Publications by authors named "S V Subramanian"

2,574 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Putative periodontal pathogens in persisting periodontal pockets of endodontic origin.

J Indian Soc Periodontol 2021 Jan-Feb;25(1):17-21. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

1Ex-postgraduate Student, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.

Background: The microbial profile of endodontically treated teeth, presenting with a persisting deep periodontal pocket, secondary to a primary endodontic lesion, draining through the gingival crevice, has received very less attention. This observational study was done to evaluate if these sites with persisting pockets of endodontic origin persist because they have acquired bacteria which are considered as putative periodontal pathogens.

Materials And Methods: Subgingival plaque samples were collected from fifty patients diagnosed with a primary endodontic and a secondary periodontal lesion that persisted even after completion of the root canal treatment. Clinical parameters such as probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level, plaque index, furcation, and tooth mobility were recorded. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the possible association between six bacteria, which are frequently associated with periodontal and endodontic lesions.

Results: The mean cycle threshold value for (Td) was found to be 33.74, and for (Ef), it was 34.39. With regard to clinical attachment loss, Td ( < 0.04) and ( < 0.05) had a significant correlation.

Conclusion: Ef (92%) and Td (86%) were found to be most prevalent. and were in minimal to nonexistent levels.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/jisp.jisp_397_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7904007PMC
January 2021

Small area variation in child undernutrition across 640 districts and 543 parliamentary constituencies in India.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 25;11(1):4558. Epub 2021 Feb 25.

Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, Cambridge, MA, USA.

In India, districts serve as central policy unit for program development, administration and implementation. The one-size-fits-all approach based on average prevalence estimates at the district level fails to capture the substantial small area variation. In addition to district average, heterogeneity within districts should be considered in policy design. The objective of this study was to quantify the extent of small area variation in child stunting, underweight and wasting across 36 states/Union Territories (UTs), 640 districts (and 543 PCs), and villages/blocks in India. We utilized the 4th round of Indian National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) conducted in 2015-2016. The study population included 225,002 children aged 0-59 months whose height and weight information were available. Stunting was defined as height-for-age z-score below 2 SD from the World Health Organization child growth reference standards. Similarly, underweight and wasting were each defined as weight-for-age < -2 SD and weight-for-height < -2 SD from the age- and sex-specific medians. We adopted a four-level logistic regression model to partition the total variation in stunting, underweight and wasting. We computed precision-weighted prevalence of child anthropometric failures across districts and PCs as well as within-district/PC variation using standard deviation (SD) measures. For stunting, 56.4% (var: 0.237; SE: 0.008) of the total variation was attributed to villages/blocks, followed by 25.8% (var: 0.109; SE: 0.030) to states/UTs, and 17.7% (Var: 0.074; SE: 0.006) to districts. For underweight and wasting, villages/blocks accounted for 38.4% (var: 0.224; SE: 0.007) and 50% (var: 0.285; SE: 0.009), respectively, of the total contextual variance in India. Similar findings were shown in multilevel models incorporating PC as a geographical unit instead of districts. We found high positive correlations between mean prevalence and SD for stunting (r = 0.780, p < 0.001), underweight (r = 0.860, p < 0.001), and wasting (r = 0.857, p < 0.001) across all districts in India. A similar pattern of correlation was found for PCs. Within-district and within-PC variation are the primary source of variation for child malnutrition in India. Our results suggest the importance of considering heterogeneity within districts and PCs when planning and administering child nutrition policies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83992-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7907088PMC
February 2021

Association of plasma neurofilament L (NfL) levels with severity of dementia in Alzheimer's disease: An exploratory study from South India.

Asian J Psychiatr 2021 Feb 19;58:102606. Epub 2021 Feb 19.

Department of Psychiatry, National Institute of Mental Health & Neurosciences, Bangalore, 560029, India.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2021.102606DOI Listing
February 2021

Scalable Three-Dimensional Photobioelectrodes Made of Reduced Graphene Oxide Combined with Photosystem I.

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 2021 Feb 23. Epub 2021 Feb 23.

Biosystems Technology, Institute of Life Sciences and Biomedical Technologies, Technical University of Applied Sciences Wildau, Hochschulring 1, Wildau 15745, Germany.

Photobioelectrodes represent one of the examples where artificial materials are combined with biological entities to undertake semi-artificial photosynthesis. Here, an approach is described that uses reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as an electrode material. This classical 2D material is used to construct a three-dimensional structure by a template-based approach combined with a simple spin-coating process during preparation. Inspired by this novel material and photosystem I (PSI), a biophotovoltaic electrode is being designed and investigated. Both direct electron transfer to PSI and mediated electron transfer via cytochrome from horse heart as redox protein can be confirmed. Electrode preparation and protein immobilization have been optimized. The performance can be upscaled by adjusting the thickness of the 3D electrode using different numbers of spin-coating steps during preparation. Thus, photocurrents up to ∼14 μA/cm are measured for 12 spin-coated layers of rGO corresponding to a turnover frequency of 30 e PSI s and external quantum efficiency (EQE) of 0.07% at a thickness of about 15 μm. Operational stability has been analyzed for several days. Particularly, the performance at low illumination intensities is very promising (1.39 μA/cm at 0.1 mW/cm and -0.15 V vs Ag/AgCl; EQE 6.8%).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.1c01142DOI Listing
February 2021

In silico detection of SARS-CoV-2 specific B-cell epitopes and validation in ELISA for serological diagnosis of COVID-19.

Sci Rep 2021 02 22;11(1):4290. Epub 2021 Feb 22.

Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID), Seattle, WA, USA.

