Publications by authors named "S W Jackson"

3,923 Publications

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Receiving Advice from a Health Professional and Action Taken to Reduce Dietary Sodium Intake among Adults.

Public Health Nutr 2021 May 11:1-17. Epub 2021 May 11.

Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy NE, Chamblee, GA, 30341, USA.

Objective: Population reductions in sodium intake could prevent hypertension, and current guidelines recommend that clinicians advise patients to reduce intake. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of taking action and receiving advice from a health professional to reduce sodium intake in 10 US jurisdictions, including the first-ever data in New York state and Guam.

Design: weighted prevalence and 95% confidence intervals (CI) overall and by location, demographic group, health status, and receipt of provider advice using self-reported data from the 2017 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System optional sodium module.

Setting: seven states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and Guam.

Participants: adults aged ≥18 years.

Results: Overall, 53.6% (CI: 52.7, 54.5) of adults reported taking action to reduce sodium intake, including 54.8% (CI: 52.8, 56.7) in New York and 61.2% (CI: 57.6, 64.7) in Guam. Prevalence varied by demographic and health characteristics and was higher among adults who reported having hypertension (72.5%; CI: 71.2, 73.7) vs. those who did not report having hypertension (43.9%; CI: 42.7, 45.0). Among those who reported receiving sodium reduction advice from a health professional, 82.6% (CI: 81.3, 83.9) reported action vs. 44.4% (CI: 43.4, 45.5) among those who did not receive advice. However, only 24.0% (CI: 23.3, 24.7) of adults reported receiving advice from a health professional to reduce sodium intake.

Conclusions: The majority of adults report taking action to reduce sodium intake. Results highlight an opportunity to increase sodium reduction advice from health professionals during clinical visits to better align with existing guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1368980021002019DOI Listing
May 2021

Advancing crop genomics from lab to field.

Nat Genet 2021 May 6;53(5):595-601. Epub 2021 May 6.

Bayer Crop Science, Chesterfield, MO, USA.

Crop genomics remains a key element in ensuring scientific progress to secure global food security. It has been two decades since the sequence of the first plant genome, that of Arabidopsis thaliana, was released, and soon after that the draft sequencing of the rice genome was completed. Since then, the genomes of more than 100 crops have been sequenced, plant genome research has expanded across multiple fronts and the next few years promise to bring further advances spurred by the advent of new technologies and approaches. We are likely to see continued innovations in crop genome sequencing, genetic mapping and the acquisition of multiple levels of biological data. There will be exciting opportunities to integrate genome-scale information across multiple scales of biological organization, leading to advances in our mechanistic understanding of crop biological processes, which will, in turn, provide greater impetus for translation of laboratory results to the field.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41588-021-00866-3DOI Listing
May 2021

Examining the neural antecedents of tics in Tourette syndrome using electroencephalography.

J Neuropsychol 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, UK.

Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the occurrence of motor and vocal tics. TS is associated with cortical-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuit dysfunction and hyper-excitability of cortical limbic and motor regions that lead to the occurrence of tics. Importantly, individuals with TS often report that their tics are preceded by premonitory sensory/urge phenomena (PU) that are described as uncomfortable bodily sensations that precede the execution of a tic and are experienced as an urge for motor discharge. While tics are most often referred to as involuntary movements, it has been argued by some that tics should be viewed as voluntary movements that are executed in response to the presence of PU. To investigate this issue further, we conducted a study using electroencephalography (EEG). We recorded movement-related EEG (mu- and beta-band oscillations) during (1) the immediate period leading up to the execution of voluntary movements by a group of individuals with TS and a group of matched healthy control participants, and (2) the immediate period leading up to the execution of a tic in a group of individuals with TS. We demonstrate that movement-related mu and beta oscillations are not reliably observed prior to tics in individuals with TS. We interpret this effect as reflecting the greater involvement of a network of brain areas, including the insular and cingulate cortices, the basal ganglia and the cerebellum, in the generation of tics in TS. We also show that beta-band desynchronization does occur when individuals with TS initiate voluntary movements, but, in contrast to healthy controls, desynchronization of mu-band oscillations is not observed during the execution of voluntary movements for individuals with TS. We interpret this finding as reflecting a dysfunction of physiological inhibition in TS, thereby contributing to an impaired ability to suppress neuronal populations that may compete with movement preparation processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jnp.12245DOI Listing
May 2021

Postdiagnosis aspirin use associated with decreased biliary tract cancer-specific mortality in a large nationwide cohort.

Hepatology 2021 May 3. Epub 2021 May 3.

Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang Ming Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Background & Aims: Biliary tract cancer (BTC) is rare and has limited treatment options. We aimed to examine aspirin use on cancer-specific survival in various biliary tract cancer (BTC) subtypes, including gallbladder cancer, ampulla of Vater cancer, and cholangiocarcinoma.

Approach & Results: Nationwide prospective cohort of newly diagnosed BTC between 2007 and 2015 were included and followed until December 31, 2017. Three nationwide databases, namely the Cancer Registration, National Health Insurance, and Death Certification System, were used for computerized data linkage. Aspirin use was defined as one or more prescriptions, and the maximum defined daily dose (DDD) was used to evaluate the dose-response relationship. Cox's proportional hazards models were applied for estimating hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Analyses accounted for competing risk of cardiovascular deaths, landmark analyses to avoid immortal time bias were performed. In total, 2,519 of patients with BTC were exposed to aspirin after their diagnosis (15.7%). After a mean follow-up of 1.59 years, the 5-year survival rate was 27.4%. The multivariate-adjusted HR for postdiagnosis aspirin users, as compared with nonusers, was 0.55 (95% CI, 0.51 to 0.58) for BTC-specific death. Adjusted HRs for BTC-specific death were 0.53 (95% CI, 0.48 to 0.59) and 0.42 (95% CI, 0.31 to 0.58) for ≤1 and >1 maximum DDD, respectively, and showed a dose-response trend (p < 0.001; nonusers as a reference). Cancer-specific mortality was lower with postdiagnosis aspirin use in patients with all major BTC subtypes.

Conclusions: The nationwide study revealed that postdiagnosis aspirin use was associated with improved BTC-specific mortality of various subtypes. The findings suggest that additional randomized trials are required to investigate aspirin's efficacy in BTC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.31879DOI Listing
May 2021

Towards a greater understanding of the psychosocial impact of the symptoms of pituitary conditions.

Br J Community Nurs 2021 May;26(5):236-243

Head of Patient and Family Services, The Pituitary Foundation, Bristol.

Management of pituitary conditions can be problematic with many patients experiencing long-term psychological and social difficulties that impact on their quality of life. This study aimed to identify psychosocial symptoms associated with pituitary conditions that lead to poor quality of life and identify differences in symptomatology between patient groups. A survey using measures of psychological and social symptoms was sent to 2000 members of the Pituitary Foundation in January 2016. The survey was completed by 1062 patients (683 female), aged under 18 to over 65 years, using categorical age ranges. Physical and psychosocial symptoms including appearance issues, fatigue, anxiety and depression were reported. Using correlational and regression analyses, significant variation in symptoms were identified across gender, age range and condition type that were impairing patients' long-term functioning and impacting quality of life. There is a need for greater patient information and advice surrounding psychosocial symptoms of pituitary conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12968/bjcn.2021.26.5.236DOI Listing
May 2021