Publications by authors named "S Yogeshkumar"

3 Publications

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Preventable stillbirths in India and Pakistan: a prospective, observational study.

BJOG 2021 Jun 26. Epub 2021 Jun 26.

RTI International, Durham, NC, USA.

Objective: Stillbirths occur 10-20 times more frequently in low-income settings compared with high-income settings. We created a methodology to define the proportion of stillbirths that are potentially preventable in low-income settings and applied it to stillbirths in sites in India and Pakistan.

Design: Prospective observational study.

Setting: Three maternity hospitals in Davangere, India and a large public hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.

Population: All cases of stillbirth at ≥20 weeks of gestation occurring from July 2018 to February 2020 were screened for participation; 872 stillbirths were included in this analysis.

Methods: We prospectively defined the conditions and gestational ages that defined the stillbirth cases considered potentially preventable. Informed consent was sought from the parent(s) once the stillbirth was identified, either before or soon after delivery. All information available, including obstetric and medical history, clinical course, fetal heart sounds on admission, the presence of maceration as well as examination of the stillbirth after delivery, histology, and polymerase chain reaction for infectious pathogens of the placenta and various fetal tissues, was used to assess whether a stillbirth was potentially preventable.

Main Outcome Measures: Whether a stillbirth was determined to be potentially preventable and the criteria for assignment to those categories.

Results: Of 984 enrolled, 872 stillbirths at ≥20 weeks of gestation met the inclusion criteria and were included; of these, 55.5% were deemed to be potentially preventable. Of the 649 stillbirths at ≥28 weeks of gestation and ≥1000 g birthweight, 73.5% were considered potentially preventable. The most common conditions associated with a potentially preventable stillbirth at ≥28 weeks of gestation and ≥1000 g birthweight were small for gestational age (SGA) (52.8%), maternal hypertension (50.2%), antepartum haemorrhage (31.4%) and death that occurred after hospital admission (15.7%).

Conclusions: Most stillbirths in these sites were deemed preventable and were often associated with maternal hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage, SGA and intrapartum demise.

Tweetable Abstract: Most stillbirths are preventable by better care for women with hypertension, growth restriction and antepartum haemorrhage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.16820DOI Listing
June 2021

Maternal and Fetal Vascular Lesions of Malperfusion in the Placentas Associated with Fetal and Neonatal Death: Results of a Prospective Observational Study.

Am J Obstet Gynecol 2021 Jun 7. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Columbia University, New York NY USA.

Background: Fetal death, one of the major adverse pregnancy outcomes, is especially common in low and middle-income countries. Placental lesions may play an important role in the etiology of fetal and possibly neonatal death. Prior research relating placental lesions to fetal death causation was often hindered by the lack of agreement on a placental classification scheme. The Amsterdam Consensus statement, published in 2016, focused attention on malperfusions in the maternal and fetal placental circulations.

Objectives: Our purpose was to investigate the relationships of placental maternal vascular (MVM) and fetal vascular malperfusion (FVM) to fetal and neonatal death with a focus on the most important maternal clinical conditions in the pathway to fetal and neonatal death; maternal hypertension, antepartum haemorrhage and decreased fetal growth.

Study Design: This was a prospective, observational cohort study conducted at two Asian sites. Data collected included clinical history, gross and histologic evaluation of the placenta, and a number of other investigations to determine cause of death. The placenta was evaluated at both sites using the Amsterdam Consensus framework. We estimated the risk of placental MVM and FVM among fetal and neonatal deaths.

