Publications by authors named "Sabela Carballal"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Identification of New Genes Involved in Germline Predisposition to Early-Onset Gastric Cancer.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 28;22(3). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Gastroenterology Department, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain.

The genetic cause for several families with gastric cancer (GC) aggregation is unclear, with marked relevance in early-onset patients. We aimed to identify new candidate genes involved in GC germline predisposition. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) of germline samples was performed in 20 early-onset GC patients without previous germline mutation identified. WES was also performed in nine tumor samples to analyze the somatic profile using SigProfilerExtractor tool. Sequencing germline data were filtered to select those variants with plausible pathogenicity, rare frequency and previously involved in cancer. Then, a manual filtering was performed to prioritize genes according to current knowledge and function. These genetic variants were prevalidated with Integrative Genomics Viewer 2.8.2 (IGV). Subsequently, a further selection step was carried out according to function and information obtained from tumor samples. After IGV and selection step, 58 genetic variants in 52 different candidate genes were validated by Sanger sequencing. Among them, , , and seem to be the most promising genes because of their role in hereditary cancer syndromes, tumor suppression, cell adhesion and recognition, respectively. These encouraging results represent the open door to the identification of new genes involved in GC germline predisposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031310DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866206PMC
January 2021

Quality of Colonoscopy Is Associated With Adenoma Detection and Post-Colonoscopy Colorectal Cancer Prevention in Lynch Syndrome.

Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol 2020 Nov 3. Epub 2020 Nov 3.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Clínic Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Colonoscopy reduces colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality in Lynch syndrome (LS) carriers. However, a high incidence of postcolonoscopy CRC (PCCRC) has been reported. Colonoscopy is highly dependent on surgical skill and is subject to quality variability. We aimed to evaluate the impact of key colonoscopy quality indicators on adenoma detection and prevention of PCCRC in LS.

Methods: We conducted a multicenter study focused on LS carriers without previous CRC undergoing colonoscopy surveillance (n = 893). Incident colorectal neoplasia during surveillance and quality indicators of all colonoscopies were analyzed. We performed an emulated target trial comparing the results from the first and second surveillance colonoscopies to assess the effect of colonoscopy quality indicators on adenoma detection and PCCRC incidence. Risk analyses were conducted using a multivariable logistic regression model.

Results: The 10-year cumulative incidence of adenoma and PCCRC was 60.6% (95% CI, 55.5%-65.2%) and 7.9% (95% CI, 5.2%-10.6%), respectively. Adequate bowel preparation (odds ratio [OR], 2.07; 95% CI, 1.06-4.3), complete colonoscopies (20% vs 0%; P = .01), and pan-chromoendoscopy use (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.15-3.95) were associated with significant improvement in adenoma detection. PCCRC risk was significantly lower when colonoscopies were performed during a time interval of less than every 3 years (OR, 0.35; 95% CI, 0.14-0.97). We observed a consistent but not significant reduction in PCCRC risk for a previous complete examination (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-1.28), adequate bowel preparation (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.17-3.24), or previous use of high-definition colonoscopy (OR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.02-2.33).

Conclusions: Complete colonoscopies with adequate bowel preparation and chromoendoscopy use are associated with improved adenoma detection, while surveillance intervals of less than 3 years are associated with a reduction of PCCRC incidence. In LS, high-quality colonoscopy surveillance is of utmost importance for CRC prevention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cgh.2020.11.002DOI Listing
November 2020

Genetic Counseling for Hereditary Gastric and Pancreatic Cancer in High-Risk Gastrointestinal Cancer Clinics: An Effective Strategy.

Cancers (Basel) 2020 Aug 23;12(9). Epub 2020 Aug 23.

Gastroenterology Department, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer, 08036 Barcelona, Spain.

The identification of high-risk groups of gastric (GC) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PC) due to a hereditary basis could imply a benefit in the affected families by establishing personalized preventive strategies. We aimed at assessing the diagnostic yield of GC/PC hereditary syndromes in individuals evaluated based on specific clinical criteria. In total, 77 unrelated individuals (45 from GC group/32 from PC group) were recruited: 51 (66.2%) cancer diagnosis ≤60 years, 3 (4%) with personal history of GC/PC and other cancer and 23 (29.8%) due to family history. Immunohistochemical analysis of DNA mismatch repair proteins was performed in 38 (49.3%) available tumors, being pathological in one (2%) GC. A genetic analysis was performed if clinical criteria of hereditary syndrome were fulfilled, identifying a mutation in 10/22 (45.5%) families [7/16 (43.7%) with GC and 3/6 (50%) with PC] and 19 (24.7%) fulfilled criteria of familial cancer. Diagnosis of cancer <40 years and personal history of other cancers were independent risk factors of a hereditary syndrome [OR:11.3 (95%IC 1.9-67); = 0.007 and OR:17.4 (95% IC 2.5-119.9); = 0.004; respectively]. The selection of patients based on clinical criteria leads to high diagnostic yield, detecting a causative germline mutation in almost half of the cases; therefore, both meticulous genetic counseling and use of multi-gen panels is crucial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers12092386DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7564434PMC
August 2020

Pathologist Experience and Concordance in the Diagnosis of Dysplasia in Long-standing Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

Am J Surg Pathol 2020 07;44(7):955-961

Department of Gastroenterology, Barcelona Clinic Hospital.

