Publications by authors named "S Siamakpour-Reihani"

19 Publications

Decreased Mortality in 1-Year Survivors of Umbilical Cord Blood Transplant vs. Matched Related or Matched Unrelated Donor Transplant in Patients with Hematologic Malignancies.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 12. Epub 2021 May 12.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Department of Medicine, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina. Electronic address:

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) has the potential to cure hematologic malignancies but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although deaths during the first year after transplantation are often attributable to treatment toxicities and complications, death after the first year may be due to sequelae of accelerated aging caused by cellular senescence. Cytotoxic therapies and radiation used in cancer treatments and conditioning regimens for HCT can induce aging at the molecular level; HCT patients experience time-dependent effects, such as frailty and aging-associated diseases, more rapidly than people who have not been exposed to these treatments. Consistent with this, recipients of younger cells tend to have decreased markers of aging and improved survival, decreased graft-versus-host disease, and lower relapse rates. Given that umbilical cord blood (UCB) is the youngest donor source available, we studied the outcomes after the first year of UCB transplantation versus matched related donor (MRD) and matched unrelated donor (MUD) transplantation in patients with hematologic malignancies over a 20-year period. In this single-center, retrospective study, we examined the outcomes of all adult patients who underwent their first allogeneic HCT through the Duke Adult Bone Marrow Transplant program from January 1, 1996, to December 31, 2015, to allow for at least 3 years of follow-up. Patients were excluded if they died or were lost to follow-up before day 365 after HCT, received an allogeneic HCT for a disease other than a hematologic malignancy, or received cells from a haploidentical or mismatched adult donor. UCB recipients experienced a better unadjusted overall survival than MRD/MUD recipients (log rank P = .03, median overall survival: UCB not reached, MRD/MUD 7.4 years). After adjusting for selected covariates, UCB recipients who survived at least 1 year after HCT had a hazard of death that was 31% lower than that of MRD/MUD recipients (hazard ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.99; P = .049). This trend held true in a subset analysis of subjects with acute leukemia. UCB recipients also experienced lower rates of moderate or severe chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) and nonrelapse mortality, and slower time to relapse. UCB and MRD/MUD recipients experienced similar rates of grade 2-4 acute GVHD, chronic GHVD, secondary malignancy, and subsequent allogeneic HCT. UCB is already widely used as a donor source in pediatric HCT; however, adult outcomes and adoption have historically lagged behind in comparison. Recent advancements in UCB transplantation such as the implementation of lower-intensity conditioning regimens, double unit transplants, and ex vivo expansion have improved early mortality, making UCB an increasingly attractive donor source for adults; furthermore, our findings suggest that UCB may actually be a preferred donor source for mitigating late effects of HCT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.05.002DOI Listing
May 2021

HO-Driven Anticancer Activity of Mn Porphyrins and the Underlying Molecular Pathways.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 15;2021:6653790. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Division of Gynecologic Oncology, Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC 27710, USA.

Mn(III) --alkyl- and -alkoxyalkyl porphyrins (MnPs) were initially developed as superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics. These compounds were later shown to react with numerous reactive species (such as ONOO, HO, HS, CO, ascorbate, and GSH). Moreover, the ability of MnPs to oxidatively modify activities of numerous proteins has emerged as their major mechanism of action both in normal and in cancer cells. Among those proteins are transcription factors (NF-B and Nrf2), mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs, antiapoptotic bcl-2, and endogenous antioxidative defenses. The lead Mn porphyrins, namely, MnTE-2-PyP (BMX-010, AEOL10113), MnTnBuOE-2-PyP (BMX-001), and MnTnHex-2-PyP, were tested in numerous injuries of normal tissue and cellular and animal cancer models. The wealth of the data led to the progression of MnTnBuOE-2-PyP into four Phase II clinical trials on glioma, head and neck cancer, anal cancer, and multiple brain metastases, while MnTE-2-PyP is in Phase II clinical trial on atopic dermatitis and itch.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/6653790DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7987459PMC
May 2021

Microtransplantation in older patients with AML: A pilot study of safety, efficacy and immunologic effects.

Am J Hematol 2020 06 30;95(6):662-671. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, North Carolina, USA.