Rapid generation of diagnostics is paramount to understand epidemiology and to control the spread of emerging infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Computational methods to predict serodiagnostic epitopes that are specific for the pathogen could help accelerate the development of new diagnostics. A systematic survey of 27 SARS-CoV-2 proteins was conducted to assess whether existing B-cell epitope prediction methods, combined with comprehensive mining of sequence databases and structural data, could predict whether a particular protein would be suitable for serodiagnosis. Nine of the predictions were validated with recombinant SARS-CoV-2 proteins in the ELISA format using plasma and sera from patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and a further 11 predictions were compared to the recent literature. Results appeared to be in agreement with 12 of the predictions, in disagreement with 3, while a further 5 were deemed inconclusive. We showed that two of our top five candidates, the N-terminal fragment of the nucleoprotein and the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein, have the highest sensitivity and specificity and signal-to-noise ratio for detecting COVID-19 sera/plasma by ELISA. Mixing the two antigens together for coating ELISA plates led to a sensitivity of 94% (N = 80 samples from persons with RT-PCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection), and a specificity of 97.2% (N = 106 control samples).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83730-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7900118PMC
February 2021

Maternal height-standardized prevalence of stunting in 67 low- and- middle-income countries.

J Epidemiol 2021 Feb 20. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies.

ObjectivePrevalence of stunting is frequently used as a marker of population-level child undernutrition. Parental height varies widely in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) and is also a major determinant of stunting. While stunting is a useful measure of child health, with multiple causal components, removing the component attributable to parental height may in some cases be helpful to identify shortcoming in current environments.MethodsWe estimated maternal height-standardized prevalence of stunting (SPS) in 67 LMIC and parental height-SPS in 20 LMICs and compared with crude prevalence of stunting (CPS) using data on 575,767 children under-five from 67 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). We supplemented the DHS with population-level measures of other child health outcomes from the World Health Organization's (WHO) Global Health Observatory and the United Nations' Inter-Agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. Prevalence of stunting was defined as percentage of children with height-for-age falling below -2 z-scores from the 2006 WHO growth standard.FindingsThe average CPS across countries was 27.8% (95% CI: 27.5 to 28.1) and the average SPS was 23.3% (95% CI: 23.0 to 23.6). The rank of countries according to SPS differed substantially from the rank according to CPS. Guatemala, Bangladesh, and Nepal had the biggest improvement in ranking according to SPS compared to CPS, while Gambia, Mali, and Senegal had the biggest decline in ranking. Guatemala had the largest difference between CPS and SPS with a CPS of 45.2 (95% CI: 43.7 to 46.9) and SPS of 14.1 (95% CI: 12.6 to 15.8). Senegal had the largest increase in the prevalence after standardizing maternal height, with a CPS of 28.8% (95% CI: 25.8 to 30.2) and SPS of 31.6% (95% CI: 29.5 to 33.8). SPS correlates better than CPS with other population-level measures of child health.ConclusionsOur study suggests that CPS is sensitive to adjustment for maternal height. Maternal height, while a strong predictor of child stunting, is not amenable to policy interventions. We showed the plausibility of SPS in capturing current exposures to undernutrition and infections in children.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.2188/jea.JE20200537DOI Listing
February 2021

Pattern selection in reaction diffusion systems.

Phys Rev E 2021 Jan;103(1-1):012215

Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology, 35043 Marburg, Germany.

Turing's theory of pattern formation has been used to describe the formation of self-organized periodic patterns in many biological, chemical, and physical systems. However, the use of such models is hindered by our inability to predict, in general, which pattern is obtained from a given set of model parameters. While much is known near the onset of the spatial instability, the mechanisms underlying pattern selection and dynamics away from onset are much less understood. Here, we provide physical insight into the dynamics of these systems. We find that peaks in a Turing pattern behave as point sinks, the dynamics of which is determined by the diffusive fluxes into them. As a result, peaks move toward a periodic steady-state configuration that minimizes the mass of the diffusive species. We also show that the preferred number of peaks at the final steady state is such that this mass is minimized. Our work presents mass minimization as a potential general principle for understanding pattern formation in reaction diffusion systems far from onset.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.103.012215DOI Listing
January 2021

The Effectiveness of mHealth and eHealth Tools in Improving Provider Knowledge, Confidence, and Behaviors Related to Cancer Detection, Treatment, and Survivorship Care: a Systematic Review.

J Cancer Educ 2021 Feb 18. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

RTI International, 3040 E. Cornwallis Road, Durham, NC, 27709, USA.

Mobile health (mHealth) and eHealth interventions have demonstrated potential to improve cancer care delivery and disease management by increasing access to health information and health management skills. However, there is a need to better understand the overall impact of these interventions in improving cancer care and to identify best practices to support intervention adoption. Overall, this review intended to systematically catalogue the recent body of cancer-based mHealth and eHealth education and training interventions and assess the effectiveness of these interventions in increasing health care professionals' knowledge, confidence, and behaviors related to the delivery of care along the cancer continuum. Our initial search yielded 135 articles, and our full review included 23 articles. We abstracted descriptive data for each of the 23 studies, including an overview of interventions (i.e., intended intervention recipients, location of delivery, topic of focus), study methods (i.e., design, sampling approach, sample size), and outcome measures. Almost all the studies reported knowledge gain as an outcome of the education interventions, whereas only half assessed provider confidence or behavior change. We conclude that there is some evidence that mHealth and eHealth interventions lead to improvements in cancer care delivery, but this is not a consistent finding across the studies reviewed. Our findings also identify gaps that should be addressed in future research, offer guidance on the utility of mHealth and eHealth interventions, and provide a roadmap for addressing these gaps.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13187-021-01961-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889413PMC
February 2021

Application of a Novel Ultra-High Resolution Multi-Detector CT in Quantitative Imaging of Trabecular Microstructure.

Proc SPIE Int Soc Opt Eng 2020 Feb 5;11317. Epub 2020 Mar 5.

Department of Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD USA 21205.

Purpose: To evaluate the performance of a novel ultra-high resolution multi-detector CT scanner (Canon Aquilion Precision UHR CT), capable of visualizing ~150 μm details, in quantitative assessment of bone microarchitecture. Compared to conventional CT, the spatial resolution of UHR CT begins to approach the size of the trabeculae. This might enable measurements of microstructural correlates of osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and other bone disease.