Surveillance colonoscopies focused to detect dysplasia are recommended to prevent colorectal cancer in patients with long-standing colonic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). To date, histologic diagnosis and gradation of IBD-related dysplasia has been challenged by a high variability among pathologists. We aimed to analyze the observer characteristics that are correlated with concordance deviations in this diagnosis. Eight pathologists evaluated a set of 125 endoscopic biopsy samples with a representative distribution of nondysplastic and dysplastic lesions from long-standing IBD patients. Two rounds of diagnosis were carried out during a period of 18 months. The κ test was applied to analyze concordance. Pathologists were grouped on the basis of their experience. A subanalysis was performed by eliminating the highly prevalent nondysplastic samples, as well as an analysis after observers' grouping. Overall interobserver agreement was good (κ=0.73), with an even higher pairwise value (κ=0.86) as well as the intraobserver agreement values (best κ=0.85). After eliminating the highly prevalent nondysplastic samples, the interobserver agreement was still moderate to good (best overall κ=0.50; best paired κ=0.72). Notable differences were seen between the pathologists with a high-volume and low-volume practice (best overall κ=0.61 and 0.41, respectively). The agreement in the diagnosis of dysplasia in IBD endoscopic biopsies may have been undervalued over time. This is the first study evaluating pathologists' diagnostic robustness in this field. The results suggest that examining a large volume of samples is the key factor to increase the consistency in the diagnosis and gradation of IBD-related dysplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/PAS.0000000000001475DOI Listing
July 2020

Colorectal cancer genetic variants are also associated with serrated polyposis syndrome susceptibility.

J Med Genet 2020 10 13;57(10):677-682. Epub 2020 Mar 13.

Gastroenterology Department, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, Spain

Background: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is a clinical entity characterised by large and/ormultiple serrated polyps throughout the colon and increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC). The basis for SPS genetic predisposition is largely unknown. Common, low-penetrance genetic variants have been consistently associated with CRC susceptibility, however, their role in SPS genetic predisposition has not been yet explored.

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate if common, low-penetrance genetic variants for CRC risk are also implicated in SPS genetic susceptibility.

Methods: A case-control study was performed in 219 SPS patients and 548 asymptomatic controls analysing 65 CRC susceptibility variants. A risk prediction model for SPS predisposition was developed.

Results: Statistically significant associations with SPS were found for seven genetic variants (rs4779584-, rs16892766-, rs3217810-, rs992157-/, rs704017-, rs11196172-, rs6061231-). The risk allele was remarkably over-represented in SPS cases compared with controls (OR=1.573, 1.21-2.04, p value=0.0006). A fourfold increase in SPS risk was observed when comparing subjects within the highest decile of variants (≥65) with those in the first decile (≤50).

Conclusions: Genetic variants for CRC risk are also involved in SPS susceptibility, being the most relevant ones rs4779584-, rs16892766- and rs3217810-.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7525772PMC
October 2020

Familial Pancreatic Cancer: Current Perspectives.

Cancer Manag Res 2020 31;12:743-758. Epub 2020 Jan 31.

Departmento de Gastroenterología, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Institut d' Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Universidad de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Pancreatic cancer (PC) is a highly lethal disease, mostly incurable when detected. Thus, despite advances in PC treatments, only around 7% of patients survive 5-years after diagnosis. This morbid outcome is secondary to multifactorial reasons, such as late-stage diagnosis, rapid progression and minimal response to chemotherapy. Based on these factors, it is of special relevance to identify PC high-risk individuals in order to establish preventive and early detection measures. Although most PC are sporadic, approximately 10% cases have a familial basis. No main causative gene of PC has been identified but several known germline pathogenic mutations are related with an increased risk of this tumor. These inherited cancer syndromes represent 3% of all PC. On the other hand, in 7% of cases of PC, there is a strong family history without a causative germline mutation, a situation known as familial pancreatic cancer (FPC). In recent years, there is increasing evidence supporting the benefit of genetic germline analysis in PC patients, and periodic pancreatic screening in PC high-risk patients (mainly those with a lifetime risk greater than 5%), although there is no general agreement in the group of patients and individuals to study and screen. In the present review, we expose an update in the field of hereditary and FPC, with the aim of describing the current strategies and implications in genetic counseling, surveillance and therapeutic interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/CMAR.S172421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6999545PMC
January 2020

The (ir)relevance of the abandoned criterion II for the diagnosis of serrated polyposis syndrome: a retrospective cohort study.

Fam Cancer 2020 04;19(2):153-160

Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, 1105, The Netherlands.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recently updated the diagnostic criteria for serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS). One of the three previous diagnostic criteria (criterion II) is now abandoned: ≥ 1 serrated polyp (SP) proximal to the sigmoid in a first-degree relative (FDR) of a patient with SPS. Individuals fulfilling this abandoned criterion now receive the same surveillance recommendations as all FDRs of patients with SPS. We aimed to compare the incidence of advanced neoplasia (AN) in FDRs with vs. without fulfillment of the abandoned criterion II. We retrospectively recruited FDRs of patients with SPS who underwent a colonoscopy, and stratified them according to fulfilment of criterion II at baseline. Our primary and secondary outcomes were AN incidence during surveillance and at baseline, respectively. We included 224 FDRs of patients with SPS, of whom 36 (16%) fulfilled criterion II at baseline. One hundred and five underwent surveillance after baseline. Criterion II-positive FDRs were at increased risk of AN, both during surveillance (hazard ratio 8.94, 95% CI 2.15-37.1, p = .003) as well as at baseline (adjusted odds-ratio 9.30, 95% CI 3.7-23.3, p < .001). FDRs of patients with SPS that underwent colonoscopy and fulfilled the abandoned criterion II for SPS diagnosis were at increased risk of AN at baseline and during surveillance in this small, retrospective cohort study. Our results should be interpreted with caution but suggest that adherence to surveillance recommendations for all FDRs of patients with SPS is important, especially for those that would have fulfilled the now abandoned criterion II.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-019-00156-2DOI Listing
April 2020

Identification of a Novel Candidate Gene for Serrated Polyposis Syndrome Germline Predisposition by Performing Linkage Analysis Combined With Whole-Exome Sequencing.

