Publications by authors named "Sabrina Haque"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Childhood stunting and cognitive effects of water and sanitation in Indonesia.

Econ Hum Biol 2021 Jan 23;40:100944. Epub 2020 Nov 23.

World Bank, Water Global Practice, United States. Electronic address:

Close to 100 million Indonesians lack access to improved sanitation, while 33 million live without improved drinking water. Indonesia is home to the second largest number of open defecators in the world, behind India. Repeated exposure to fecal pathogens, especially common in areas where open defecation is practiced, can cause poor absorption and nutrient loss through diarrhea and poor gut function, leading to undernutrition, growth stunting and irreversible impairment of health, development, learning and earnings - the effects of which outlast a lifetime. Using data from a sample of over six thousand children in the Indonesia Family Life Survey (IFLS), a household socioeconomic panel representative of over 80 percent of the Indonesian population, we examine the relationship between poor household and community water and sanitation services and childhood stunting and cognitive development. We find that children living in households that have access to improved sanitation when they are under 2 years of age are approximately 5 percentage points less likely to end up being stunted. Community rates of sanitation are also important. Children living in open defecation free communities during this critical development window are more than 10 percentage points less likely to be stunted, than children in communities where all other households defecate in the open. Further, cognitive test scores are adversely affected by open defecation. These findings suggest that owning a toilet and living in a community where most of one's neighbors own a toilet are important drivers of child growth and development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ehb.2020.100944DOI Listing
January 2021

Quantitative assessment of fecal contamination in multiple environmental sample types in urban communities in Dhaka, Bangladesh using SaniPath microbial approach.

PLoS One 2019 16;14(12):e0221193. Epub 2019 Dec 16.

Center for Global Safe Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia, United States of America.

Rapid urbanization has led to a growing sanitation crisis in urban areas of Bangladesh and potential exposure to fecal contamination in the urban environment due to inadequate sanitation and poor fecal sludge management. Limited data are available on environmental fecal contamination associated with different exposure pathways in urban Dhaka. We conducted a cross-sectional study to explore the magnitude of fecal contamination in the environment in low-income, high-income, and transient/floating neighborhoods in urban Dhaka. Ten samples were collected from each of 10 environmental compartments in 10 different neighborhoods (4 low-income, 4 high-income and 2 transient/floating neighborhoods). These 1,000 samples were analyzed with the IDEXX-Quanti-Tray technique to determine most-probable-number (MPN) of E. coli. Samples of open drains (6.91 log10 MPN/100 mL), surface water (5.28 log10 MPN/100 mL), floodwater (4.60 log10 MPN/100 mL), produce (3.19 log10 MPN/serving), soil (2.29 log10 MPN/gram), and street food (1.79 log10 MPN/gram) had the highest mean log10 E. coli contamination compared to other samples. The contamination concentrations did not differ between low-income and high-income neighborhoods for shared latrine swabs, open drains, municipal water, produce, and street foodsamples. E. coli contamination levels were significantly higher (p <0.05) in low-income neighborhoods compared to high-income for soil (0.91 log10 MPN/gram, 95% CI, 0.39, 1.43), bathing water (0.98 log10 MPN/100 mL, 95% CI, 0.41, 1.54), non-municipal water (0.64 log10 MPN/100 mL, 95% CI, 0.24, 1.04), surface water (1.92 log10 MPN/100 mL, 95% CI, 1.44, 2.40), and floodwater (0.48 log10 MPN/100 mL, 95% CI, 0.03, 0.92) samples. E. coli contamination were significantly higher (p<0.05) in low-income neighborhoods compared to transient/floating neighborhoods for drain water, bathing water, non-municipal water and surface water. Future studies should examine behavior that brings people into contact with the environment and assess the extent of exposure to fecal contamination in the environment through multiple pathways and associated risks.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0221193PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6913925PMC
March 2020

Prevalence of cardiovascular disease among Bangladeshi adult population: a systematic review and meta-analysis of the studies.

Vasc Health Risk Manag 2018 21;14:165-181. Epub 2018 Aug 21.

Department of Community Health Sciences, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada,

Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a group of conditions affecting the functioning of the heart or blood vessels and is one of the leading causes of death globally. Like other countries, CVD prevalence is also rising among the adults in Bangladesh. Epidemiological studies have shown not only a high CVD prevalence but also a significant increase in its prevalence in Bangladesh in the last few decades. To have a better understanding of the current CVD prevalence scenario, we conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of CVD among the Bangladeshi adult population using evidence from the published scientific literature.