Methods: The UHR CT system features a 160-row x-ray detector with 250×250 μm pixels (measured at isocenter) and a custom-designed x-ray source with a 0.4×0.5 mm focal spot. Visualization of high contrast details down to ~150 μm has been achieved on this device, which is now commercially available for clinical use. To evaluate the performance of UHR CT in quantification of bone microstructure, we imaged a variety of human bone samples (including ulna, radius, and vertebrae) embedded in a ~16 cm diameter plastic cylinder and in an anthropomorphic thorax phantom (QRM-Thorax, QRM Gmbh). Helical UHR CT acquisitions (120 kVp tube voltage) were acquired at scan exposures of 375 mAs - 5 mAs. For comparison, the samples were also imaged using a Normal Resolution (NR) mode available on the scanner, involving 500 μm slice thickness, exposure of 50 mAs, and a focal spot of 0.6×1.3 mm. We obtained micro-CT (μCT) of the bone samples at ~28 μm voxel size as a gold-standard reference. Geometric measurements of bone microstructure were performed in 17 regions-of-interests (ROIs) distributed throughout the bones of the phantoms; image registration was used to place the ROIs at corresponding locations in the UHR CT and NR CT. Trabecular thickness Tb.Th, spacing Tb.Sp, and Bone Volume fraction BvTv were obtained. The UHR and NR imaging protocols were compared terms of correlations to μCT and error of trabecular measurements. The effect of dose on trabecular morphometry was also studied for the UHR CT. Furthermore, we evaluated the sensitivity of texture features of trabecular bone (recently proposed as an alternative to geometric indices of microstructure) to imaging protocol. Image texture evaluation was performed using ~150 regions of interest (ROIs) across all bone samples. Three-dimensional Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix (GLCM) and Gray Level Run Length Matrix (GLRM) features were extracted for each ROI. We analyzed correlation and concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) of the mean ROI values of texture features obtained using the UHR and NR modes.

Results: UHR CT reconstructions of bone samples clearly demonstrated improved visualization of the trabeculae compared to NR CT. UHR CT achieved substantially better correlations for all three metrics of bone microstructure, in particular for BvTv (correlation coefficient of 0.91 for UHR CT compared to 0.84 for NR CT) and TbSp (correlation of 0.74 for UHR CT and 0.047 for NR CT). The error obtained with UHR CT was generally smaller than that of NR CT. For TbSp, the mean deviation from μCT (averaged across all bone samples) was only ~0.07 for UHR CT, compared to 0.25 for NR CT. Analysis of reproducibility of texture features of trabecular bone between UHR CT and NR CT revealed fair correlations (>0.7) for the majority of GLCM features, but relatively poor CCC (e.g. 0.02 for Energy and 0.04 for Entropy). The magnitude of texture metrics is particularly affected by the enhanced spatial resolution of UHR CT.

Conclusion: The recently introduced UHR CT achieves improved correlation and reduced error in measurements of trabecular bone microstructure compared to conventional resolution CT. Future development of diagnostic strategies based on textural biomarkers derived from UHR CT will need to account for potential sensitivity of texture features to image resolution.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2552385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7885907PMC
February 2020

Perspective: Vitamin D supplementation prevents rickets and acute respiratory infections when given as daily maintenance but not as intermittent bolus: implications for COVID-19.

Clin Med (Lond) 2021 Feb 16. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

The value of vitamin D supplementation in the treatment or prevention of various conditions is often viewed with scepticism as a result of contradictory results of randomised trials. It is now becoming apparent that there is a pattern to these inconsistencies. A recent large trial has shown that high-dose intermittent bolus vitamin D therapy is ineffective at preventing rickets - the condition that is most unequivocally caused by vitamin D deficiency. There is a plausible biological explanation since high-dose bolus replacement induces long-term expression of the catabolic enzyme 24-hydroxylase and fibroblast growth factor 23, both of which have vitamin D inactivating effects. Meta-analyses of vitamin D supplementation in prevention of acute respiratory infection and trials in tuberculosis and other conditions also support efficacy of low dose daily maintenance rather than intermittent bolus dosing. This is particularly relevant during the current COVID-19 pandemic given the well-documented associations between COVID-19 risk and vitamin D deficiency. We would urge that clinicians take note of these findings and give strong support to widespread use of daily vitamin D supplementation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmed.2021-0035DOI Listing
February 2021

An open label, block randomized, community study of the safety and efficacy of co-administered ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole vs. diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole for lymphatic filariasis in India.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Feb 16;15(2):e0009069. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, Missouri, United States of America.

Background: Better drug regimens for mass drug administration (MDA) could accelerate the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (LF). This community study was designed to compare the safety and efficacy of MDA with IDA (ivermectin, diethylcarbamazine and albendazole) or DA (diethylcarbamazine and albendazole) in India.

Methodology/principal Findings: This two-armed, open-labelled, block randomised, community study was conducted in LF endemic villages in Yadgir district, Karnataka, India. Consenting participants ≥5 years of age were tested for circulating filarial antigenemia (CFA) and microfilaremia (Mf) before treatment with a single oral dose of IDA or DA. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored actively for two days and passively for five more days. Persons with positive CFA or Mf tests at baseline were retested 12-months post-treatment to assess treatment efficacy. Baseline CFA and Mf-rates were 26.4% and 6.9% in IDA and 24.5% and 6.4% in DA villages respectively. 4758 and 4160 participants received IDA and DA. Most AEs were mild after both treatments; fewer than 0.1% of participants experienced AEs with severity > grade 1. No serious AEs were observed. Fever, headache and dizziness were the most common AEs. AE rates were slightly higher after IDA than DA (8.3% vs. 6.4%, P<0.01). AEs were more frequent in females and Mf-positives after either treatment, but significantly more frequent after IDA (40.5% vs 20.2%, P < 0.001). IDA was more effective for clearing Mf than DA (84% vs. 61.8%, P < 0.001). Geometric mean Mf counts per 60μl in retested Mf-positives decreased by 96.4% from 11.8 after IDA and by 90.0% from 9.5 after DA. Neither treatment was effective for clearing CFA.