Clin Transl Gastroenterol 2019 10;10(10):e00100

Gastroenterology Department, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Hospital Clínic, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Objectives: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is a complex disorder with a high risk of colorectal cancer for which the germline factors remain largely unknown. Here, we combined whole-exome sequencing (WES) and linkage studies in families with multiple members affected by SPS to identify candidate genes harboring rare variants with higher penetrance effects.

Methods: Thirty-nine affected subjects from 16 extended SPS families underwent WES. Genome-wide linkage analysis was performed under linear and exponential models. The contribution of rare coding variants selected to be highly pathogenic was assessed using the gene-based segregation test.

Results: A significant linkage peak was identified on chromosome 3p25.2-p22.3 (maxSNP = rs2293787; LODlinear = 2.311, LODexp = 2.11), which logarithm of the odds (LOD) score increased after fine mapping for the same marker (maxSNP = rs2293787; LODlinear = 2.4, LODexp = 2.25). This linkage signal was replicated in 10 independent sets of random markers from this locus. To assess the contribution of rare variants predicted to be pathogenic, we performed a family-based segregation test with 11 rare variants predicted to be deleterious from 10 genes under the linkage intervals. This analysis showed significant segregation of rare variants with SPS in CAPT7, TMEM43, NGLY1, and FBLN2 genes (weighted P value > 0.007).

Discussion: Protein network analysis suggested FBLN2 as the most plausible candidate genes for germline SPS predisposition. Etiologic rare variants implicated in disease predisposition may be identified by combining traditional linkage with WES data. This powerful approach was effective for the identification of a new candidate gene for hereditary SPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.14309/ctg.0000000000000100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6919450PMC
October 2019

White-Light Endoscopy Is Adequate for Lynch Syndrome Surveillance in a Randomized and Noninferiority Study.

Gastroenterology 2020 03 12;158(4):895-904.e1. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Department of Gastroenterology, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Barcelona, Spain. Electronic address:

Background & Aims: Dye-based pancolonic chromoendoscopy is recommended for colorectal cancer surveillance in patients with Lynch syndrome. However, there is scarce evidence to support its superiority to high-definition white-light endoscopy. We performed a prospective study assess whether in the hands of high detecting colonoscopists, high-definition, white-light endoscopy is noninferior to pancolonic chromoendoscopy for detection of adenomas in patients with Lynch syndrome.

Methods: We conducted a parallel controlled study, from July 2016 through January 2018 at 14 centers in Spain of adults with pathogenic germline variants in mismatch repair genes (60% women; mean age, 47 ± 14 years) under surveillance. Patients were randomly assigned to groups that underwent high-definition white-light endoscopy (n = 128) or pancolonic chromoendoscopy (n = 128) evaluations by 24 colonoscopists who specialized in detection of colorectal lesions in high-risk patients for colorectal cancer. Adenoma detection rates (defined as the proportion of patients with at least 1 adenoma) were compared between groups, with a noninferiority margin (relative difference) of 15%.

Results: We found an important overlap of confidence intervals (CIs) and no significant difference in adenoma detection rates by pancolonic chromoendoscopy (34.4%; 95% CI 26.4%-43.3%) vs white-light endoscopy (28.1%; 95% CI 21.1%-36.4%; P = .28). However, pancolonic chromoendoscopy detected serrated lesions in a significantly higher proportion of patients (37.5%; 95% CI 29.5-46.1) than white-light endoscopy (23.4%; 95% CI 16.9-31.4; P = .01). However, there were no significant differences between groups in proportions of patients found to have serrated lesions of 5 mm or larger (9.4% vs 7.0%; P = .49), of proximal location (11.7% vs 10.2%; P = .68), or sessile serrated lesions (3.9% vs 5.5%; P = .55), respectively. Total procedure and withdrawal times with pancolonic chromoendoscopy (30.7 ± 12.8 minutes and 18.3 ± 7.6 minutes, respectively) were significantly longer than with white-light endoscopy (22.4 ± 8.7 minutes and 13.5 ± 5.6 minutes; P < .001).

Conclusions: In a randomized parallel trial, we found that for Lynch syndrome surveillance, high-definition white-light endoscopy is not inferior to pancolonic chromoendoscopy if performed by experienced and dedicated endoscopists. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT02951390.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2019.09.003DOI Listing
March 2020

Endocuff-assisted colonoscopy for surveillance of serrated polyposis syndrome: a multicenter randomized controlled trial.

Endoscopy 2019 07 7;51(7):637-645. Epub 2019 Jun 7.

Hospital Clinic de Barcelona, Department of Gastroenterology, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Center for Biomedical Research in the Hepatic and Digestive Diseases Network (CIBERehd), Barcelona, Spain.