Methods: Electronic databases such as MEDLINE, Embase and PubMed were searched. We also manually checked the references of all relevant publications that describe the prevalence of CVD in Bangladeshi adults. To pool the CVD prevalence, we used random-effects meta-analysis. We assessed heterogeneity using both the formal tests and the subgroup analyses. We also assessed study quality and examined publication bias.

Results: We retrieved 755 potentially relevant papers through searches of electronic and gray literature, of which only 13 met inclusion criteria after the screening and were included in this review. Of the studies that met inclusion criteria, three were carried out in rural populations, five in both urban and rural populations and two in strictly urban populations. Male and female participation in the studies was almost equal. The weighted pooled prevalence of CVD was 5.0%, regardless of the types of CVD, gender and geographical location of the study participants. There was also a high heterogeneity in the observed CVD prevalence. Weighted pooled prevalence of overall CVD in the Bangladeshi population was higher in urban areas (8%) compared to rural areas (2%). However, no such difference was observed in terms of gender (3% for both males and females). The highest reported prevalence (21%) was for heart disease, while the lowest reported prevalence (1%) was for stroke. Sources of heterogeneity were often unexplained. The criteria used to assess study quality were fulfilled by only a few studies, and adequate sample size criteria was missed by almost all of them. In addition, there was evidence of small-study effects.

Conclusion: A high CVD prevalence along with an upward trend was observed in Bangladeshi adults. Proper strategies are required for primary prevention of CVD so that a further increase can be alleviated and the morbidity and mortality associated with it can be reduced.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/VHRM.S166111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6110270PMC
November 2018

Place and Child Health: The Interaction of Population Density and Sanitation in Developing Countries.

Demography 2017 02;54(1):337-360

r.i.c.e., a research institute for compassionate economics, New Delhi, India.

A long literature in demography has debated the importance of place for health, especially children's health. In this study, we assess whether the importance of dense settlement for infant mortality and child height is moderated by exposure to local sanitation behavior. Is open defecation (i.e., without a toilet or latrine) worse for infant mortality and child height where population density is greater? Is poor sanitation is an important mechanism by which population density influences child health outcomes? We present two complementary analyses using newly assembled data sets, which represent two points in a trade-off between external and internal validity. First, we concentrate on external validity by studying infant mortality and child height in a large, international child-level data set of 172 Demographic and Health Surveys, matched to census population density data for 1,800 subnational regions. Second, we concentrate on internal validity by studying child height in Bangladeshi districts, using a new data set constructed with GIS techniques that allows us to control for fixed effects at a high level of geographic resolution. We find a statistically robust and quantitatively comparable interaction between sanitation and population density with both approaches: open defecation externalities are more important for child health outcomes where people live more closely together.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13524-016-0538-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5306240PMC
February 2017

Attentional biases to foods: The effects of caloric content and cognitive restraint.

Appetite 2012 Dec 16;59(3):748-54. Epub 2012 Jul 16.

Department of Psychology, The College of William & Mary, P.O. Box 8795, Williamsburg, VA 23187-8795, USA.

The goal of the present study was to determine whether female restrained and unrestrained eaters demonstrated differential levels of attentional bias to high calorie foods when they were presented as distractors in a flanker task. This task consisted of four blocks of 68 trials in which three food pictures were briefly presented simultaneously on a computer screen. On each trial a high or low calorie target food was presented in the center of a pair of high or low calorie food flanker pictures and participants' reaction times to answer a basic question about whether they would consume the target food for breakfast were recorded. In Experiment 1, in which all participants were fed a snack prior to engaging in the flanker task, there was no evidence that restrained (n=29) or unrestrained (n=37) eaters had an attentional bias. However, in Experiment 2, when participants completed the flanker task while hungry, restrained eaters (n=27) experienced response conflict only when low calorie targets were flanked by high calorie distractors, whereas unrestrained eaters (n=46) were distracted by high calorie flankers regardless of the caloric content of the target cue. The results from this implicit task indicate that flankers interfere with hungry participants' responses to varying degrees depending on their cognitive restraint. Whether attentional bias to food cues subsequently affects food choices and eating behavior is a topic for further investigation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2012.07.006DOI Listing
December 2012