Conclusions/significance: IDA had an acceptable safety profile and was more effective for clearing Mf than DA. With adequate compliance and medical support to manage AEs, IDA has the potential to accelerate LF elimination in India.

Trial Registration: Clinical Trial Registry of India (CTRI No/2016/10/007399).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009069DOI Listing
February 2021

Association of yogic breathing with perceived stress and conception of strengths and difficulties in teenagers.

Clin Child Psychol Psychiatry 2021 Feb 16:1359104521994633. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Department of Education of Groups with Special Needs, National Council of Educational Research and Training, New Delhi, Delhi, India.

Background: Mental health problems are increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world, and teenagers are no exception. They experience high levels of stress in their formative years which often leads to poor social behavior. In the present study, we examine the effect of Sudarshan Kriya Yoga (SKY), a yogic breathing technique on perceived stress and social behavior of school going teenagers.

Method: A cross-sectional survey was conducted. Teenagers who practiced SKY daily constituted the study group and teenagers who did not practice any form of yoga or meditation formed the control group. Child Perceived Stress scale (C-PSS) and Strength and Difficulty questionnaire (SDQ) were used to evaluate the mental health and social behavior of both groups.

Results: Lower stress scores were observed among students who practiced SKY compared to their peers. A significant difference was observed between the groups with respect to emotional problems, conduct problems, peer problems, and pro-social behavior. Gender wise comparison highlighted that the females from the SKY group scored lower on emotional problems sub-scale compared to their counterparts from control group. Results also highlighted an improved peer to peer interaction among both boys and girls in the SKY group.

Conclusion: The results indicate the practice of SKY is associated with reduced stress, improved self-awareness, and social behavior.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1359104521994633DOI Listing
February 2021

Improvement in Gastrointestinal Quality of Life Index (GIQLI) following meditation: An open-trial pilot study in India.

J Ayurveda Integr Med 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Medical Microbiology, Sri Sri Institute for Advanced Research, India.

Background: Medical science is increasingly recognizing the role of gut health in achieving optimal wellbeing. A healthy gut improves digestion. Additionally, it has a positive impact on multiple physiological networks such as immune system, central nervous system and hepato-endocrine system, thus contributing to the overall quality of life. Functional gastrointestinal disorders: also known as disorders of gut-brain interaction, such as irritable bowel syndrome are increasing worldwide. Conditions like stress, anxiety and mental disorders are correlated with these disorders. Mind-body interventions have been shown to ameliorate stress, anxiety and related conditions that may aggravate functional gastrointestinal disorders.

Objective: The present study aims to investigate the benefits of a novel meditation technique called the Vaishvanara Agni meditation (VAM) on the gastrointestinal quality of life.

Materials And Methods: 54 subjects participated in the study and practiced VAM for 50 days. During the Vaishvanara Agni meditation (VAM), attention is directed to the navel region and the digestive system. The effect of the meditation was evaluated using the gastrointestinal quality of life (GI-QoL) questionnaire, which was administered to subjects at three different time points i.e. day 0, day 24 and day 50.

Results: GI-QoL was significantly improved with the practice of VAM. Additionally, significant improvements were noticed in all sub domains especially core symptoms, physical strength and the psychological domain.

Conclusion: Meditation practices that focus on improving digestion can be an effective tool for improving gut health.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaim.2021.01.006DOI Listing
February 2021

Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis in a COVID-19 patient-a case report with literature review.

Neuroradiology 2021 Feb 11. Epub 2021 Feb 11.

Department of Radiology, Dr. Rela Institute and Medical Centre, Chromepet, Chennai, India.

Purpose: Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis (AHLE) is a rare and severe form of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM). Only a few reports of AHLE in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have been described to date. We report a case of COVID-19-related AHLE along with a literature review describing salient clinical and imaging characteristics.

Methods: A literature search was performed on Medline (2020-present), PubMed, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and Google scholar on 28 January 2021 for all articles published using MeSH terms "COVID-19" or "SARS-CoV-2" with "Acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis" or "Acute hemorrhagic encephalitis." Relevant case reports and case series describing clinical and imaging features of AHLE associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were included, data compiled, and critically reviewed.

Results: Acute onset encephalopathy and rapidly deteriorating neurological status is the common clinical presentation in AHLE. CSF analysis reveals elevated proteins and lymphocytic pleocytosis. Typical neuroimaging features include multifocal, variable-sized, poorly defined cerebral white matter lesions with cortical sparing. Involvement of the brainstem, cerebellar peduncles, and deep grey matter can also occur, although rarely. Lesions are hyperintense on T2-weighted (T2W) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images, hypointense on T1W images, and show microhemorrhages, variable diffusion restriction, and post-contrast enhancement. Extensive microhemorrhages, brainstem involvement, and gross hemorrhage often portend a poor prognosis.

Conclusion: Heightened awareness about the clinical and imaging presentation of COVID-19-related AHLE can positively alter the outcome in a select few by enabling early diagnosis and aggressive management.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00234-021-02667-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7878029PMC
February 2021

High resolution cryo EM analysis of HPV16 identifies minor structural protein L2 and describes capsid flexibility.

Sci Rep 2021 Feb 10;11(1):3498. Epub 2021 Feb 10.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Penn State University, University Park, PA, 16802, USA.

Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a significant health burden and leading cause of virus-induced cancers. HPV is epitheliotropic and its replication is tightly associated with terminal keratinocyte differentiation making production and purification of high titer virus preparations for research problematic, therefore alternative HPV production methods have been developed for virological and structural studies. In this study we use HPV16 quasivirus, composed of HPV16 L1/L2 capsid proteins with a packaged cottontail rabbit papillomavirus genome. We have achieved the first high resolution, 3.1 Å, structure of HPV16 by using a local subvolume refinement approach. The high resolution enabled us to build L1 unambiguously and identify L2 protein strands. The L2 density is incorporated adjacent to conserved L1 residues on the interior of the capsid. Further interpretation with our own software for Icosahedral Subvolume Extraction and Correlated Classification revealed flexibility, on the whole-particle level through diameter analysis and local movement with inter-capsomer analysis. Inter-capsomer expansion or contraction, governed by the connecting arms, showed no bias in the magnitude or direction of capsomer movement. We propose that papillomavirus capsids are dynamic and capsomers move as rigid bodies connected by flexible linkers. The resulting virus structure will provide a framework for continuing biochemical, genetic and biophysical research for papillomaviruses. Furthermore, our approach has allowed insight into the resolution barrier that has previously been a limitation in papillomavirus structural studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83076-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876116PMC
February 2021

Novel live cell fluorescent probe for human-induced pluripotent stem cells highlights early reprogramming population.