Background And Study Aims: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is a condition with high risk for colorectal cancer. The Endocuff device has been shown to increase adenoma detection in the general and screening population. We aimed to ascertain whether Endocuff-assisted colonoscopy increases detection of serrated lesions in comparison with standard colonoscopy during the surveillance of patients with SPS.  METHODS:  In a multicenter randomized controlled study, patients who met SPS criteria I and/or III under surveillance (previous resection of all serrated lesions ≥ 4 mm) were consecutively randomly allocated 1:1 to Endocuff-assisted colonoscopy or standard colonoscopy, performed by expert endoscopists. The main outcome was the mean number of serrated lesions detected per patient.

Results: 122 patients (standard colonoscopy n = 60; Endocuff-assisted colonoscopy n = 62; 59 % men; mean age 60.6 (standard deviation [SD] 7.5) were included at 4 centers. Baseline variables (demographic data, SPS phenotype, colorectal cancer [CRC] history, cumulative polyps, and follow-up), cecal intubation rate, and withdrawal time were similar between groups. There was no statistically significant difference between Endocuff-assisted colonoscopy and standard colonoscopy for the mean number of serrated lesions detected per patient: 5.8 (95 % confidence interval [95 %CI] 4.4 - 7.2) and 5.0 (3.9 - 6.1), respectively ( = 0.36). There were also no differences between Endocuff-assisted and standard colonoscopy for detection of sessile serrated lesions (mean number per patient 2.5 [1.3 - 3.6] vs. 2.0 [1.1 - 3.0],  = 0.54) and adenomas (0.9 [0.5 - 1.3] vs. 0.5 [0.3 - 0.7],  = 0.12).

Conclusion: Use of Endocuff-assisted colonoscopy did not significantly increase the number of serrated lesion detected per patient during surveillance of SPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0925-4956DOI Listing
July 2019

Personalised surveillance for serrated polyposis syndrome: results from a prospective 5-year international cohort study.

Gut 2020 01 13;69(1):112-121. Epub 2019 Apr 13.

Gastroenterology, Cancer Center Amsterdam, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background And Aims: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). International guidelines recommend surveillance intervals of 1-2 years. However, yearly surveillance likely leads to overtreatment for many. We prospectively assessed a surveillance protocol aiming to safely reduce the burden of colonoscopies.

Methods: Between 2013 and 2018, we enrolled SPS patients from nine Dutch and Spanish hospitals. Patients were surveilled using a protocol appointing either a 1-year or 2-year interval after each surveillance colonoscopy, based on polyp burden. Primary endpoint was the 5-year cumulative incidence of CRC and advanced neoplasia (AN) during surveillance.

Results: We followed 271 SPS patients for a median of 3.6 years. During surveillance, two patients developed CRC (cumulative 5-year incidence 1.3%[95% CI 0% to 3.2%]). The 5-year AN incidence was 44% (95% CI 37% to 52%), and was lower for patients with SPS type III (26%) than for patients diagnosed with type I (53%) or type I and III (59%, p<0.001). Most patients were recommended a 2-year interval, and those recommended a 2-year interval were not at increased risk of AN: AN incidence after a 2-year recommendation was 15.6% compared with 24.4% after a 1-year recommendation (OR 0.57, p=0.08).

Conclusion: Risk stratification substantially reduced colonoscopy burden while achieving CRC incidence similar to previous studies. AN incidence is considerable in SPS patients, but extension of surveillance intervals was not associated with increased AN in those identified as low-risk by the protocol. We identified SPS type III patients as low-risk group that might benefit from even less frequent surveillance.

Trial Registration Number: The study was registered on http://www.trialregister.nl; trial-ID NTR4609.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2018-318134DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6943249PMC
January 2020

Clinical practice guideline. Diagnosis and prevention of colorectal cancer. 2018 Update.

Gastroenterol Hepatol 2018 Nov 20;41(9):585-596. Epub 2018 Sep 20.

Servicio de Aparato Digestivo, Complexo Hospitalario Universitario de Ourense, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Galicia Sur, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Ourense, España.

This document updates the recommendations made by the Spanish Society of Family and Community Medicine and the Spanish Association of Gastroenterology for the diagnosis and prevention of colorectal cancer (CRC). In order to evaluate the quality of the evidence and determine the recommendation levels of the interventions, we used the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) methodology. This document establishes optimal delay intervals based on symptoms and the faecal immunochemical test (FIT) and recommends reducing the barriers for diagnostic confirmation in symptomatic subjects. With regard to CRC screening in the average-risk population, we propose strategies to achieve the universal implementation of organised CRC screening programmes based on biennial FIT and to increase the participation of the target population, including the involvement of Primary Healthcare. This Clinical Practice Guideline recommends universal screening for Lynch syndrome with mismatch repair proteins immunohistochemistry or microsatellite instability in incident CRCs and the use of gene panels in patients with adenomatous polyposis. It also updates the strategies to reduce the incidence and mortality of both CRC and other tumours associated with hereditary syndromes. Regarding non-hereditary familial CRC and surveillance after resection of adenomas, serrated lesions or CRC, we established the recommendations based on the attributable risk and the risk reduction of the proposed intervention. Finally, the document includes recommendations regarding surveillance intervals in inflammatory bowel disease and the attitude towards dysplasia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gastrohep.2018.07.012DOI Listing
November 2018

Colorectal cancer after negative colonoscopy in fecal immunochemical test-positive participants from a colorectal cancer screening program.

Endosc Int Open 2018 Sep 11;6(9):E1140-E1148. Epub 2018 Sep 11.

Gastroenterology Department, Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Universitat de Barcelona, Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.

