Publications by authors named "S S Elnesr"

41 Publications

The potential mechanistic insights and future implications for the effect of prebiotics on poultry performance, gut microbiome, and intestinal morphology.

Poult Sci 2021 Mar 23;100(7):101143. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

College of Animal Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, PR China. Electronic address:

Prebiotics may modify the biological processes in the chickens' gastrointestinal tract to improve poultry performance and health. Prebiotics are natural feed additives that offer many economic advantages by decreasing mortality rates, increasing growth rates, and improving birds' feed efficiency. Prebiotic action potentially affects the degradation of indigestible dietary compounds, the synthesis of nitrogen components and vitamins, and simplifies the removal of undesirable elements in the diet. Prebiotics could also induce desirable gut microbiome modifications and affect host metabolism and immune health. It is worth mentioning that gut bacteria metabolize the prebiotic compounds into organic compounds that the host can subsequently use. It is important to limit the concept of prebiotics to compounds that influence the metabolism of resident microorganisms. Any medicinal component or feed ingredient beneficial to the intestinal microecosystem can be considered a prebiotic. In this review, the impacts of prebiotics on the gut microbiome and physiological structure are discussed, emphasizing the poultry's growth performance. The current review will highlight the knowledge gaps in this area and future research directions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101143DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8170421PMC
March 2021

Induction of reproductive activity and egg production by gonadotropin-releasing hormone in non-laying hens.

Reprod Domest Anim 2021 May 29. Epub 2021 May 29.

Department of Poultry Production, Faculty of Agriculture, Fayoum University, Fayoum, Egypt.

The current study was conducted to evaluate the effects of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue (Receptal) injection on reproductive traits of fully mature layers hens (32 weeks) suffered from inactive ovaries. Ninety-six non-laying hens (TETRA-SL brown egg layers), selected from a commercial flock, with similar body weight, were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 24). Hens in the 1st group served as a control. Hens of the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups were individually intramuscularly injected every 4 days with 50, 100 and 150 µl of Receptal solution, respectively, for two times. The results stated that the injection of Receptal induced the non-laying hens to produce eggs, but control birds did not produce eggs during the experimental period. The distance between pelvic bones and between the pelvic bone and keel bone of hens was significantly improved (p < .001) in groups received different GnRH levels compared with the control group. The best results were observed in the group injected with 100 µl Receptal. Levels of LH, FSH, oestrogen and progesterone hormones were significantly (p < .05) higher in Receptal-treated groups than in the control group. Hens injected with Receptal had an increase in ovary%, yellow follicles number, oviduct% and oviduct length (p < .001) compared with the control. It was concluded that treating inactive ovaries in non-laying hens with GnRH injections for two times, 4-day intervals, is an effective procedure for inducing egg production and useful in cost reduction in layer farms, and the group treated with 100 µl Receptal had the best results.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/rda.13972DOI Listing
May 2021

Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine for the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19: A Fiction, Hope or Hype? An Updated Review.

Ther Clin Risk Manag 2021 28;17:371-387. Epub 2021 Apr 28.

Department of Poultry, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, 44511, Egypt.

In December 2019, the novel coronavirus disease pandemic (COVID-19) that began in China had infected so far more than 109,217,366 million individuals worldwide and accounted for more than 2,413,912 fatalities. With the dawn of this novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), there was a requirement to select potential therapies that might effectively kill the virus, accelerate the recovery, or decrease the case fatality rate. Besides the currently available antiviral medications for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), the chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine (CQ/HCQ) regimen with or without azithromycin has been repurposed in China and was recommended by the National Health Commission, China in mid-February 2020. By this time, the selection of this regimen was based on its efficacy against the previous SARS-CoV-1 virus and its potential to inhibit viral replication of the SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. There was a shortage of robust clinical proof about the effectiveness of this regimen against the novel SARS-CoV-2. Therefore, extensive research effort has been made by several researchers worldwide to investigate whether this regimen is safe and effective for the management of COVID-19. In this review, we provided a comprehensive overview of the CQ/HCQ regimen, summarizing data from in vitro studies and clinical trials for the protection against or the treatment of SARS-CoV-2. Despite the initial promising results from the in vitro studies and the widespread use of CQ/HCQ in clinical settings during the 1st wave of COVID-19, current data from well-designed randomized controlled trials showed no evidence of benefit from CQ/HCQ supplementation for the treatment or prophylaxis against SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particularly, the two largest randomized controlled trials to date (RECOVERY and WHO SOLIDARITY trials), both confirmed that CQ/HCQ regimen does not provide any clinical benefit for COVID-19 patients. Therefore, we do not recommend the use of this regimen in COVID-19 patients outside the context of clinical trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S301817DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8092643PMC
April 2021

Use of lemongrass essential oil as a feed additive in quail's nutrition: its effect on growth, carcass, blood biochemistry, antioxidant and immunological indices, digestive enzymes and intestinal microbiota.