Stem Cell Res Ther 2021 Feb 5;12(1):113. Epub 2021 Feb 5.

Fat Metabolism and Stem Cell Group, Singapore Bioimaging Consortium, A*STAR, 11 Biopolis Way, Singapore, 138667, Singapore.

Background: Despite recent rapid progress in method development and biological understanding of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, there has been a relative shortage of tools that monitor the early reprogramming process into human iPS cells.

Methods: We screened the in-house built fluorescent library compounds that specifically bind human iPS cells. After tertiary screening, the selected probe was analyzed for its ability to detect reprogramming cells in the time-dependent manner using high-content imaging analysis. The probe was compared with conventional dyes in different reprogramming methods, cell types, and cell culture conditions. Cell sorting was performed with the fluorescent probe to analyze the early reprogramming cells for their pluripotent characteristics and genome-wide gene expression signatures by RNA-seq. Finally, the candidate reprogramming factor identified was investigated for its ability to modulate reprogramming efficiency.

Results: We identified a novel BODIPY-derived fluorescent probe, BDL-E5, which detects live human iPS cells at the early reprogramming stage. BDL-E5 can recognize authentic reprogramming cells around 7 days before iPS colonies are formed and stained positive with conventional pluripotent markers. Cell sorting of reprogrammed cells with BDL-E5 allowed generation of an increased number and higher quality of iPS cells. RNA sequencing analysis of BDL-E5-positive versus negative cells revealed early reprogramming patterns of gene expression, which notably included CREB1. Reprogramming efficiency was significantly increased by overexpression of CREB1 and decreased by knockdown of CREB1.

Conclusion: Collectively, BDL-E5 offers a valuable tool for delineating the early reprogramming pathway and clinically applicable commercial production of human iPS cells.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02171-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866770PMC
February 2021

Assessment, endoscopy, and treatment in patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis during the COVID-19 pandemic (PROTECT-ASUC): a multicentre, observational, case-control study.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 Feb 2. Epub 2021 Feb 2.

Translational & Clinical Research Institute, Faculty of Medical Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK; Department of Gastroenterology, Newcastle upon Tyne Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. Electronic address:

Background: There is a paucity of evidence to support safe and effective management of patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis during the COVID-19 pandemic. We sought to identify alterations to established conventional evidence-based management of acute severe ulcerative colitis during the early COVID-19 pandemic, the effect on outcomes, and any associations with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and severe COVID-19 outcomes.

Methods: The PROTECT-ASUC study was a multicentre, observational, case-control study in 60 acute secondary care hospitals throughout the UK. We included adults (≥18 years) with either ulcerative colitis or inflammatory bowel disease unclassified, who presented with acute severe ulcerative colitis and fulfilled the Truelove and Witts criteria. Cases and controls were identified as either admitted or managed in emergency ambulatory care settings between March 1, 2020, and June 30, 2020 (COVID-19 pandemic period cohort), or between Jan 1, 2019, and June 30, 2019 (historical control cohort), respectively. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis receiving rescue therapy (including primary induction) or colectomy. The study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04411784.

Findings: We included 782 patients (398 in the pandemic period cohort and 384 in the historical control cohort) who met the Truelove and Witts criteria for acute severe ulcerative colitis. The proportion of patients receiving rescue therapy (including primary induction) or surgery was higher during the pandemic period than in the historical period (217 [55%] of 393 patients vs 159 [42%] of 380 patients; p=0·00024) and the time to rescue therapy was shorter in the pandemic cohort than in the historical cohort (p=0·0026). This difference was driven by a greater use of rescue and primary induction therapies with biologicals, ciclosporin, or tofacitinib in the COVID-19 pandemic period cohort than in the historical control period cohort (177 [46%] of 387 patients in the COVID-19 cohort vs 134 [36%] of 373 patients in the historical cohort; p=0·0064). During the pandemic, more patients received ambulatory (outpatient) intravenous steroids (51 [13%] of 385 patients vs 19 [5%] of 360 patients; p=0·00023). Fewer patients received thiopurines (29 [7%] of 398 patients vs 46 [12%] of 384; p=0·029) and 5-aminosalicylic acids (67 [17%] of 398 patients vs 98 [26%] of 384; p=0·0037) during the pandemic than in the historical control period. Colectomy rates were similar between the pandemic and historical control groups (64 [16%] of 389 vs 50 [13%] of 375; p=0·26); however, laparoscopic surgery was less frequently performed during the pandemic period (34 [53%] of 64] vs 38 [76%] of 50; p=0·018). Five (2%) of 253 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 during hospital treatment. Two (2%) of 103 patients re-tested for SARS-CoV-2 during the 3-month follow-up were positive 5 days and 12 days, respectively, after discharge from index admission. Both recovered without serious outcomes.

Interpretation: The COVID-19 pandemic altered practice patterns of gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons in the management of acute severe ulcerative colitis but was associated with similar outcomes to a historical cohort. Despite continued use of high-dose corticosteroids and biologicals, the incidence of COVID-19 within 3 months was low and not associated with adverse COVID-19 outcomes.

Funding: None.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(21)00016-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7906670PMC
February 2021

Birth registration in India: Are wealth inequities decreasing?

SSM Popul Health 2021 Mar 12;13:100728. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, Cambridge, MA, USA.

Background: This study examines the geographic variation and the magnitude of wealth inequities in birth registration in India between 2005 and 2015.