 Colorectal cancer (CRC) risk after a positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) and negative colonoscopy is unknown. We aimed to ascertain the cumulative incidence of post-colonoscopy colorectal cancer (PCCRC) and the manifestation of other lesions that could explain the test positivity in individuals with a negative colonoscopy in a population screening program.  Observational study in participants from the first round of a CRC screening program (2010 - 2012) with positive-FIT (≥ 20 μg/g of feces) and negative colonoscopy (without neoplasia). A 42- to 76-month follow-up was performed searching in the National Health Service database and by a brief structured telephonic interview.  Of 2659 FIT-positive individuals who underwent colonoscopy, 811 (30.5 %) had a negative colonoscopy. Three PCCRC (0.4 %) were detected within 11 - 28 months and accelerated carcinogenesis was ruled out. Among those with normal colonoscopy, 32 (5 %) relevant lesions were detected at follow-up. One-third of them (11/32) were significant neoplasias: a gastric cancer, a small-bowel lymphoma, six advanced colorectal adenomas, and the three PCCRC. The 21 remaining lesions were inflammatory, vascular disorders, or non-advanced colorectal adenomas.  The vast majority (95 %) of individuals did not present any subsequent lesion that could explain the FIT positivity. The very low incidence (0.4 %) and characteristics of PCCRC observed in our cohort reinforce the concept that, although a positive FIT preselects high risk individuals, a high quality colonoscopy is the paramount factor in preventing PCCRC. Improving quality standards of colonoscopy are required to strengthen the current CRC screening strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0650-4296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6133669PMC
September 2018

High incidence of advanced colorectal neoplasia during endoscopic surveillance in serrated polyposis syndrome.

Endoscopy 2019 02 1;51(2):142-151. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Gastroenterology Department, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Accordingly, intensive surveillance with annual colonoscopy is advised. The aim of this multicenter study was to describe the risk of advanced lesions in SPS patients undergoing surveillance, and to identify risk factors that could guide the prevention strategy.

Methods: From March 2013 to April 2015, 296 patients who fulfilled criteria I and/or III for SPS were retrospectively recruited at 18 centers. We selected patients in whom successful clearing colonoscopy had been performed and who underwent subsequent endoscopic surveillance. Advanced neoplasia was defined as CRC, advanced adenoma, or advanced serrated lesion that were ≥ 10 mm and/or with dysplasia. Cumulative incidence of advanced neoplasia was calculated and independent predictors of advanced neoplasia development were identified.

Results: In 152 SPS patients a total of 315 surveillance colonoscopies were performed (median 2, range 1 - 7). The 3-year cumulative incidence of CRC and advanced neoplasia were 3.1 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 0 - 6.9) and 42.0 % (95 %CI 32.4 - 51.7), respectively. Fulfilling both I + III criteria and the presence of advanced serrated lesions at baseline colonoscopy were independent predictors of advanced neoplasia development (odds ratio [OR] 1.85, 95 %CI 1.03 - 3.33,  = 0.04 and OR 2.62, 95 %CI 1.18 - 5.81,  = 0.02, respectively). During follow-up, nine patients (5.9 %) were referred for surgery for invasive CRC (n = 4, 2.6 %) or because of polyp burden (n = 5, 3.3 %). After total colectomy, 17.9 % patients developed advanced neoplasia in the retained rectum.

Conclusions: Patients with SPS have a substantial risk of developing advanced neoplasia under endoscopic surveillance, whereas CRC incidence is low. Personalized endoscopic surveillance based on polyp burden and advanced serrated histology could help to optimize prevention in patients with SPS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-0656-5557DOI Listing
February 2019

POLE and POLD1 screening in 155 patients with multiple polyps and early-onset colorectal cancer.

Oncotarget 2017 Apr;8(16):26732-26743

Gastroenterology Department, Hospital Clínic, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Germline mutations in POLE and POLD1 have been shown to cause predisposition to colorectal multiple polyposis and a wide range of neoplasms, early-onset colorectal cancer being the most prevalent. In order to find additional mutations affecting the proofreading activity of these polymerases, we sequenced its exonuclease domain in 155 patients with multiple polyps or an early-onset colorectal cancer phenotype without alterations in the known hereditary colorectal cancer genes. Interestingly, none of the previously reported mutations in POLE and POLD1 were found. On the other hand, among the genetic variants detected, only two of them stood out as putative pathogenic in the POLE gene, c.1359 + 46del71 and c.1420G > A (p.Val474Ile). The first variant, detected in two families, was not proven to alter correct RNA splicing. Contrarily, c.1420G > A (p.Val474Ile) was detected in one early-onset colorectal cancer patient and located right next to the exonuclease domain. The pathogenicity of this change was suggested by its rarity and bioinformatics predictions, and it was further indicated by functional assays in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This is the first study to functionally analyze a POLE genetic variant outside the exonuclease domain and widens the spectrum of genetic changes in this DNA polymerase that could lead to colorectal cancer predisposition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.15810DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5432293PMC
April 2017

Novel findings in colorectal polyp surveillance.