Poult Sci 2021 Jun 26;100(6):101172. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

Poultry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

The present study was designed to assess the impact of dietary supplementation of lemongrass essential oil (LGEO) on growth performance, carcass traits, liver and kidney function, immunity, antioxidant indices and caecal microbiota of growing quail. A total of 200 Japanese quails at 1-week-old were haphazardly allotted to 5 groups of 40 chicks in five replicates (8 per replicate). The first group was the control group, while LGEO was added at levels of 150, 300, 450, and 600 mg/kg diet in the 2nd, 3rd, 4th and 5th groups, respectively. Dietary supplementation of LGEO (150, 300 and 450 mg/ kg diet) increased body weight at 3 and 5 wk of age, and increased body weight gain during all periods compared with the control group (P < 0.05). All levels of LGEO improved feed conversion ratio during the periods from 1 to 3 and 1 to 5 wk of age. During 3 to 5 wk, feed conversion ratio was improved in quails fed LGEO (300 and 450 mg/kg diet) compared with the control and other treatments. Carcass traits, plasma globulin, alanine aminotransferase, and urea values did not differ among the treatments (P > 0.05), but the activity of aspartate aminotransferase in the plasma was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in LGEO-treated groups. The total protein and albumin values were significantly increased (P < 0.05) in quails fed levels of LGEO (except 600 mg/kg diet) compared with the control. The inclusion of LGEO in quail diets improved (P < 0.05) plasma lipid profile. The dietary supplementation of LGEO increased (linear and quadratic, P < 0.05) plasma immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, and IgA) levels, lysozyme values and activities of superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione and catalase compared with the control group. The caecal Coliform, E. coli and Salmonella were lowered (P < 0.0001) in the quails treated with all LGEO levels, but the total bacterial count and Lactobacillus count were increased with dietary supplementation of LGEO levels (300 and 450 mg/kg) compared with those in the control group. The activities of digestive enzymes were significantly higher in birds fed the diet supplemented with LGEO levels than those fed the control diet. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of LGEO can improve the performance, lipid profile, immunity and antioxidant indices and decline intestinal pathogens and thus boost the health status of growing quail.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.psj.2021.101172DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8111249PMC
June 2021

Date ( L.) by-Products: Chemical Composition, Nutritive Value and Applications in Poultry Nutrition, an Updating Review.

Animals (Basel) 2021 Apr 15;11(4). Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Poultry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig 44511, Egypt.

Several by-products, such as whole cull dates, date stones (also called pits, seeds, kernels), sugar-extracted date pulp, are produced from date fruit processing industries. These by-products, particularly date stone meal represent 10 to 20% of the whole dates are wasted, causing environmental issues. However, the date stone is rich in various nutrients, such as nitrogen-free extract, fiber, fat, and minerals, which could be used as an alternative feed source in poultry nutrition. However, the high fiber content in date stone meal restricts its use in poultry diets. Whole date wastes and date pulp have lower protein, fiber and fat content than those in date stone meal. Several studies have investigated the use of date stone meal and other by-products as a replacement of dietary corn and barley on feed intake, growth, feed efficiency, and nutrient utilization in poultry. The compilation of results obtained from different studies indicates that date fruit by-products, particularly date stone meal, could be incorporated up to 10% levels, replacing corn or barley grains without hampering production performance, and this could reduce the production cost. Moreover, the use of date stone meal at lower levels (5-10%) sometimes shows better growth performance, probably due to the presence of bioactive principles such as antioxidants and phenolic compounds. The use of date stone meal in poultry diets may be practically important under certain circumstances not only under the COVID-19 crisis due to the lockdown of airports, dry ports, ports and traffic restrictions, but also in countries with a limited supply of classical feed resources and which depend on imported ones. Finally, it can recommend that using date stone meal (DSM) up to 5-10% in poultry diets positively affect the productive performance. Due to the variability in the nutritive value of the DSM, developing a formula for metabolizable energy (ME) of DSM = a (intercept) - b (slope) × crude fiber (CF) content should be considered to improve the precision of feed formula for poultry. However, the nutritional value of DSM might not only depend on crude fiber but also on other compounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ani11041133DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8071381PMC
April 2021