Results: Between July 2018 and January 2020 in India and Pakistan, 814 women with a fetal death, 618 with a preterm live birth and subsequent neonatal death, and 201 term live births, all with a placenta available for study, provided consent. The prevalence of MVM was higher in placentas of fetal deaths (58.4%) and preterm neonatal deaths (31.1%) compared to the term live births (15.4%). Adjusting for site, MVM had a RR of 3.88 (95% CI 2.70-5.59) among fetal deaths vs. term live births and a RR of 2.07 (95% CI 1.41-3.02) for preterm neonatal deaths vs. term live births. Infarcts and distal villous hypoplasia were the most common histological components of MVM. FVM was found less frequently in the placentas of fetal deaths (19.0%) than was MVM (58.4%). However, there were higher frequencies of FVM in fetal death placentas (19.0%) than in placentas from neonatal deaths (8.3%) or in the term live birth placentas (5.0%). Adjusting for site, FVM had a RR of 4.09 (95% CI 2.15-7.75) among fetal deaths vs. term live births and RR 1.77 (95% CI 0.90-3.49) for preterm neonatal deaths vs. term live births. There was a higher incidence of MVM in cases of maternal hypertension (71.4%), SGA (69.9%) and antepartum hemorrhage (59.1%) compared to the incidence of MVM in fetal deaths with none of these conditions (43.3%). There were no significant differences in the occurrence of FVM among the four clinical categories.

Conclusion(s): Histological examination of the placenta, especially for malperfusion disorders, is crucial in elucidating pathways to fetal death and likely for neonatal death in preterm infants. Possibly more important is the potential to focus on placental MVM and FVM during pregnancy as a means to identify fetuses at risk and to reduce the risk of fetal death by early delivery. It is our additional hope that the increased risk of fetal and neonatal death in these pregnancies can be reduced by development of an intervention to reduce the likelihood of developing MVM and/or FVM in the first place.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2021.06.001DOI Listing
June 2021

Neonatal deaths in rural Karnataka, India 2014-2018: a prospective population-based observational study in a low-resource setting.

Reprod Health 2020 Nov 30;17(Suppl 2):161. Epub 2020 Nov 30.

Women's and Children's Health Research Unit JN Medical College, KLE Academy of Higher Education and Research Belagavi, Belagavi, Karnataka, India.

Background: Neonatal mortality causes a substantial proportion of the under-5 mortality in low and middle-income countries (LMIC).

Methods: We undertook a prospective, population-based research study of pregnant women residing in defined geographic areas in the Karnataka State of India, a research site of the Global Network for Women's and Children's Health Research. Study staff collected demographic and health care characteristics on eligible women enrolled with neonatal outcomes obtained at delivery and day 28. Cause of neonatal mortality at day 28 was assigned by algorithm using prospectively defined variables.

Results: From 2014 to 2018, the neonatal mortality rate was 24.5 per 1,000 live births. The cause of the 28-day neonatal deaths was attributed to prematurity (27.9%), birth asphyxia (25.1%), infection (23.7%) and congenital anomalies (18.4%). Four or more antenatal care (ANC) visits was associated with a lower risk of neonatal death compared to fewer ANC visits. In the adjusted model, compared to liveborn infants ≥ 2500 g, infants born weighing < 1000 g RR for mortality was 25.6 (95%CI 18.3, 36.0), for 1000-1499 g infants the RR was 19.8 (95% CI 14.2, 27.5) and for 1500-2499 g infants the RR was 3.1 (95% CI 2.7, 3.6). However, more than one-third (36.8%) of the deaths occurred among infants with a birthweight ≥ 2500 g. Infants born preterm (< 37 weeks) were also at higher risk for 28-day mortality (RR 7.9, 95% CI 6.9, 9.0) compared to infants ≥ 37 weeks. A one-week decrease in gestational age at delivery was associated with a higher risk of mortality with a RR of 1.3 (95% CI 1.3, 1.3). More than 70% of all the deliveries occurred at a hospital. Among infants who died, 50.3% of the infants had received bag/mask ventilation, 47.3% received antibiotics, and 55.6% received oxygen.

Conclusions: Consistent with prior research, the study found that infants who were preterm and low-birth weight remained at highest risk for 28-day neonatal mortality in India. Although most of births now occur within health facilities, a substantial proportion are not receiving basic life-saving interventions. Further efforts to understand the impact of care on infant outcomes are needed. Study registration The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov. ClinicalTrial.gov Trial Registration: NCT01073475.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12978-020-01014-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7708103PMC
November 2020
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