Authors:
Sabela Carballal

Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 Sep;39 Suppl 1:79-86

Servicio de Gastroenterología, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, España. Electronic address:

Colorectal adenomas and serrated polyps are the best characterised premalignant lesions involved in the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, the identification and removal of these lesions, as well as post-polypectomy surveillance of affected patients, are key goals in the field of CRC prevention. Current post-polypectomy surveillance strategies differ among the various scientific societies and have several limitations that hamper their application in clinical practice. First, current surveillance intervals are based only on polyp characteristics, excluding other potential clinical conditions, such as diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Second, serrated polyps and adenomas are considered separately, but there is no recommendation in cases of the simultaneous occurrence of both types of lesion. Third, the incorporation of endoscopic technologies implies an increase in polyp detection, whose clinical impact is controversial and directly affects the number of scheduled colonoscopies with an indication of surveillance. Some of the studies presented at the AGA (American Gastroenterological Association) meeting aimed to provide new evidence on the follow-up of colorectal polyps, with a view to optimising the applicability and suitability of current surveillance strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0210-5705(16)30178-9DOI Listing
September 2016

Reassessment colonoscopy to diagnose serrated polyposis syndrome in a colorectal cancer screening population.

Endoscopy 2017 Jan 14;49(1):44-53. Epub 2016 Oct 14.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona; and Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

 Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is a high risk condition for colorectal cancer (CRC). Surveillance strategies for patients with serrated lesions remain controversial. We aimed to evaluate a diagnostic strategy to detect SPS consistently during reassessment colonoscopy in patients with proximal serrated lesions.  This was a retrospective study of all individuals from a fecal immunochemical test (FIT)-based CRC screening program (2010 - 2013) with one or more serrated lesions of ≥ 5 mm proximal to the sigmoid colon on baseline colonoscopy. We analyzed all individuals empirically scheduled for a reassessment colonoscopy aimed at diagnosing SPS within 1 year. Reassessment colonoscopy was performed with standard white-light or chromoendoscopy ± high definition endoscopy depending on availability. SPS diagnosis was based on the cumulative number of polyps in both the baseline and reassessment colonoscopies. Factors associated with SPS diagnosis were analyzed. From 3444 screening colonoscopies, 196 patients met the study entry criteria, of whom 11 patients (0.32 %) met the criteria for SPS on baseline colonoscopy. Reassessment colonoscopies were performed in 71 patients at 11.9 ± 1.7 months and detected 20 additional patients with SPS, a tripling of the rate of SPS up to 0.90 %. Independent factors associated with SPS diagnosis were: having five or more proximal serrated lesions (odds ratio [OR] 4.01 [95 % confidence interval 1.20 - 13.45]; 0.02) or two or more sessile serrated polyps ≥ 10 mm (OR 6.35 [1.40 - 28.81]; 0.02) on baseline colonoscopy and the use of chromoendoscopy ± high definition endoscopy during reassessment colonoscopy (OR 4.99 [1.11 - 22.36]; 0.04). A 1-year reassessment colonoscopy using chromoendoscopy and high definition endoscopes substantially improves SPS detection in individuals from a FIT-based screening program with proximal serrated lesions. Five or more proximal serrated lesions or two or more sessile serrated polyps ≥ 10 mm could be thresholds for requiring a reassessment colonoscopy. Prospective studies are required to validate these results and adjust surveillance recommendations in patients with serrated lesions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-115640DOI Listing
January 2017

Real-life chromoendoscopy for neoplasia detection and characterisation in long-standing IBD.

Gut 2018 01 9;67(1):70-78. Epub 2016 Sep 9.

Gastroenterology Department, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: Outside clinical trials, the effectiveness of chromoendoscopy (CE) for long-standing IBD surveillance is controversial. We aimed to assess the effectiveness of CE for neoplasia detection and characterisation, in real-life.

Design: From June 2012 to 2014, patients with IBD were prospectively included in a multicentre cohort study. Each colonic segment was evaluated with white light followed by 0.4% indigo carmine CE. Specific lesions' features were recorded. Optical diagnosis was assessed. Dysplasia detection rate between expert and non-expert endoscopists and learning curve were ascertained.

Results: Ninety-four (15.7%) dysplastic (1 cancer, 5 high-grade dysplasia, 88 low-grade dysplasia) and 503 (84.3%) non-dysplastic lesions were detected in 350 patients (47% female; mean disease duration: 17 years). Colonoscopies were performed with standard definition (41.5%) or high definition (58.5%). Dysplasia miss rate with white light was 40/94 (57.4% incremental yield for CE). CE-incremental detection yield for dysplasia was comparable between standard definition and high definition (51.5% vs 52.3%, p=0.30). Dysplasia detection rate was comparable between expert and non-expert (18.5% vs 13.1%, p=0.20). No significant learning curve was observed (8.2% vs 14.2%, p=0.46). Sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for dysplasia optical diagnosis were 70%, 90%, 58% and 94%, respectively. Endoscopic characteristics predictive of dysplasia were: proximal location, loss of innominate lines, polypoid morphology and Kudo pit pattern III-V.

Conclusions: CE presents a high diagnostic yield for neoplasia detection, irrespectively of the technology and experience available in any centre. In vivo, CE optical diagnosis is highly accurate for ruling out dysplasia, especially in expert hands. Lesion characteristics can aid the endoscopist for in situ therapeutic decisions.

Trial Registration Number: NCT02543762.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2016-312332DOI Listing
January 2018

The Fanconi anemia DNA damage repair pathway in the spotlight for germline predisposition to colorectal cancer.

Eur J Hum Genet 2016 10 11;24(10):1501-5. Epub 2016 May 11.

