Publications by authors named "S Strobel"

444 Publications

Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma of a salivary gland of the hard palate with contralateral cervical lymph node metastases: A case report.

Mol Clin Oncol 2021 Nov 6;15(5):226. Epub 2021 Sep 6.

Department of Maxillofacial and Plastic Surgery of The University of Wuerzburg, D-97070 Wuerzburg, Germany.

Mammary analogue secretory carcinoma (MASC) is a rare malignant tumour of the salivary glands, with only few cases reported in the literature to date. Initial preoperative staging is crucial for all patients with an oral malignancy to visualize the tumour, detect lymph node or distant metastases and plan therapeutic interventions. In the case presented herein, radiological imaging revealed a tumour of the right hard palate with suspected positive contralateral lymph nodes. Therefore, local tumour resection comprising hemimaxillectomy and bilateral neck dissection was performed. The diagnosis of MASC was finally based on characteristic histopathological and immunohistochemical findings, such as S100 protein and mammaglobin positivity. The diagnosis of MASC may be challenging, as such findings lack specificity. To confirm the diagnosis, molecular genetic examinations may be performed to detect a highly specific ETV6-NTRK3 fusion gene. Depending on the results of these examinations, surgery, alone or combined with adjuvant radiation or chemoradiation, is the recommended approach. In summary, MASC should be treated similarly to other low-grade salivary gland tumours, such as acinic cell carcinoma, as they exhibit biological and histopathological similarities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/mco.2021.2389DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8506652PMC
November 2021

Iron as the concert master in the pathogenic orchestra playing in sporadic Parkinson's disease.

J Neural Transm (Vienna) 2021 Oct 12;128(10):1577-1598. Epub 2021 Oct 12.

Department of Medical Physiology, University of Nairobi, P.O. Box 30197, Nairobi, 00100, Kenya.

About 60 years ago, the discovery of a deficiency of dopamine in the nigro-striatal system led to a variety of symptomatic therapeutic strategies to supplement dopamine and to substantially improve the quality of life of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Since these seminal developments, neuropathological, neurochemical, molecular biological and genetic discoveries contributed to elucidate the pathology of PD. Oxidative stress, the consequences of reactive oxidative species, reduced antioxidative capacity including loss of glutathione, excitotoxicity, mitochondrial dysfunction, proteasomal dysfunction, apoptosis, lysosomal dysfunction, autophagy, suggested to be causal for ɑ-synuclein fibril formation and aggregation and contributing to neuroinflammation and neural cell death underlying this devastating disorder. However, there are no final conclusions about the triggered pathological mechanism(s) and the follow-up of pathological dysfunctions. Nevertheless, it is a fact, that iron, a major component of oxidative reactions, as well as neuromelanin, the major intraneuronal chelator of iron, undergo an age-dependent increase. And ageing is a major risk factor for PD. Iron is significantly increased in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) of PD. Reasons for this finding include disturbances in iron-related import and export mechanisms across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), localized opening of the BBB at the nigro-striatal tract including brain vessel pathology. Whether this pathology is of primary or secondary importance is not known. We assume that there is a better fit to the top-down hypotheses and pathogens entering the brain via the olfactory system, then to the bottom-up (gut-brain) hypothesis of PD pathology. Triggers for the bottom-up, the dual-hit and the top-down pathologies include chemicals, viruses and bacteria. If so, hepcidin, a regulator of iron absorption and its distribution into tissues, is suggested to play a major role in the pathogenesis of iron dyshomeostasis and risk for initiating and progressing ɑ-synuclein pathology. The role of glial components to the pathology of PD is still unknown. However, the dramatic loss of glutathione (GSH), which is mainly synthesized in glia, suggests dysfunction of this process, or GSH uptake into neurons. Loss of GSH and increase in SNpc iron concentration have been suggested to be early, may be even pre-symptomatic processes in the pathology of PD, despite the fact that they are progression factors. The role of glial ferritin isoforms has not been studied so far in detail in human post-mortem brain tissue and a close insight into their role in PD is called upon. In conclusion, "iron" is a major player in the pathology of PD. Selective chelation of excess iron at the site of the substantia nigra, where a dysfunction of the BBB is suggested, with peripherally acting iron chelators is suggested to contribute to the portfolio and therapeutic armamentarium of anti-Parkinson medications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00702-021-02414-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8507512PMC
October 2021

No Metagenomic Evidence of Causative Viral Pathogens in Postencephalitic Parkinsonism Following Encephalitis Lethargica.