Methods: Data came from India's 2005 (n = 51,940) and 2015 (n = 250,194) Demographic Health Surveys. We estimated absolute wealth inequities at the national and state-level and specified three-level logistic regression models (children, communities, and states) to calculate the variance partitioning coefficient attributable to each level to examine the variation in birth registration at each time point.

Results: National birth registration coverage was 41.2% in 2005 and improved to 79.6% in 2015. Between 2005 and 2015, coverage among children in the poorest quintile (Q1) improved from 23.9% to 63.8% while coverage among the wealthiest children (Q5) improved from 72.4% to 92.8%. Although the absolute wealth inequity decreased from 48.6%-points to 29.1%-points, children in Q1 still had levels of coverage in 2015 that were lower than children in Q5 in 2005. Between 2005 and 2015, birth registration improved in every state and coverage was higher than 90% in 13 states. Wealth inequities decreased in 21 states and increased in 8 states. In adjusted multi-level models the proportion of total variation in birth registration attributable to states (35.7% 2005 and 29% in 2015) was larger than the variation attributable to communities (15% in 2005 and 13.7% in 2015).

Conclusion: Birth registration is essential for ensuring inclusive population counts of birth and mortality rates. Efforts to reach universal birth registration in India will require a commitment to reducing wealth inequities within states.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ssmph.2021.100728DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7823051PMC
March 2021

Association Between County-Level Change in Economic Prosperity and Change in Cardiovascular Mortality Among Middle-aged US Adults.

JAMA 2021 02;325(5):445-453

Penn Cardiovascular Outcomes, Quality, & Evaluative Research Center, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia.

Importance: After a decline in cardiovascular mortality for nonelderly US adults, recent stagnation has occurred alongside rising income inequality. Whether this is associated with underlying economic trends is unclear.

Objective: To assess the association between changes in economic prosperity and trends in cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged US adults.

Design, Setting, And Participants: Retrospective analysis of the association between change in 7 markers of economic prosperity in 3123 US counties and county-level cardiovascular mortality among 40- to 64-year-old adults (102 660 852 individuals in 2010).

Exposures: Mean rank for change in 7 markers of economic prosperity between 2 time periods (baseline: 2007-2011 and follow-up: 2012-2016). A higher mean rank indicates a greater relative increase or lower relative decrease in prosperity (range, 5 to 92; mean [SD], 50 [14]).

Main Outcomes And Measures: Mean annual percentage change (APC) in age-adjusted cardiovascular mortality rates. Generalized linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the additional APC associated with a change in prosperity.

Results: Among 102 660 852 residents aged 40 to 64 years living in these counties in 2010 (51% women), 979 228 cardiovascular deaths occurred between 2010 and 2017. Age-adjusted cardiovascular mortality rates did not change significantly between 2010 and 2017 in counties in the lowest tertile for change in economic prosperity (mean [SD], 114.1 [47.9] to 116.1 [52.7] deaths per 100 000 individuals; APC, 0.2% [95% CI, -0.3% to 0.7%]). Mortality decreased significantly in the intermediate tertile (mean [SD], 104.7 [38.8] to 101.9 [41.5] deaths per 100 000 individuals; APC, -0.4% [95% CI, -0.8% to -0.1%]) and highest tertile for change in prosperity (100.0 [37.9] to 95.1 [39.1] deaths per 100 000 individuals; APC, -0.5% [95% CI, -0.9% to -0.1%]). After accounting for baseline prosperity and demographic and health care-related variables, a 10-point higher mean rank for change in economic prosperity was associated with 0.4% (95% CI, 0.2% to 0.6%) additional decrease in mortality per year.

Conclusions And Relevance: In this retrospective study of US county-level mortality data from 2010 to 2017, a relative increase in county-level economic prosperity was significantly associated with a small relative decrease in cardiovascular mortality among middle-aged adults. Individual-level inferences are limited by the ecological nature of the study.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.26141DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7856543PMC
February 2021

Induction of muscle-regenerative multipotent stem cells from human adipocytes by PDGF-AB and 5-azacytidine.

Sci Adv 2021 Jan 13;7(3). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Adult Cancer Program, Lowy Cancer Research Centre, UNSW Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia.

Terminally differentiated murine osteocytes and adipocytes can be reprogrammed using platelet-derived growth factor-AB and 5-azacytidine into multipotent stem cells with stromal cell characteristics. We have now optimized culture conditions to reprogram human adipocytes into induced multipotent stem (iMS) cells and characterized their molecular and functional properties. Although the basal transcriptomes of adipocyte-derived iMS cells and adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells were similar, there were changes in histone modifications and CpG methylation at cis-regulatory regions consistent with an epigenetic landscape that was primed for tissue development and differentiation. In a non-specific tissue injury xenograft model, iMS cells contributed directly to muscle, bone, cartilage, and blood vessels, with no evidence of teratogenic potential. In a cardiotoxin muscle injury model, iMS cells contributed specifically to satellite cells and myofibers without ectopic tissue formation. Together, human adipocyte-derived iMS cells regenerate tissues in a context-dependent manner without ectopic or neoplastic growth.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd1929DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7806226PMC
January 2021

The relative contributions of behavioral, biological, and psychological risk factors in the association between psychosocial stress and all-cause mortality among middle- and older-aged adults in the USA.

Geroscience 2021 Jan 28. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Harvard Center for Population and Development Studies, 9 Bow Street, Cambridge, MA, 02138, USA.