Gastroenterology Department, Hospital Clínic, Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common neoplasms in the world. Fanconi anemia (FA) is a very rare genetic disease causing bone marrow failure, congenital growth abnormalities and cancer predisposition. The comprehensive FA DNA damage repair pathway requires the collaboration of 53 proteins and it is necessary to restore genome integrity by efficiently repairing damaged DNA. A link between FA genes in breast and ovarian cancer germline predisposition has been previously suggested. We selected 74 CRC patients from 40 unrelated Spanish families with strong CRC aggregation compatible with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance and without mutations in known hereditary CRC genes and performed germline DNA whole-exome sequencing with the aim of finding new candidate germline predisposition variants. After sequencing and data analysis, variant prioritization selected only those very rare alterations, producing a putative loss of function and located in genes with a role compatible with cancer. We detected an enrichment for variants in FA DNA damage repair pathway genes in our familial CRC cohort as 6 families carried heterozygous, rare, potentially pathogenic variants located in BRCA2/FANCD1, BRIP1/FANCJ, FANCC, FANCE and REV3L/POLZ. In conclusion, the FA DNA damage repair pathway may play an important role in the inherited predisposition to CRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ejhg.2016.44DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5027689PMC
October 2016

[Hereditary gastric and pancreatic cancer predisposition syndromes].

Gastroenterol Hepatol 2016 Aug-Sep;39(7):481-93. Epub 2016 Feb 23.

Servicio de Gastroenterología, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, España. Electronic address:

The most common hereditary gastrointestinal cancers are colorectal, mainly hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome) and familial adenomatous polyposis. Other extracolonic neoplasms, including the gastric and pancreatic adenocarcinomas, are less well known and studied because they account for a relatively small percentage of hereditary gastrointestinal cancers. Nonetheless, they merit special attention because of the high associated morbidity and mortality rates. We review the hereditary and familial syndromes associated with gastric and pancreatic cancers with a view to improving knowledge and understanding of these diseases, in order to heighten diagnostic suspicion and thus implement appropriate diagnostic strategies, screening, surveillance and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gastrohep.2015.11.009DOI Listing
December 2017

Colorectal cancer risk factors in patients with serrated polyposis syndrome: a large multicentre study.

Gut 2016 11 11;65(11):1829-1837. Epub 2015 Aug 11.

Gastroenterology Department, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Objective: Serrated polyposis syndrome (SPS) is associated with an increased colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, although the magnitude of the risk remains uncertain. Whereas intensive endoscopic surveillance for CRC prevention is advised, predictors that identify patients who have high CRC risk remain unknown. We performed a multicentre nationwide study aimed at describing the CRC risk in patients with SPS and identifying clinicopathological predictors independently associated with CRC.

Design: From March 2013 through September 2014, patients with SPS were retrospectively recruited at 18 Spanish centres. Data were collected from medical, endoscopy and histopathology reports. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify CRC risk factors.

Results: In 296 patients with SPS with a median follow-up time of 45 months (IQR 26-79.7), a median of 26 (IQR 18.2-40.7) serrated polyps and 3 (IQR 1-6) adenomas per patient were detected. Forty-seven patients (15.8%) developed CRC at a mean age of 53.9±12.8, and 4 out of 47 (8.5%) tumours were detected during surveillance (cumulative CRC incidence 1.9%). Patients with >2 sessile serrated adenomas/polyps (SSA/Ps) proximal to splenic flexure and ≥1 proximal SSA/P with high-grade dysplasia were independent CRC risk factors (incremental OR=2, 95% CI 1.22 to 3.24, p=0.006). Patients with no risk factors showed a 55% decrease in CRC risk (OR=0.45, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.86, p=0.01).

Conclusions: Patients with SPS have an increased risk of CRC, although lower than previously published. Close colonoscopy surveillance in experienced centres show a low risk of developing CRC (1.9% in 5 years). Specific polyp features (SSA/P histology, proximal location and presence of high-grade dysplasia) should be used to guide clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/gutjnl-2015-309647DOI Listing
November 2016

The genetic basis of familial adenomatous polyposis and its implications for clinical practice and risk management.

Appl Clin Genet 2015 16;8:95-107. Epub 2015 Apr 16.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Clínic, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBERehd), Institut d'Investigacions Biomèdiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is an inherited disorder that represents the most common gastrointestinal polyposis syndrome. Germline mutations in the APC gene were initially identified as responsible for FAP, and later, several studies have also implicated the MUTYH gene as responsible for this disease, usually referred to as MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). FAP and MAP are characterized by the early onset of multiple adenomatous colorectal polyps, a high lifetime risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), and in some patients the development of extracolonic manifestations. The goal of colorectal management in these patients is to prevent CRC mortality through endoscopic and surgical approaches. Individuals with FAP and their relatives should receive appropriate genetic counseling and join surveillance programs when indicated. This review is focused on the description of the main clinical and genetic aspects of FAP associated with germline APC mutations and MAP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TACG.S51484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4404874PMC
May 2015

Pitfalls in the diagnosis of biallelic PMS2 mutations.

Fam Cancer 2015 Sep;14(3):411-4

Oncology Section, Hospital of Gastroenterology "Dr. C. B. Udaondo", Buenos Aires, Argentina,

Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency (CMMR-D) syndrome is an inherited childhood cancer syndrome due to bi-allelic mutations in one of the four DNA mismatch repair genes involved in Lynch syndrome. The tumor spectrum of this syndrome includes hematological, brain and Lynch syndrome associated malignancies, with an increased risk of synchronous and metachronous cancers, and signs of Neurofibromatosis type-1 syndrome such as café-au-lait macules during the first three decades of life. Here, we report the first Argentinian patient with CMMR-D syndrome, focusing on her history of cancer and gastrointestinal manifestations, and the challenging molecular algorithm to finally reach her diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10689-015-9793-0DOI Listing
September 2015

Prevalence of somatic mutl homolog 1 promoter hypermethylation in Lynch syndrome colorectal cancer.

