Publications by authors named "Saba Saleem"

5 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

A Revolution toward Gene-Editing Technology and Its Application to Crop Improvement.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Aug 7;21(16). Epub 2020 Aug 7.

Graduate School of Biotechnology & Crop Biotech Institute, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 17104, Korea.

Genome editing is a relevant, versatile, and preferred tool for crop improvement, as well as for functional genomics. In this review, we summarize the advances in gene-editing techniques, such as zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like (TAL) effector nucleases (TALENs), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) associated with the Cas9 and Cpf1 proteins. These tools support great opportunities for the future development of plant science and rapid remodeling of crops. Furthermore, we discuss the brief history of each tool and provide their comparison and different applications. Among the various genome-editing tools, CRISPR has become the most popular; hence, it is discussed in the greatest detail. CRISPR has helped clarify the genomic structure and its role in plants: For example, the transcriptional control of Cas9 and Cpf1, genetic locus monitoring, the mechanism and control of promoter activity, and the alteration and detection of epigenetic behavior between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) investigated based on genetic traits and related genome-wide studies. The present review describes how CRISPR/Cas9 systems can play a valuable role in the characterization of the genomic rearrangement and plant gene functions, as well as the improvement of the important traits of field crops with the greatest precision. In addition, the speed editing strategy of gene-family members was introduced to accelerate the applications of gene-editing systems to crop improvement. For this, the CRISPR technology has a valuable advantage that particularly holds the scientist's mind, as it allows genome editing in multiple biological systems.
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August 2020

Efficacy of Prednisolone in bronchiolitis with and without family history of atopy.

J Pak Med Assoc 2019 Oct;69(10):1448-1452

Allama Iqbal Memorial Teaching hospital, Sialkot.

Objective: To determine decrease in respiratory distress and hospital stay in bronchiolitis patients with and without family history of atopy when treated with prednisolone.

Methods: The multi-centre quasi-experimental study was conducted in three hospitals of Sialkot, Pakistan, from October 2017 to March 2018, and comprised patients of bronchiolitis who were divided into 2 groups on the basis of presence or absence of family history of atopy. Half of the patients in each group received oral prednisolone 2mg/kg/day for three consecutive days along with supportive care, and the remaining half received only supportive care. Patients were monitored at 12 and 24 hours for clinical response using Modified Respiratory distress Assessment Instrument score. Length of hospital stay was monitored upto 72 hours. SPSS 20 was used for data analysis.

Results: Of the 212 patients, 72(34%) were in the atopic group and 140(66%) in the non-atopic group. In atopic group, there was a significant respiratory distress difference observed between steroid and non-steroid subgroups at 24 hours (p=0.001) and all (100%) patients in the steroid subgroup got discharged at 24 hours, while only 8(22%) were discharged in the non-steroid subgroup. In non-atopic group, no significant improvement in corresponding terms was observed (p>0.05).

Conclusions: Oral prednisolone in bronchiolitis was found to be only effective in patients with family history of atopy.
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October 2019

Both Ultrasound Features and Nuclear Atypia are Associated with Malignancy in Thyroid Nodules with Atypia of Undetermined Significance.

Ann Surg Oncol 2018 Dec 9;25(13):3913-3918. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Department of Surgery, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA.

Background: The optimal management of thyroid nodules that undergo fine-needle aspiration (FNA) with findings of atypia of undetermined significance (AUS) is unclear. Categorizing nodules by AUS subtype and ultrasound characteristics may improve risk stratification. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the association between AUS subtype and ultrasound features on risk of malignancy (ROM).

Methods: We performed a review of all patients with a thyroid nodule who underwent an FNA at our institution between January 2010 and November 2015. Patients with AUS were divided into groups with (1) nuclear atypia, (2) architectural atypia, or (3) Hurthle cell atypia. Their ultrasound features were assessed using the American Thyroid Association (ATA) thyroid nodule sonographic patterns. We conducted a univariate and multivariable analysis to determine the association between AUS subtype and other variables of interest with ROM.