Evidence of an association between psychosocial stress and mortality continues to accumulate. However, despite repeated calls in the literature for further examination into the physiological and behavioral pathways though which stress affects health and mortality, research on this topic remains limited. This study addresses this gap by employing a counterfactual-based mediation analysis of eight behavioral, biological, and psychological pathways often hypothesized to play a role in the association between stress and health. First, we calculated the survival rate of all-cause mortality associated with cumulative psychosocial stress (high vs. low/moderate) using random effects accelerated failure time models among a sample of 7108 adults from the Midlife in the United States panel study. Then, we conducted a multiple mediator mediation analysis utilizing a counterfactual regression framework to determine the relative contributions of each mediator and all mediators combined in the association between stress and mortality. Exposure to high psychosocial stress was associated with a 0.76 times reduced survival rate over the follow-up period 1995-2015, while adjusting for age, sex, race, income, education, baseline health, and study design effects. The mediators accounted for 49% of this association. In particular, smoking, sedentary behavior, obesity/BMI, and cardiovascular disease displayed significant indirect effects and accounted for the largest reductions in the total effect of stress on mortality, with natural indirect effects of 14%, 12%, 11%, and 4%, respectively. In conclusion, traditional behavioral and biological risk factors play a significant role in the association between psychosocial stress and mortality among middle and older adults in the US context. While eliminating stress and the socioeconomic disparities that so often deliver people into high-stress scenarios should be the ultimate goal, public health interventions addressing smoking cessation, physical activity promotion, and cardiovascular disease treatment may pay dividends for preventing premature mortality in the near-term.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11357-020-00319-5DOI Listing
January 2021

Ketamine for Depression in Older Adults.

Am J Geriatr Psychiatry 2021 Jan 19. Epub 2021 Jan 19.

Department of Psychiatry (SS, EJL), Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO. Electronic address:

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2021.01.005DOI Listing
January 2021

Presynaptic Kv3 channels are required for fast and slow endocytosis of synaptic vesicles.

Neuron 2021 Jan 20. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, 35 Convent Dr., Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Electronic address:

Since their discovery decades ago, the primary physiological and pathological effects of potassium channels have been attributed to their ion conductance, which sets membrane potential and repolarizes action potentials. For example, Kv3 family channels regulate neurotransmitter release by repolarizing action potentials. Here we report a surprising but crucial function independent of potassium conductance: by organizing the F-actin cytoskeleton in mouse nerve terminals, the Kv3.3 protein facilitates slow endocytosis, rapid endocytosis, vesicle mobilization to the readily releasable pool, and recovery of synaptic depression during repetitive firing. A channel mutation that causes spinocerebellar ataxia inhibits endocytosis, vesicle mobilization, and synaptic transmission during repetitive firing by disrupting the ability of the channel to nucleate F-actin. These results unmask novel functions of potassium channels in endocytosis and vesicle mobilization crucial for sustaining synaptic transmission during repetitive firing. Potassium channel mutations that impair these "non-conducting" functions may thus contribute to generation of diverse neurological disorders.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2021.01.006DOI Listing
January 2021

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination for patients with inflammatory bowel disease: a British Society of Gastroenterology Inflammatory Bowel Disease section and IBD Clinical Research Group position statement.

Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol 2021 03 26;6(3):218-224. Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Department of Metabolism, Digestion and Reproduction, Imperial College London, London, UK; Department of Gastroenterology, Imperial College Healthcare NHS Trust, London, UK. Electronic address:

SARS-CoV-2 has caused a global health crisis and mass vaccination programmes provide the best opportunity for controlling transmission and protecting populations. Despite the impressive clinical trial results of the BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech), ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Oxford/AstraZeneca), and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccines, important unanswered questions remain, especially in patients with pre-existing conditions. In this position statement endorsed by the British Society of Gastroenterology Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) section and IBD Clinical Research Group, we consider SARS-CoV-2 vaccination strategy in patients with IBD. The risks of SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are anticipated to be very low, and we strongly support SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with IBD. Based on data from previous studies with other vaccines, there are conceptual concerns that protective immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may be diminished in some patients with IBD, such as those taking anti-TNF drugs. However, the benefits of vaccination, even in patients treated with anti-TNF drugs, are likely to outweigh these theoretical concerns. Key areas for further research are discussed, including vaccine hesitancy and its effect in the IBD community, the effect of immunosuppression on vaccine efficacy, and the search for predictive biomarkers of vaccine success.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2468-1253(21)00024-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834976PMC
March 2021

Hepatocellular carcinoma masquerading as nodular Barrett's esophagus.

Gastrointest Endosc 2021 Jan 22. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Chief, Center for Interventional Gastroenterology at UTHealth (iGUT), Atilla Ertan MD Chair in Gastroenterology, Hepatology &Nutrition, Associate Professor, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, McGovern Medical School at University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gie.2021.01.011DOI Listing
January 2021

Vitamin D and COVID-19: evidence and recommendations for supplementation.

R Soc Open Sci 2020 Dec 1;7(12):201912. Epub 2020 Dec 1.

Institute of Inflammation and Ageing, University of Birmingham College of Medical and Dental Sciences, Birmingham, UK.

Vitamin D is a hormone that acts on many genes expressed by immune cells. Evidence linking vitamin D deficiency with COVID-19 severity is circumstantial but considerable-links with ethnicity, obesity, institutionalization; latitude and ultraviolet exposure; increased lung damage in experimental models; associations with COVID-19 severity in hospitalized patients. Vitamin D deficiency is common but readily preventable by supplementation that is very safe and cheap. A target blood level of at least 50 nmol l, as indicated by the US National Academy of Medicine and by the European Food Safety Authority, is supported by evidence. This would require supplementation with 800 IU/day (not 400 IU/day as currently recommended in UK) to bring most people up to target. Randomized placebo-controlled trials of vitamin D in the community are unlikely to complete until spring 2021-although we note the positive results from Spain of a randomized trial of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3 or calcifediol) in hospitalized patients. We urge UK and other governments to recommend vitamin D supplementation at 800-1000 IU/day for all, making it clear that this is to help optimize immune health and not solely for bone and muscle health. This should be mandated for prescription in care homes, prisons and other institutions where people are likely to have been indoors for much of the summer. Adults likely to be deficient should consider taking a higher dose, e.g. 4000 IU/day for the first four weeks before reducing to 800 IU-1000 IU/day. People admitted to the hospital with COVID-19 should have their vitamin D status checked and/or supplemented and consideration should be given to testing high-dose calcifediol in the RECOVERY trial. We feel this should be pursued with great urgency. Vitamin D levels in the UK will be falling from October onwards as we head into winter. There seems nothing to lose and potentially much to gain.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsos.201912DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7813231PMC
December 2020

Pharmacokinetics, surrogate efficacy and safety evaluations of a new human plasma-derived fibrinogen concentrate (FIB Grifols) in adult patients with congenital afibrinogenemia.

