Publications by authors named "S Raj Kumar"

22,339 Publications

A case-control study on the association between periodontitis and coronavirus disease (COVID-19).

J Periodontol 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Department of Dentistry, Oral Health Institute, Hamad Medical Corporation.

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and periodontitis share common characteristics, such as an exaggerated inflammatory response. As periodontal diseases were shown to be associated with respiratory diseases, such as pneumonia, it is quite possible that a relationship may exist between periodontitis and COVID-19. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine whether periodontitis and poor oral hygiene are associated with COVID-19.

Methods: A case control study was conducted. Patients who had positive real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection were included in the case group (n = 79), and patients with negative results were included in the control group (n = 71). The periodontal examination involved recording the plaque scores, calculus scores, tooth mobility, gingival bleeding, probing depth, recession, and clinical attachment level (CAL).

Results: Logistic regression analysis showed significant associations of mean plaque scores ≥ 1 (odds ratio (OR), 7.01; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.83-26.94), gingivitis (OR, 17.65; 95% CI, 5.95-52.37), mean CAL ≥ 2 mm (OR, 8.46; 95% CI, 3.47-20.63), and severe periodontitis (OR, 11.75; 95% CI, 3.89-35.49) with COVID-19; these findings were more prevalent in the case group.

Conclusion: Based on the abovementioned observations, it can be concluded that there is an association between periodontitis severity and COVID-19. Gingival bleeding and dental plaque accumulation are also more frequent among COVID-19 patients. Hence, it is essential to maintain periodontal health and good oral hygiene as an important measure for COVID-19 prevention and management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JPER.21-0272DOI Listing
August 2021

Laboratory Detection and Initial Diagnosis of Monoclonal Gammopathies: Guideline From the College of American Pathologists in Collaboration With the American Association for Clinical Chemistry and the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

Arch Pathol Lab Med 2021 Aug 4. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

the Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Louis Stokes Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, Ohio (Ansari).

Context.—: The process for identifying patients with monoclonal gammopathies is complex. Initial detection of a monoclonal immunoglobulin protein (M protein) in the serum or urine often requires compilation of analytical data from several areas of the laboratory. The detection of M proteins depends on adequacy of the sample provided, available clinical information, and the laboratory tests used.

Objective.—: To develop an evidence-based guideline for the initial laboratory detection of M proteins.

Design.—: To develop evidence-based recommendations, the College of American Pathologists convened a panel of experts in the diagnosis and treatment of monoclonal gammopathies and the laboratory procedures used for the initial detection of M proteins. The panel conducted a systematic literature review to address key questions. Using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation approach, recommendations were created based on the available evidence, strength of that evidence, and key judgements as defined in the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation Evidence to Decision framework.

Results.—: Nine guideline statements were established to optimize sample selection and testing for the initial detection and quantitative measurement of M proteins used to diagnose monoclonal gammopathies.

Conclusions.—: This guideline was constructed to harmonize and strengthen the initial detection of an M protein in patients displaying symptoms or laboratory features of a monoclonal gammopathy. It endorses more comprehensive initial testing when there is suspicion of amyloid light chain amyloidosis or neuropathies, such as POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein, and skin changes) syndrome, associated with an M protein.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5858/arpa.2020-0794-CPDOI Listing
August 2021

Efficacy and safety of potential vaccine candidates against coronavirus disease 2019: A systematic review.

J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2021 Jul-Sep;12(3):215-221. Epub 2021 Jul 16.

Department of Pharmacology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Deoghar, Jharkhand India.

Search for an effective and safe vaccine to prevent transmission of current pandemic is an unmet need. This study reviews and compares the available early phase clinical data of vaccine candidates which have reached phase 3 of clinical development. The latest update of "DRAFT landscape of coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 candidate vaccines (October 2, 2020)" released by the World Health Organization was accessed to identify the potential vaccine candidates. The full text articles (published and/or preprint) of data of early clinical trials of the selected vaccines were accessed from the links provided in the same document, PubMed and/or medRxiv.com. After extraction and synthesis, the data were critically evaluated for the study efficacy and safety outcomes. Of the total 193 candidate vaccines 10 were found to reach phase 3 of the clinical development. Nine of these were included in the evaluation process. In all of the included studies, immunogenicity and serious adverse events/local or systemic adverse events/laboratory parameters abnormality was considered as efficacy and safety outcomes respectively. Immunogenicity response with most of the vaccines was either higher than or similar to the respective controls except one (recombinant adenovirus type 26 COV2 [Ad26.COV2.S]) for which it was less than that in control. Overall adverse events (related and/or unrelated) were more with vaccines than those with respective control(s) in three studies, in other two, these were similar whereas in one study, the events were less in the vaccine group than in control group and in the rest, data described were descriptive only without any mention for the same for the control. In conclusion all studies showed immunogenic response to target protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome CoV-2 and which was higher than the respective control except for Ad26.CoV2.S. Many of the vaccines caused more adverse events than the controls, however most were mild and transient and/or manageable.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/japtr.JAPTR_229_20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300322PMC
July 2021

Surgery for Cancer in the Wake of Second and Future Waves! Challenges and Opportunities in the Indian Context.

Indian J Surg Oncol 2021 Jul 30:1-5. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

HCG-Bangalore Institute of Oncology, Bangalore, India.

The pandemic situation created by newly discovered severe acute respiratory disease corona virus 2019 has thrown up many challenges to surgical fraternity across world. All surgeons particularly cancer surgeons are facing dilemmas not only in managing patients but also in appropriate personal as well as employee's health protection as well. Since the pandemic is not expected to recede unless it affects a considerable proportion of population or up to 60% of population is vaccinated, we need to be aware of prevailing best practices. This is important in ensuring continuity of care for cancer patients as well as to limit the consequences of one getting infected with the COVID-19. This review article focuses on the current challenges and the ways to mitigate them.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13193-021-01392-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8322641PMC
July 2021

Comparison of external versus diode laser conjunctivodacryocystorhinostomy with lacrimal bypass tube placement in proximal canalicular blocks.

Oman J Ophthalmol 2021 May-Aug;14(2):100-107. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Opthalmology, Guru Nanak Eye Centre, Maulana Azad Medical College, New Delhi, India.

Aims: Hyperlacrimation due to ocular surface or lid abnormality was ruled out and apposition of lower punctum to globe was checked.

Subjects And Methods: This was a pilot study at a tertiary eye care center where 40 patients of proximal canalicular block <8 mm on probing were divided into two equal groups. The external CDCR group underwent routine dacryocystorhinostomy with partial carunculectomy. A tract was created from canthus to nasal cavity with von Graefe knife. In the laser CDCR group, the osteotomy was created using 980 mm diode laser with a power of 8 W. Glass tubes of appropriate length were placed and fixed using 5-0 polypropylene with our "mirror tuck technique." Results were analyzed using the Chi-square test for parametric and ANOVA test for nonparametric variables using SPSS software.

Results: Success defined as patency on syringing was achieved in 18 patients in the laser group and 16 in the external CDCR group which was comparable ( > 0.05). Complications include tube extrusion, dislocation, conjunctival overgrowth, and sump syndrome.

Conclusion: Laser and external CDCRs are both effective and safe procedures for the treatment of proximal canalicular blocks with comparable success rates and complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/ojo.OJO_49_2020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8300289PMC
June 2021
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