Microorganisms 2021 Aug 12;9(8). Epub 2021 Aug 12.

Bernhard Nocht Institute for Tropical Medicine, 20359 Hamburg, Germany.

Postencephalitic parkinsonism (PEP) is a disease of unknown etiology and pathophysiology following encephalitis lethargica (EL), an acute-onset polioencephalitis of cryptic cause in the 1920s. PEP is a tauopathy with multisystem neuronal loss and gliosis, clinically characterized by bradykinesia, rigidity, rest tremor, and oculogyric crises. Though a viral cause of EL is likely, past polymerase chain reaction-based investigations in the etiology of both PEP and EL were negative. PEP might be caused directly by an unknown viral pathogen or the consequence of a post-infectious immunopathology. The development of metagenomic next-generation sequencing in conjunction with bioinformatic techniques has generated a broad-range tool for the detection of unknown pathogens in the recent past. Retrospective identification and characterization of pathogens responsible for past infectious diseases can be successfully performed with formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue samples. In this study, we analyzed 24 FFPE brain samples from six patients with PEP by unbiased metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Our results show that no evidence for the presence of a specific or putative (novel) viral pathogen was found, suggesting a likely post-infectious immune-mediated etiology of PEP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms9081716DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8398509PMC
August 2021

Anatomy of the sense of touch in sea otters: Cutaneous mechanoreceptors and structural features of glabrous skin.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Aug 23. Epub 2021 Aug 23.

Long Marine Laboratory, Institute of Marine Sciences, Santa Cruz, California, USA.

Sea otters (Enhydra lutris) demonstrate rapid, accurate tactile abilities using their paws and facial vibrissae. Anatomical investigations of neural organization in the vibrissal bed and somatosensory cortex coincide with measured sensitivity, but no studies describe sensory receptors in the paws or other regions of glabrous (i.e., hairless) skin. In this study, we use histology to assess the presence, density, and distribution of mechanoreceptors in the glabrous skin of sea otters: paws, rhinarium, lips, and flipper digits, and we use scanning electron microscopy to describe skin-surface texture and its potential effect on the transduction of mechanical stimuli. Our results confirm the presence of Merkel cells and Pacinian corpuscles, but not Meissner corpuscles, in all sea otter glabrous skin. The paws showed the highest density of Merkel cells and Pacinian corpuscles. Within the paw, relative densities of mechanoreceptor types were highest in the distal metacarpal pad and digits, which suggests that the distal paw is a tactile fovea for sea otters. In addition to the highest receptor density, the paw displayed the thickest epidermis. Rete ridges (epidermal projections into the dermis) and dermal papillae (dermal projections into the epidermis) were developed across all glabrous skin. These quantitative and qualitative descriptions of neural organization and physical features, combined with previous behavioral results, contribute to our understanding of how structure relates to function in the tactile modality. Our findings coincide with behavioral observations of sea otters, which use touch to maintain thermoregulatory integrity of their fur, explore objects, and capture visually cryptic prey.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24739DOI Listing
August 2021

Linking the obesity rs1421085 variant circuitry to cellular, metabolic, and organismal phenotypes in vivo.

Sci Adv 2021 Jul 21;7(30). Epub 2021 Jul 21.

Mammalian Genetics Unit, MRC Harwell Institute, Oxfordshire OX11 0RD, UK.

Variants in FTO have the strongest association with obesity; however, it is still unclear how those noncoding variants mechanistically affect whole-body physiology. We engineered a deletion of the rs1421085 conserved cis-regulatory module (CRM) in mice and confirmed in vivo that the CRM modulates and gene expression and mitochondrial function in adipocytes. The CRM affects molecular and cellular phenotypes in an adipose depot-dependent manner and affects organismal phenotypes that are relevant for obesity, including decreased high-fat diet-induced weight gain, decreased whole-body fat mass, and decreased skin fat thickness. Last, we connected the CRM to a genetically determined effect on steroid patterns in males that was dependent on nutritional challenge and conserved across mice and humans. Together, our data establish cross-species conservation of the rs1421085 regulatory circuitry at the molecular, cellular, metabolic, and organismal level, revealing previously unknown contextual dependence of the variant's action.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abg0108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8294759PMC
July 2021
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