Older AML patients have low remission rates and poor survival outcomes with standard chemotherapy. Microtransplantation (MST) refers to infusion of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells without substantial engraftment. MST has been shown to improve clinical outcomes compared with chemotherapy alone. This is the first trial reporting on broad correlative studies to define immunologic mechanisms of action of MST in older AML patients. Older patients with newly diagnosed AML were eligible for enrollment, receiving induction chemotherapy with cytarabine (100 mg/m2) on days 1-7 and idarubicin (12 mg/m2) on days 1-3 (7 + 3). MST was administered 24 hours later. Patients with complete response (CR) were eligible for consolidation with high dose cytarabine (HiDAC) and a second cycle of MST. Responses were evaluated according to standard criteria per NCCN. Immune correlative studies were performed. Sixteen patients were enrolled and received 7 + 3 and MST (median age 73 years). Nine (56%) had high-risk and seven (44%) had standard-risk cytogenetics. Ten episodes of CRS were observed. No cases of GVHD or treatment-related mortality were reported. Event-free survival (EFS) was 50% at 6 months and 19% at 1 year. Overall survival (OS) was 63% at 6 months and 44% at 1 year. Donor microchimerism was not detected. Longitudinal changes were noted in NGS, TCR sequencing, and cytokine assays. Addition of MST to induction and consolidation chemotherapy was well tolerated in older AML patients. Inferior survival outcomes in our study may be attributed to a higher proportion of very elderly patients with high-risk features. Potential immunologic mechanisms of activity of MST include attenuation of inflammatory cytokines and emergence of tumor-specific T cell clones.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajh.25781DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7433709PMC
June 2020

Differential expression of immune related genes in high-grade ovarian serous carcinoma.

Gynecol Oncol 2020 03 7;156(3):662-668. Epub 2020 Jan 7.

Division of Gynecology Oncology, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, United States. Electronic address:

Objective: To identify novel immunologic targets and biomarkers associated with overall survival (OS) in high-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSC).

Methods: In this retrospective study, microarray data from 51 HGSC specimens were analyzed (Affymetrix HG-U133A). A panel of 183 immune/inflammatory response related genes linked to 279 probe sets was constructed a priori and screened. Associations between gene expression and OS were assessed using logrank tests. Multiple testing was addressed within the False Discovery Rate (FDR) framework. For external validation, TCGA Ovarian dataset and five GSE publicly available HGSC datasets were evaluated.

Results: In Duke data, 110 probe sets linked to 83 immunologic/inflammatory-related genes were differentially expressed in tumors from long versus short-term HGSC survivors (adjusted p < 0.05). In TCGA, concordant with the results from the Duke discovery cohort, high expression of one probe (IL6R) demonstrated a consistent significance and concordant association with higher expression in long-term HGSC survivors (Duke q-value = 0.022) and improved OS in the TCGA dataset (p-value = 0.015, HR = 0.8). Thirteen genes in GSE14764 (N = 4) and GSE26712 (N = 9) datasets had significant p-values and consistent concordant with Duke Data. Despite the significant associations of gene expression and OS in the individual GSE datasets, in the GSE meta-analysis no genes were consistently concordant and significantly associated with survival.

Conclusions: Evaluation of IL6R expression may be warranted based on higher expression in long-term survivors and association with improved survival in advanced HGSC. The other candidate genes may also be of worthy of further exploration to enhance immuno-oncology drug discovery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ygyno.2019.12.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7396156PMC
March 2020

Late Gastrointestinal Complications of Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in Adults.

Biol Blood Marrow Transplant 2018 04 12;24(4):734-740. Epub 2017 Dec 12.

Division of Hematologic Malignancies and Cellular Therapy, Duke Cancer Institute, Duke University, Durham, North Carolina.

Gastrointestinal (GI) complications including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in allogenic stem transplant recipients. Although several studies have previously looked into the acute GI complications, fewer smaller studies have reported late complications. In this large study we focus on the late (100 days post-transplant) GI complications in allogenic stem transplant recipients. In this single-center, retrospective study of all adult allogenic stem cell transplant recipients who had their transplant at Duke University over a 6-year period, 479 patients underwent allogenic stem cell transplant, of whom 392 recipients survived for at least 100 days post-transplant. Late GI symptoms were noted in 71 patients, prompting endoscopic evaluation. The primary endpoint of our study was the diagnosis of GI-GVHD based on endoscopic findings, whereas overall survival and nonrelapse mortality were the secondary endpoints. Of the 71 patients who underwent endoscopy, 45 (63%) had GI-GVHD. Of these 45 patients, 39 (87%) had late acute GVHD, 1 (2%) had chronic GVHD, and 5 patients (11%) had overlap disease. Of the patients who did not have GVHD, the symptoms were mostly related to infectious and inflammatory causes. Less common causes included drug toxicity, food intolerance, disease relapse, and motility issues. In a multivariate analysis the factors most indicative of GI-GVHD were histologic findings of apoptosis on the tissue specimen (odds ratio, 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 1.18 to 4.70; P = .015) and clinical findings of diarrhea (odds ratio, 5.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.25 to 23.54; P = .024). The median survival time from the first endoscopy was 8.5 months. The incidence of nonrelapse mortality at 6 months was 31% in patients with GI-GVHD and 19% in patients without GI-GVHD (P = .42). All patients with GI-GVHD were on steroid therapy, and 31% of them received total parenteral nutrition. In our population close to one-fifth of allogenic transplant recipients experienced late GI complications, warranting endoscopic evaluation. Most of these patients were found to have GI-GVHD that had a high incidence of nonrelapse mortality at 6 months and close to one-third of these patients needed total parenteral nutrition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2017.12.772DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6415754PMC
April 2018