple DNA fragments involving 5 chromosomes, which we could order and orient by an automatic algorithm, thereby fully reconstructing the rearrangement. A rearrangement is more than the sum of its parts: some properties, such as sequence loss, can be inferred only after reconstructing the whole rearrangement. In this patient, the rearrangements were evidently caused by shattering of the chromosomes into multiple fragments, which rejoined in a different order and orientation with loss of some fragments.

Conclusions: We developed an effective analytic pipeline to find chromosomal aberration in congenital diseases by filtering benign changes, only from long read sequencing. Our algorithm for reconstruction of complex rearrangements is useful to interpret rearrangements with many breakpoints, e.g., chromothripsis. Our approach promises to fully characterize many congenital germline rearrangements, provided they do not involve poorly understood loci such as centromeric repeats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13073-020-00762-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393826PMC
July 2020

A novel PAK1 variant causative of neurodevelopmental disorder with postnatal macrocephaly.

J Hum Genet 2020 May 31;65(5):481-485. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Department of Human Genetics, Yokohama City University Graduate School of Medicine, 3-9 Fukuura, Kanazawa-ku, Yokohama, 236-0004, Japan.

p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are protein serine/threonine kinases stimulated by Rho-family p21 GTPases such as CDC42 and RAC. PAKs have been implicated in several human disorders, with pathogenic variants in PAK3 associated with intellectual disability and several PAK members, especially PAK1 and PAK4, overexpressed in human cancer. Recently, de novo PAK1 variants were reported to be causative of neurodevelopmental disorder (ND) with secondary macrocephaly in three patients. We herein report a fourth patient with ND, epilepsy, and macrocephaly caused by a de novo PAK1 missense variant. Two previously reported missense PAK1 variants functioned as activating alleles by reducing PAK1 homodimerization. To examine the pathogenicity of the identified novel p.Ser110Thr variant, we carried out in silico structural analysis. Our findings suggest that this variant also prevents PAK1 homodimerization, leading to constitutive PAK1 activation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s10038-020-0728-8DOI Listing
May 2020