Cancer 2015 May 29;121(9):1395-404. Epub 2014 Dec 29.

Department of Gastroenterology, Barcelona Hospital Clinic, Networked Biomedical Research Center on Hepatic and Digestive Diseases (CIBERehd), August Pi i Sunyer Biomedical Research Institute (IDIBAPS), University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Background: Colorectal cancers (CRCs) that have microsatellite instability (MSI) and mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) immunoloss are observed in 3 clinical scenarios: Lynch syndrome (LS), sporadic MSI CRC, and Lynch-like syndrome (LLS). v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) mutational analysis is used to differentiate LS from sporadic MSI CRC. The role of MLH1 promoter methylation status for the differential diagnosis of these clinical forms is not well established. The objectives of this study were: 1) to analyze MLH1 promoter methylation in MLH1-deficient CRCs by pyrosequencing, and 2) to assess its role in the differential diagnosis of MLH1-deficient CRCs.

Methods: In total, 165 CRCs were analyzed, including LS (n = 19), MSI BRAF-mutated CRC (n = 37), MSI BRAF wild-type CRC (n = 60), and a control group of CRCs without MSI (microsatellite stable [MSS] CRC; n = 49). MLH1 promoter methylation status was analyzed by pyrosequencing, and the ability of different strategies to identify LS was assessed.

Results: The average ± standard deviation methylation in LS (9% ± 7%) was significantly lower than that in MSI BRAF-mutated CRC (42% ± 17%; P < .001) and in MSI BRAF wild-type CRC (25% ± 19%; P = .002). Somatic MLH1 hypermethylation was detected in 3 patients (15.8%) with LS, in 34 patients (91.9%) with MSI BRAF-mutated CRC, and in 37 patients (61.7%) with MSI BRAF wild-type tumors. Patients with MSI BRAF wild-type, unmethylated tumors (ie, LLS) had a stronger family history of CRC than those who had tumors with MLH1 methylation (P < .05). The sensitivity for ruling out LS was 100% for BRAF analysis, 84.2% for MLH1 methylation analysis, and 84.2% for the combination of both analyses.

Conclusions: Somatic MLH1 promoter methylation occurs in up to 15% of LS CRCs. Somatic BRAF analysis is the most sensitive strategy for ruling out LS. Patients who have CRCs with loss of MLH1 protein expression and neither BRAF mutation nor MLH1 methylation resemble patients with LS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cncr.29190DOI Listing
May 2015

LINE-1 hypomethylation is neither present in rectal aberrant crypt foci nor associated with field defect in sporadic colorectal neoplasia.

Clin Epigenetics 2014 10;6(1):24. Epub 2014 Nov 10.

Department of Gastroenterology, Hospital Clínic, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red en Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEREHD), IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.

Background: Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) are considered the first identifiable preneoplastic lesion in colorectal cancer (CRC), and have been proposed as a potential biomarker for CRC risk. Global DNA hypomethylation is an early event in colorectal carcinogenesis, and long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) methylation status is a well-known surrogate marker for genome-wide DNA methylation levels. Despite the gradual increase in DNA hypomethylation in the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, LINE-1 methylation in ACF has never been studied. Moreover, recent studies have reported a field defect for LINE-1 hypomethylation, suggesting that LINE-1 methylation status in normal mucosa could be used to stratify CRC risk and tailor preventive strategies. Thus, we assessed LINE-1 status by pyrosequencing in rectal ACF and paired normal colorectal mucosa from individuals with sporadic colon cancer (CC) (n = 35) or adenoma (n = 42), and from healthy controls (n = 70).

Findings: Compared with normal mucosa, LINE-1 in ACF were hypermethylated across all groups (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, LINE-1 methylation status in normal colorectal mucosa was independent of the presence of adenoma or CC (P = 0.1072), and did not differ depending on the distance to the adenoma or CC. Interestingly, when we compared the LINE-1 methylation status in normal mucosa from different segments of the colorectum, we found higher hypomethylation in the rectum compared with the descending colon (P < 0.0001).

Conclusions: Overall, our results suggest that global hypomethylation is not present in rectal ACF and argues against the existence of LINE-1 methylation field defect in sporadic colon cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1868-7083-6-24DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4391726PMC
April 2015

[Serrated polyps and serrated polyposis syndrome].

Cir Esp 2013 Mar 13;91(3):141-8. Epub 2013 Feb 13.

Servicio de Gastroenterología, Hospital Clínic, Barcelona, España.

Serrated polyps of the colorectum are a heterogeneous group of lesions with potential malignant transformation through the «serrated pathway» of carcinogenesis. The discovery of these lesions has been a paradigm shift in the concept of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, so that up to 30% of tumors develop through this pathway. The main factors associated with an increased risk of malignancy in serrated polyps are size≥10mm, multiplicity, sessile serrated adenoma histology, presence of associated dysplasia and proximal location. Current evidence indicates that these lesions should be resected completely, and the patient requires an endoscopic surveillance program. Serrated polyposis syndrome is a clinicopathological entity characterized by multiple and/or large serrated polyps with an increased risk of developing colorectal cancer. These patients and their families, require multidisciplinary assessment in specialized high risk colorectal cancer units.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ciresp.2012.12.001DOI Listing
March 2013