Thromb Res 2021 Jan 7;199:110-118. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Grifols Bioscience Research Group, Grifols, Barcelona, Spain.

Background And Aims: Congenital afibrinogenemia is a rare coagulation disorder resulting from a deficiency in fibrinogen. This study assessed the pharmacokinetics, surrogate efficacy and safety of FIB Grifols, a new human plasma-derived fibrinogen concentrate, to treat congenital afibrinogenemia.

Methods: Eleven adult patients from a multinational, phase 1-2, prospective, open-label, single-arm, uncontrolled clinical study received a single infusion of FIB Grifols, 70 mg/kg bw. Fibrinogen pharmacokinetics (fibrinogen activity: Clauss method; antigen plasma concentrations: ELISA) and efficacy parameters were determined over 14 days after infusion. Efficacy endpoints were the mean change on plasma maximum clot firmness (MCF) on viscoelastic testing and coagulation tests 1-hour post-infusion, and correlation with fibrinogen levels throughout. Safety parameters were also assessed.

Results: For the Clauss method, (mean [standard deviation]) baseline adjusted C was 1.99 (0.40) g/L, reached 1.76 (1.00) h after infusion, and half-life was 76.94 (20.21) h. Using ELISA, C after FIB Grifols infusion was 2.88 (0.86) mg/mL, with a t of 3.06 (2.24) h. Fibrinogen activity and antigen concentrations showed statistically significant correlation of 0.9120 (P < 0.001). Surrogate efficacy was demonstrated by a significant increase of 12.35 (3.85) mm in MCF. Prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time, returned to normal ranges over time, indicating restoration of functionally active fibrinogen. There were no treatment-related adverse events, allergic reactions, serious adverse events, or discontinuations.

Conclusions: The pharmacokinetic profile of functionally active FIB Grifols was established, hemostasis was restored, and FIB Grifols was safe and well tolerated in fibrinogen-deficient patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2020.12.026DOI Listing
January 2021

Acceptability and appropriateness of a novel parent-staff co-leadership model for childhood obesity prevention in Head Start: a qualitative interview study.

BMC Public Health 2021 Jan 22;21(1):201. Epub 2021 Jan 22.

Boston College School of Social Work, McGuinn Hall 106K, 140 Commonwealth Ave, Chestnut Hill, MA, 02467, USA.

Background: Peer leadership can be an effective strategy for implementing health programs, benefiting both program participants and peer leaders. To realize such benefits, the peer leader role must be appropriate for the community context. Also, peer leaders must find their role acceptable (i.e., satisfactory) to ensure their successful recruitment and retention. To date, parent peer leaders have seldom been part of early childhood obesity prevention efforts. Moreover, parents at Head Start preschools have rarely been engaged as peer leaders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the appropriateness and acceptability of an innovative model for engaging parents as peer leaders for this novel content area (early childhood obesity prevention) and setting (Head Start).

Methods: Parents Connect for Healthy Living (PConnect) is a 10-session parent program being implemented in Head Start preschools as part of the Communities for Healthy Living early childhood obesity prevention trial. PConnect is co-led by a parent peer facilitator who is paired with a Head Start staff facilitator. In the spring of 2019, 10 PConnect facilitators participated in a semi-structured interview about their experience. Interview transcripts were analyzed by two coders using an inductive-deductive hybrid analysis. Themes were identified and member-checked with two interviewees.

Results: Themes identified applied equally to parent and staff facilitators. Acceptability was high because PConnect facilitators were able to learn and teach, establish meaningful relationships, and positively impact the parents participating in their groups, although facilitators did express frustration when low attendance limited their reach. Appropriateness was also high, as PConnect provided adequate structure and support without being overly rigid, and facilitators were able to overcome most challenges they encountered.

Conclusions: The PConnect co-facilitation model was highly acceptable and appropriate for both the parent facilitators (peer leaders) and the staff facilitators. Including parents as peer leaders aligns to Head Start's emphasis on parent engagement, making it a strong candidate for sustained implementation in Head Start. The insights gained about the drivers of peer leadership appropriateness and acceptability in this particular context may be used to inform the design and implementation of peer-led health programs elsewhere.

Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03334669 (7-11-17).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-021-10159-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7825243PMC
January 2021

Response.

Clin Med (Lond) 2021 Jan;21(1):e120

University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.7861/clinmed.Let.21.1.8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7850200PMC
January 2021

Electrooxidation of coragen-contaminated wastewater using graphite electrodes and sorbent nano-hydroxyapatite.

Environ Technol 2021 Jan 20:1-10. Epub 2021 Jan 20.

Department of Applied Science & Technology, Alagappa College of Technology, Anna University, Chennai, India.

The degradation of coragen (CHNOBrCl) was tested by the electrooxidation process using graphite electrodes. Further, the advantage of nano-hydroxyapatite (n-Hap), as a cost-effective nano sorbent, in the removal of bromide from coragen was examined. Three different variables such as initial pH, electrolysis time and the current density were used to analyse the effects of the electrolytic process on the degradation of coragen. During electrolysis, under various stages, the parameters such as chemical oxygen demand (COD), chloride and bromide were analysed. The maximum COD, chloride and bromide removal efficiency of 96%, 50% and 99%, respectively, at pH 5, the maximum current density of 7.5 mA cm and 120 min electrolysis time were achieved. Based on the final output of this study, it can be concluded that the electrolysis process can effectively reduce COD, chloride and bromide from coragen in an aqueous medium. Further, the degradation efficiency of the coragen was confirmed through different analyses such as UV spectra, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromotography-mass spectrometry analyses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2020.1844306DOI Listing
January 2021