Publications by authors named "S Tariq Ahmad"

5,374 Publications

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Natural herbs: A potential treatment option for diabetes and associated neuropsychological deficits.

J Pak Med Assoc 2021 Apr;71(4):1292

Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.47391/JPMA.12.1399DOI Listing
April 2021

Biochar application to rice with N-labelled fertilizers, enhanced leaf nitrogen concentration and assimilation by improving morpho-physiological traits and soil quality.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jun 14;28(6):3399-3413. Epub 2021 Mar 14.

Department of Agronomy, The University of Agriculture Peshawar, Peshawar 25130, Pakistan.

Leaf nitrogen (N) concentration plays an important role in biochemical and physiological functions, and N availability directly influences rice yield. However, excessive N fertilization is considered to be a root cause of environmental issues and low nitrogen use efficiency. Therefore, the selection of appropriate nutrient management practices and organic amendments is key to maximizing nitrogen uptake and maintaining high and sustainable rice production. Here, we evaluated the effects of different N-labelled nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium nitrate, and ammonium sulfate at 315 kg ha) with or without biochar (30 t ha) on paddy soil properties, root growth, leaf gas exchange, N metabolism enzymes, and N uptake in the early and late seasons of 2019. We found significant differences among N fertilizer sources applied with or without biochar ( < 0.05). Across the seasons, the combination of biochar with N fertilizers significantly increased soil organic carbon by 51.21% and nitrogen availability by 27.51% compared with N fertilizers alone. Correlation analysis showed that rice root morphological traits were strongly related to soil chemical properties, and higher root growth was measured in the biochar treatments. Similarly, net leaf photosynthetic rate averaged 9.34% higher, chlorophyll (Chl) a concentration 12.91% higher, and Chl b concentration 10.05% higher in the biochar treatments than in the biochar-free treatments across the seasons. Notably, leaf N concentration was 23.19% higher in the biochar treatments in both seasons. These results illustrated higher activities of N metabolism enzymes such as NR, GS, and GOGAT by an average 23.44%, 11.26% and 18.16% in the biochar treatments across the seasons, respectively. The addition of biochar with synthetic N fertilizers is an ecological nutrient management strategy that can increase N uptake and assimilation by ameliorating soil properties and improving the morpho-physiological factors of rice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.03.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176087PMC
June 2021

Effects of native pollinator communities on the physiological and chemical parameters of loquat tree () under open field condition.

Saudi J Biol Sci 2021 Jun 27;28(6):3235-3241. Epub 2021 Feb 27.

Research Centre for Advance Material Science (RCAMS), King Khalid University, P.O. Box 9004, Abha 61413, Saudi Arabia.

Wild and managed pollinators are the key component of biodiversity, contributing to important ecosystem services such as pollination and supporting human food security. Pollination by insects is a crucial component of the food chain that ensures the production of fruits and strongly affects the fruit quality, but the effect of insect pollination on fruit physiological and chemical parameters is largely unknown. The current study was conducted to determine the insect pollinators diversity and their relative abundance in the loquat () orchard during 2017-2019. Further, the effect of insect pollinators pollination on the physiological and chemical parameters of fruit quality as compared to control pollinated flowers was investigated. The results revealed that a total of 22 species from 3 families (Apidae, Halictidae, and Syrphidae) were identified during the flowering season. The Apidae and Syrphidae were the most frequently observed families with major groups honey bees (67.89%) and hoverflies (21.57%), respectively. Moreover, results indicated that the fruit yield by the open-pollinated flowers (22.31 ± 0.34 kg/tree) was significantly higher than the control pollinated flowers (14.80 ± 0.25 kg/tree). Physiological and chemical parameters of loquat fruit differed significantly when fruits obtained from open-pollinated flowers as compared to control pollinated flowers. These results suggested that native insect pollinators play important role in the fruit quality of loquat. Hence, maintenance of appropriate habitat of native pollinators near loquat orchards is necessary to ensure good productivity and fruit quality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.02.062DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8176055PMC
June 2021

Dual inhibition of complement component 5 and leukotriene B4 by topical rVA576 in atopic keratoconjunctivis: TRACKER phase 1 clinical trial results.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Jun 11;16(1):270. Epub 2021 Jun 11.

Moorfields Eye Hospital, 51 North Block, 5 Chicheley Street, London, SE1 7PJ, UK.

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and preliminary efficacy of topical rVA576, a dual inhibitor of complement component 5 (C5) and leukotriene B4 (LTB4), in patients with recalcitrant atopic keratoconjunctivitis (AKC) in the open label phase 1 TRACKER clinical trial.

Methods: Three patients diagnosed with moderate or severe AKC who had been on maximal topical treatment (antihistamines and ciclosporin) for at least three months prior to entry, and showed persistent symptoms and signs of inflammation, were recruited into the trial. Patients received rVA576 eye drops twice a day for 8 weeks. Patients were seen at baseline and weeks 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8. Safety data was recorded and a composite sum score of symptoms and signs was obtained. This score comprised symptoms such as itching, mucous discharge and photophobia, and conjunctival and corneal signs such as hyperemia, tarsal papillae, punctate keratitis and corneal neovascularization, all rated individually from 0 to 3 for a maximum score of 33.

Results: Two of the three patients completed the initial open label phase of the trial. The third patient was unable to attend appointments and terminated the study early at day 14. Topical rVA576 was well tolerated with no serious adverse events reported. There was an average improvement in overall clinical score of 53%, composed of an improvement in symptoms of 65% [63.64-66.67%] and signs of 40% [40-40.12%] by day 56.

Conclusions: In this open label phase 1 TRACKER trial, rVA576 eye drops were well tolerated and showed a response across signs and symptoms of active inflammation. This study is exploratory but supports topical rVA576 safety and shows promising efficacy for recalcitrant AKC. A phase 2 randomised control trial is currently underway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01890-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196439PMC
June 2021

Characterization and prediction of viral loads of Hepatitis B serum samples by using surface-enhance Raman spectroscopy (SERS).

Photodiagnosis Photodyn Ther 2021 Jun 8:102386. Epub 2021 Jun 8.

PCR Laboratory, PINUM Hospital, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Background: Raman spectroscopy is a promising technique to analyze the body fluids for the purpose of non-invasive disease diagnosis.

Objectives: To develop a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) based method for qualitative and quantitative analysis of hepatitis B viral (HBV) infection from blood serum samples.

Methods: Clinically diagnosed hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected serum samples of patients of different levels of viral loads have been subjected for SERS analysis in comparison with the healthy ones by using silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) based SERS substrates. The SERS measurements were performed on blood serum samples of 11 healthy and 32 clinically diagnosed HBV patients of different viral load levels of different exponentials including (10, 10 called as low level), (10, 10 called as medium level) and (10, 10 called as high level). Furthermore, multivariate data analysis techniques, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Partial Least Square Regression (PLSR) were also performed on SERS spectral data.

Results: The SERS spectral features due to biochemical changes in HBV positive serum samples associated with the increasing viral loads were established which could be employed for HBV diagnostic purpose. PCA was found helpful for the differentiation between SERS spectral data of serum samples of different levels of HBV infection and healthy individuals. PLSR model developed with standard samples of known viral loads for predicting the viral loads of blind/unknown samples with 99% predicted accuracy.

Conclusion: SERS can be employed for qualitative and quantitative analysis of HBV infection from blood serum samples.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pdpdt.2021.102386DOI Listing
June 2021