Results: Of the 3428 thyroid nodules that underwent FNA, 237 (6.9%) had AUS. Of the 97 surgically resected nodules, 67 (69%) were benign and 30 (31%) were malignant. On univariate analysis nuclear atypia (p < 0.01) was associated with a thyroid malignancy. On multivariable analysis, both ATA high-risk ultrasound features (p = 0.04, odds ratio [OR] 3.68) and nuclear atypia (p < 0.01, OR 11.8) were independently associated with a final diagnosis of thyroid carcinoma.

Conclusions: Nuclear atypia and ATA high-risk ultrasound features are useful in identifying patients with AUS that are at a higher risk of thyroid malignancy. Surgeons should take these factors into consideration when evaluating patients with AUS.
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December 2018

Role of ACE and PAI-1 Polymorphisms in the Development and Progression of Diabetic Retinopathy.

PLoS One 2015 14;10(12):e0144557. Epub 2015 Dec 14.

Department of Biosciences, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad, Pakistan.

In the present study we determined the association of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene polymorphisms with diabetic retinopathy (DR) and its sub-clinical classes in Pakistani type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 353 diabetic subjects including 160 DR and 193 diabetic non retinopathy (DNR) as well as 198 healthy controls were genotyped by allele specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for ACE Insertion/Deletion (ID) polymorphism, rs4646994 in intron 16 and PAI-1 4G/5G (deletion/insertion) polymorphism, rs1799768 in promoter region of the gene. To statistically assess the genotype-phenotype association, multivariate logistic regression analysis was applied to the genotype data of DR, DNR and control individuals as well as the subtypes of DR. The ACE genotype ID was found to be significantly associated with DR (p = 0.009, odds ratio (OR) 1.870 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.04-3.36]) and its sub-clinical class non-proliferative DR (NPDR) (p = 0.006, OR 2.250 [95% CI = 1.098-4.620]), while PAI polymorphism did not show any association with DR in the current cohort. In conclusion in Pakistani population the ACE ID polymorphism was observed to be significantly associated with DR and NPDR, but not with the severe form of the disease i.e. proliferative DR (PDR).
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June 2016

Diagnostic predicament of secondary adrenal insufficiency.

Endocr Pract 2010 Jul-Aug;16(4):686-91

Section of Endocrinology, Marshall University School of Medicine, Huntington, West Virginia 25701, USA.

Objective: To propose an approach for the diagnosis of secondary adrenal insufficiency (AI) by presentation of 2 clinical cases and review of the literature.

Methods: We describe 2 patients who were considered to have a normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis on the basis of an appropriate response to the high-dose (250 microg) cosyntropin stimulation test (HST), with use of a cutoff value of 20 microg/dL. Our first patient had undergone resection of a 4-cm pituitary tumor a few months previously, and the second patient had hyponatremia with empty sella syndrome. Both patients, however, had strong clinical evidence suggestive of secondary AI. On testing by the insulin tolerance test (ITT) in the first patient and the overnight metyrapone test (OMT) in the second patient, secondary AI was diagnosed. We reviewed the literature to compare the utility of the different tests for the diagnosis of secondary AI.

Results: An 8 AM serum cortisol value less than 5 microg/dL or above 13 microg/dL and a stimulated cortisol level less than 16 microg/dL on both the low-dose cosyntropin stimulation test (LST) and the HST as well as above 22 microg/dL on the LST and above 30 microg/dL on the HST can reliably predict the functional status of the hypothalamic-pituitaryadrenal axis in chronic secondary AI. Values between these cutoff points may necessitate further assessment with the OMT or ITT based on clinical suspicion.

Conclusion: We recommend a 3-step diagnostic approach, with the first 2 steps performed together-starting with the 8 AM basal cortisol determination in conjunction with either the LST (preferably) or the HST. In cases of an indeterminate response coupled with a strong clinical suspicion, the final step should be definitive testing with the OMT or ITT.
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December 2010